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Full text of "The Labour gazette July-December 1956"

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ABOUR 




Published Monthly by the 

EPARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



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Collective BargaintHQ in Hotel Industry (p. 867) 

Vol. LVI No. 7 
1956 






JULY 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Hi 



Vol. LVI, No. 7 CONTENTS JULY 1956 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 777 

Notes of Current Interest 793 

Professional and Technical Manpower 803 


"Women Go to Work at Any Age" 


806 
814 
822 
834 
835 
837 
838 

839 
847 
850 

854 
863 

867 
869 

870 
874 
875 
879 

888 
890 

895 
897 
899 
900 
901 
912 


85th Annual Meeting, Canadian Manufacturers' Association . . 

McGill's 8th Annual Industrial Relations Conference 

1956 Research Grants Announced 


Industrial Fatalities in Canada during 1st Quarter, 1956 

Atlantic Region Rehabilitation Workshop 


50 Years Ago This Month 


International Labour Organization: 

Opening of International Labour Conference 


5th Session, Building, Civil Engineering, P.W. Committee. 
6th Session, Coal Mines Committee 


Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification 853 Conciliation 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment Decisions 

Collective Agreements: 

Collective Bargaining in Hotel Industry 

Collective Agreement Act, Que.; Standards Act, Sask 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in British Columbia, 1956 


Labour Legislation in New Brunswick, 1956 


Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 


Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 


Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report 887 Decisions of Umpire. . 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Shift Work in Canadian Manufacturing 


Profit-Sharing Plans in Canadian Manufacturing 

Strikes and Lockouts 

Prices and the Cost of Living 


Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 

Labour Statistics 





6fiftS1 1 

.2, /J- S- p 
Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 

Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, postal note or money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 




CANADA 

THE 



ABOU 
AZETT 




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Published Monthly by the 


Vol. LVI 


No. 8 


)EPARTMENT OF LABOUR 






CANADA 


AUGUST 


1956 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Cover Photograph 
Bell Telephone Company 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LVI, No. 8 CONTENTS AUGUST 1956 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 937 

Notes ot Current Interest 953 

Proceedings of Parliament of Labour Interest 966 

Labour Day Messages 968 

Ontario Labour Relations Act Criticized 972 

CMA's 85th Annual Meeting — 1 1 989 

Federations of Business and Professional Women 1 000 

Annual Convention, Personnel in Employment Security 1 003 

20th Annual Convention, Nfld. Federation of Lobour 1006 

50 Years Ago This Month 1008 

International Labour Organization: 

Two Recommendations Adopted by ILO's 39th Conference 1009 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board .... 1022 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1025 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation, Nova Scotia, 1956 1026 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1030 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 1037 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1045 

Decisions of Umpire 1 046 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1048 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Working Conditions in Public Utilities 1052 

Strikes and Lockouts 1055 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1 056 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library . 1 058 

Labour Statistics 1069 



Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, postal note or money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



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Published Monthly by the 

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Wage Rates for Manufacturing Labourers (p. 1174) 



SEP' 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LVI, No. 9 CONTENTS SEPTEMBER 1956 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1 093 

Notes of Current Interest 1 109 

Proceedings of Parliament of Labour Interest 1119 

Unemployment Insurance Act Amended 1 120 

Duke of Edinburgh's Conference 1122 

Annual Convention, N.B. Council of Labour 1 125 

2nd Annual Convention, N.S. Federation of Labour 1 126 

Canadian Conference on Social Work 1127 

"Understanding the Disabled" 1 129 

50 Years Ago This Month 1 1 30 

International Labour Organization: 

132nd Session of the Governing Body 1 131 

Teamwork in Industry 1 1 33 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification Proceedings. 1134 Conciliation Proceedings. 1136 
Collective Agreements: 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1 1 45 

Industrial Standards Act, Ontario 1 145 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Manitoba, 1956 1 146 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1 153 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1 159 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Annual Report, Unem. Insur. Advisory Committee 1164 

Monthly Report 1167 Decisions of Umpire 1168 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1 170 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Wage Rates for Labourers in Manufacturing, Oct. 1955.. 1174 

Strikes and Lockouts 1175 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1176 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1178 

Labour Statistics 1 187 



Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 





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ARTMENT OF LABOUR 



CANADA 



OCTOBER 1956 






THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Cover Photograph 

R. H. Smith, Sackville, 

from N.B. Travel Bureau 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LVI, No. 10 CONTENTS OCTOBER 1956 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1213 

Notes ot Current Interest 1229 

State Intervention and Assistance in Collective Bargaining. . . 1239 

Guaranteed Wages and Supplemental Unemployment Benefits 1 244 

44th Annua! Convention, N.B. Federation of Labour 1250 

88th Annual Trades Union Congress 1256 

Alberta Provincial Federations Merge 1 261 

Industrial Fatalities in Canada, 2nd Quarter of 1956 1264 

50 Years Ago This Month 1267 

International Labour Organization: 

Delegates Named to ILO Meetings 1268 

Teamwork in Industry 1 269 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1270 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1272 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 1282 

Collective Agreements: 

Collective Agreements Covering 1,000 or More Employees 1283 
Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Saskatchewan, 1956 1286 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 1290 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1295 

Decisions of the Umpire 1 296 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1298 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Average Weekly Salaries, Selected Office Occupations 1302 

Working Conditions of Plant Employees 1303 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1 305 

Strikes and Lockouts 1307 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1308 

Labour Statistics 1315 



Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



THE 



y 




+ DEC 1 4 1956 





Working Conditions of Office Employees (p. 1434) 



Published Monthly by the 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LVI, No. 11 CONTENTS NOVEMBER 1956 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1341 

Notes of Current Interest 1357 

Seasonal Unemployment 1 368 

Seasonal Employment Fluctuations in Scandinavia 1370 

Implications of Technological Progress 1375 

Utilization of Human Resources 1381 

19th Annual Convention of Quebec Federation of Labour. . . 1384 

35th Convention, Canadian Catholic Confederation of Labour. 1387 

Report from Rehabilitation Branch 1397 

Women Now Work in Out-of Way Spots 1398 

50 Years Ago This Month 1399 

International Labour Organization: 

6th Regional Conf. of American States Members of ILO. . 1400 

Teamwork in Industry 1403 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification Proceedings. 1404 Conciliation Proceedings 1405 
Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Ontario, 1956 1410 

Labour Legislation in Newfoundland, 1956 1412 

Labour Legislation in Prince Edward Island, 1956 1413 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1413 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1417 

Conference of Fed. and Prov. Labour Law Administrators. 1423 
Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1424 

Decisions of Umpire 1 425 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1428 

Working Conditions of Office Employees 1434 

Strikes and Lockouts 1435 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1436 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1438 

Labour Statistics 1 445 



Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 






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St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Projects (p. 1498) 



Published Monthly by the 

'ARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



Vol. LVI No. 12 



DECEMBER 1956 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Cover Photograph 
Courtesy Ontario Hydro 



Vol. LYI, No. 12 CONTENTS DECEMBER 1956 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1469 

New Year's Messages 1485 

Notes of Current Interest 1489 

The St. Lawrence Seaway and St. Lawrence Power Projects. . 1498 

The Labour Injunction in British Columbia, 1946-1955 1502 

Occupations of University Women 1511 

2nd Meeting, Advisory Council on Professional Manpower.. . 1517 

Conference on Engineering, Scientific, Technical Manpower. 1520 

National Conference of Canadian Universities 1526 

27th Annual Meeting, Canadian Chamber of Commerce 1527 

CMA Conference on Automation 1532 

Women's Bureau 1535 Civilian Rehabilitation 1537 

50 Years Ago This Month 1539 

International Labour Organization: 

Relate Women's Vocational Training More Closely to Jobs. 1540 

Teamwork in Industry 1542 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification Proceedings 1543 Conciliation Proceedings 1545 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 1558 

Collective Agreements: 

No. of Workers Affected by Collective Agreements, 1955. 1560 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1566 

Industrial Standards Acts 1567 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation Enacted by Parliament at 1956 Session 1568 

Labour Legislation in Alberta, 1956 1571 

Legal Decisions 1576 Recent Regulations 1581 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Report on Operations. . 1586 Decisions of Umpire. . 1587 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1588 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1 592 

Strikes and Lockouts 1594 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1595 

Labour Statistics 1603 



Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing 
with subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. 

Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions. $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



JULY 15, 1956 



CURRENT 

laanpdwer audi labour relations' 

REVIEW 



' -V.:v----:-.:- : :. ■,■■;:::■:■■■:■■:■■ ■:■■¥:■■:■ '■:■:■■::■-■■::■;::. ,■■. ■ - ' :' : : x : -,!; .,-,.■. 

LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 



,,,,,:;: 



Total 
Labour Force 



Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Canada 

Current Manpower Situation 

EMPLOYMENT continued to expand at a rapid pace during June and 
by the end of the month was at an all-time record. All of the in- 
crease occurred in non-farm industries; employment in this sector rose 
266,000 or 6 per cent above the June 1955 figure. Farm employment 
declined slightly with the completion of spring seeding and was some 
77,000 lower than a year earlier. 

By the beginning of July, labour demand was approximately equal 
to or greater than supply in 90 of the 109 labour market areas in Canada, 
a situation that does not usually 
develop until the seasonal em- 
ployment peak in August and 
September. 

It is clear that the employment 
increase this spring has been con- 
siderably greater than that usually 
accompanying the seasonal ex- 
pansion of agriculture, construction, 
transportation and trade. According 
to the DBS monthly labour force 
survey, persons with jobs increased 
from 5,216,000 in February to 
5,647,000 in June. The gain of 
431,000 is almost as great as the 
record employment expansion of 
last spring at a time when man- 
power resources were much less 
fully utilized than at the beginning 
of this year. 

The monthly survey of em- 
ployment and payrolls in establish- 
ments with 15 or more employees 
indicates the same trend. When 




^"•»„' 



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A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 



777 



Index 



120 



110 



100 



90 




SJFMAMJJASONDJ 



adjusted for seasonal variations, 
the employment series in this 
survey shows a rise of 3 per cent 
between January and May, more 
than in any similar period during 
the past ten years (see chart, p. 779). 
The industrial composite index 
was 115.2 in May (1949=100), 4 
per cent higher than the previous 
peak in May 1953. 

The increase in labour require- 
ments resulted in a sharp drop in 
unemployment. The June labour 
force survey showed only 117,000 persons without jobs and seeking 
work, 14,000 below the lowest figure reached last year. The number of 
registrations for employment at offices of the National Employment 
Service had fallen to 192,000 by June 21, 60,000 below the comparable 
figure last year. 

The demand for workers in June was stronger than it has been for 
some years. Job vacancies registered with the NES, when related to 
registrations for employment, show that the labour market was tighter 
than at any time since 1951. The pressure on available manpower sup- 
plies was particularly strong in northern Ontario and the western prov- 
inces. Nine areas, including such large centres as Calgary, Edmonton 
and Fort William -Port Arthur were classified in the labour shortage 
category, while shortages in one or more occupations were evident in 
many more. 



Current Industrial Employment Trends 

Construction plans for 1956 are more ambitious than even before. 
As a result of a mid-year survey by the Department of Trade and Com- 
merce, estimates of expenditures on construction were raised to $6.5 
billion, a gain of 23 per cent over the record value of construction work 
put in place in 1955. Because of physical limitations, there are some 
doubts that this volume of work can be accomplished but continuing 
strong demand for labour and construction materials is assured for the 
rest of this year at least. 

In the first half of 1956 activity in construction increased about 
as rapidly as was physically possible. Employment in the industry rose 
more quickly than in any recent year and appears well on the way to a 
new record, provided that the full flow of imported structural steel from 
the United States is resumed within a reasonable time. The demand for 
construction workers has increased more slowly in Quebec and the 
Atlantic provinces than in other regions but scarcities of skilled trades- 
men were becoming increasingly prevalent in June. In the two western 
regions, on the other hand, shortages of both skilled and unskilled 
workers have been evident in many areas for a month or more. One 
result has been a noticeable movement of workers from both agriculture 
and logging, causing shortages of labour in these industries as well. 



778 



Manufacturing continued to expand in the first half of the year 
despite some fairly substantial layoffs in the durable goods sector. By 
mid-May employment in manufacturing was more than 3 per cent higher 
than a year earlier and very close to the peak reached in May 1953. At 
the beginning of 1956, manufacturing employers generally expected that 
employment during the last half of the year would continue to expand, 
although more slowly than last year. This expectation now depends, 
in part at least, on the duration of the steel strike in the United States 
and the outcome of the current labour-management negotiations in the 
Canadian steel industry. 

As might be expected from the upsurge in capital investment, the 
heavy electrical machinery and iron and steel products industries have 
shown strong gains this spring. After allowing for seasonal changes, 
employment in both these groups rose by 5 per cent in the first five 
months of this year. A gain of 7 per cent was recorded in the primary 
iron and steel industry and employment in fabricated and structural 
steel rose to a new peak. The only exception to the general trend in 
this group of industries was in agricultural implements, where employ- 
ment declined steadily after a brief recovery at the end of last year. 

Recent layoffs in the aircraft industry have interrupted an upward 
trend that has prevailed since last summer. Employment this industry 
had declined from a peak of about 47,000 in 1953 to a low of about 
36,000 in August 1955. The situation has improved steadily since that 
time largely as a result of increasing civilian output and the establish- 
ment of new plants. Employment rose to a total of 41,000 last April. 
Layoffs in recent weeks indicate, however, that a levelling off has 
taken place. 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS 

(Seasonally Adjusted) 



INDUSTRIAL COMPOSITE 




Mo? 1953 to Ap.il 1954 



CONSTRUCTION 



April 1954 to Uotch 1955 



Moreh 1955 to Moy 1956 



779 



The current situation is somewhat similar in the automobile in- 
dustry. Record automobile sales have been established in the past two 
years but owing to two prolonged strikes and the consequent fluctuations 
in imports of automobiles and parts, the strong final demand has not 
been consistently reflected in the industry's employment figures. After 
the settlement of the General Motors strike, employment reached new 
records in March, April and early May. Since then, employment dropped 
somewhat as a result of production cutbacks by the major manufactures. 
Latest reports show, however, a continuing high level of automobile 
sales, so that the employment situation in this industry should strengthen 
fairly quickly after the model change-over. 

Currently, employment in forestry is well above the total of a year 
earlier and, in view of the continuing strong demand for paper and wood 
products, this high level will probably be maintained. The overseas 
export market for lumber has eased in recent months but exports of 
newsprint and pulp have continued to show substantial gains over last 
year. In British Columbia, camps are operating at near capacity to make 
up for the production lost through forest closures in May; marked short- 
ages of skilled woodsmen are reported in most areas. In eastern Canada, 
planned pulpwood production is at least as high as last year's record; 
employment, however, will be largely determined by the availability of 
workers. In Quebec and the Atlantic provinces the current labour supply 
is tight but is expected to ease as the end of the farming season ap- 
proaches. In Ontario, on the other hand, companies are finding it very 
difficult to maintain adequate staffs in the face of competition from 
mining and construction. 

Mining activity expanded steadily through the first half of 1956 and 
employment approached the record previously reached in 1952. Most of 
the gain occurred in petroleum and base metal mining. Coal-mining em- 
ployment has been fairly stable in the past year, after falling by almost 
one-quarter since 1952. At the end of June, the demand for miners was 
heavy in all regions of the country. 

The rapid rise in employment and income during the past year has 
stimulated the distribution and service industries. Although they have 
been less sensitive to economic change than the goods-producing in- 
dustries, their growth has provided a larger total of job opportunities. 
It is worth noting, in fact, that since the war, employment in distribution 
and service industries has grown from 41 to 47 per cent of all employ- 
ment. About 65 per cent of the increase during the past 12 months has 
been in these industries. Transportation registered an employment in- 
crease of 9 per cent, the largest gain in the group. Increases in trade, 
finance and services ranged from 2 to 7 per cent. 



780 



Labour-Management Relations 

MORE than 90,000 worKers were represented in negotiations in 
progress at mid- July with the principal employers in six im- 
portant Canadian industries. Agreement has already been reached at one 
of the three major steel companies and for most workers on the Canadian 
railways; contracts are still open for certain railway workers and for 
employees in the meat-packing and automobile industries, in mining, and 
in logging in the interior of British Columbia. Except in the meat-pack- 
ing and B.C. logging industries, bargaining has been in progress for 
some time and government conciliation assistance has been requested. 

Agreements reached in the textile industry in Quebec province and 
in certain parts of the construction industry in Ontario resulted in a 
sharp reduction in the number of workers on strike. 

Transportation — Workers represented by the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Firemen and Enginemen and the Brotherhood of Railroad Train- 
men are currently bargaining with the major Canadian railways. The 
pattern of settlement in the non-operating workers' contract — 6 per cent 
retroactive to April 1, 1956, 2 per cent on November 1, 1956, and 3 per 
cent on June 1, 1957 — has been followed in the settlements reached so 
far by the locomotive firemen. Both the Canadian National Railways 
and the Ontario Northland Railway made such a settlement. The Ca- 
nadian Pacific Railway Company has been a party to conciliation board 
hearings with the same union during the past month. The wage increase 
was discussed at some length but reports indicate that the CPR re- 
quested the elimination of firemen from diesel locomotives in yard and 
freight service. 

In the field of urban and interurban transportation, the conciliation 
board established in the dispute between the B.C. Electric Railway 
Company, Limited, and the workers represented by the Amalgamated 
Association of Street, Electric Railway and Motor Coach Employees of 
America made public a majority report recommending an immediate in- 
crease of 14/2 cents an hour with further increases of 7 cents an hour in 
June 1957 and in January 1958. The union negotiators are reported to 
have recommended acceptance of the proposals to their membership. 

Logging - The only major agreement being negotiated at present 
in the logging industry involves loggers in the interior of British 
Columbia. Logging agreements were signed in eastern Canada earlier 
this year and loggers on the British Columbia coast have a two-year 
agreement signed in June 1955, under which they recently received an 
increase of 6 cents an hour. Loggers in the northern and southern 
interior of B.C. are demanding an increase of 19 cents an hour which, 
they claim, will bring their rates up to those paid on the coast. At the 
same time they are requesting six paid statutory holidays instead of 
three, a medical benefit plan, increased shift differential, the union 
shop in place of maintenance of membership and other fringe items. 

Automobiles - Negotiations between the Ford Motor Co. of Canada, 
Limited, and the United Automobile Workers are continuing and a request 
has been made for the assistance of a provincial conciliation officer. 
Contract talks, which began June.l between the union and the Chrysler 
Corporation of Canada, are continuing. 

781 



Steel — Present negotiations in the steel industry involve the 
major producers in both the United States and Canada. The strike that 
began July 1, 1956, in the United States has involved the Canadian 
plants of two subsidiaries of major United States companies. The Union 
Drawn Steel Co., Limited, at Hamilton (Republic Steel), and Marmoraton 
Mining Company, Ltd., Mormora, Ont. (Bethlehem Steel), were closed by 
walkouts on July 3, 1956. Although the union maintains that the workers 
affected by the Canadian stoppages are traditionally a part of the Ameri- 
can bargaining unit, the managements concerned are seeking to have 
these strikes declared illegal. 

A 16-month agreement, retroactive to April 1, 1956, affecting some 
4,000 workers, was negotiated by the United Steelworkers of America 
and the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation, Limited, at Sydney. It 
provides for a wage increase of 8 cents an hour and fringe benefits 
worth an additional 9 cents an hour. 

Although negotiations are only in the conciliation stage, 5,000 of 
7,500 workers represented by the steelworkers union voted in favour 
of strike action at The Steel Co. of Canada, Limited, Hamilton, if their 
demands were not granted. On the recommendation of a conciliation 
officer appointed to assist in the negotiations, a conciliation board was 
formed and began hearings July 18. 

Contract talks between the union and the Algoma Steel Corporation, 
Limited, Sault Ste. Marie, began early in July and are continuing. 

Mining - On June 19, approximately 10,000 coal miners in Cape 
Breton rejected a recommendation by a conciliation board that the present 
contract should remain unchanged for at least a year because of the 
unsatisfactory condition of the coal-mining industry. The miners later 
agreed to postpone their demands for a new agreement and to extend the 
expiry date of their present contract to September 10. A convention of 
the United Mine Workers union is to be held at that time and the interval 
will permit delegates to formulate policy for future wage negotiations. 

Coal miners in the three westernmost provinces are to vote July 24 
on the wage proposals for a new contract recommended by a conciliation 
board. The wage terms proposed are not yet known but the expiring 
contract has remained unchanged since 1953. 

Bargaining between the International Union of Mine Mill and Smelter 
Workers and the International Nickle Co. of Canada, Limited, Sudbury 
and Port Colborne, has been referred to a conciliation board. Company 
and union nominees have been appointed. 

Textiles — Settlements reached in the primary textile industry in 
the past two months have brought to an end most of the bargaining in 
the Quebec section of the industry and in some parts of eastern Ontario. 
The settlement of the National Catholic Textile Federation and the 
Dominion Textile Company, Limited, was repeated in the new agreements 
bargained by the United Textile Workers of America for the Montreal and 
Valleyfield mills of the company. Under a two-year agreement negotiated 
between the United Textile Workers and Courtaulds (Canada), Limited, 
at Cornwall, the workers received an 8-cent-an-hour wage increase and 
a reduction in the work week to 40 from 42 hours. 

782 



Agreements are still to be completed in many of the smaller mills 
and throughout the plants of Canadian Cottons, Limited. 

Clothing — The International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union 
representing 7,500 dress workers in the Montreal area has made known 
its demands on firms belonging to the Montreal Dress Manufacturers' 
Association. These include a 10-cent-an-hour wage increase, three 
additional paid statutory holidays, two weeks' paid vacation and con- 
tributions of 2/2 per cent of salaries to the employees' pension fund. 

Contract negotiations have also begun in Hamilton and Toronto 
between the Clothing Manufacturers' Association of Ontario and the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. The union is seeking a 12/2- 
cent-an-hour wage increase, improvement in statutory holiday pay and 
increased company payments to the insurance fund. 

Moat-Packing - Bargaining between the three principal packing 
companies in Canada — Canada Packers, Limited; Swift Canadian Co., 
Limited; and Burns & Co. Limited— and the United Packinghouse Work- 
ers of America began July 16 in Toronto and Calgary. 

Construction - Bargaining in the construction industry came close 
to completion for the year with the termination of two work stoppages in 
June. Plumbers in London and district accepted a wage increase of 10 
cents an hour effective June 1, with a further 10-cent-an-hour increase 
to take effect April 1, 1957. The strike of members of the International 
Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Asbestos Workers ended 
when the workers accepted a settlement including a 7-cent-an-hour in- 
crease retroactive to May 1, a 5-cent-an-hour increase effective Sept- 
ember 1, 1956, and 3 cents an hour to a welfare fund. 

The only two areas in which bargaining has now become difficult 
are Halifax, where all the building trades bargain together, and Van- 
couver, where the plumbers' contract is still to be signed. 

Othor Rocent Agreements - The Bell Telephone Company of Canada 
and two unions, Canadian Telephone Employees' Association and the 
Traffic Employees' Association, recently completed five new agreements 
for the Ontario and Quebec regions. Some 25,000 workers are said to be 
covered by these contracts. 

A two-year contract signed by the Canada and Dominion Sugar Co., 
Limited, and the International Union of Bakery and Confectionery Workers 
of America provides for wage increases of 12 to 14 cents an hour in the 
first year and for a further 5 cents an hour during the second year. In 
addition, the work week is reduced from 42/2 to 40 hours, and the com- 
pany will contribute 1 cent an hour to the insurance plan. 

Work Stoppages 

Preliminary estimates show 36 work stoppages in existence during 
June 1956. These involved 16,815 workers and caused a time loss of 
77,775 man-working days. Corresponding figures for the previous month 
were 33 stoppages, 17,855 workers and 136,510 days. In June 1955 there 
were 32 stoppages, involving 6,730 workers in a loss of 47,510 man-days. 



783 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 






DISTRIBUTION OF PAID WORKERS 
IN THE FOUR LABOUR MARKET CATEGORIES! 



July 1, 
1956 



CONTINUED hiring in the con- 
struction, agriculture, food 
processing, tourist, and logging 
industries further reduced avail- 
able labour supplies in nearly all 
local areas in Canada during June. 
Employment changes were suf- 
ficient to result in the reclassifi- 
cation of 40 labour market areas. 
Thirty-seven areas were reclassi- 
fied into a lower surplus category, 
into balance or into shortage. 
Layoffs in the farm machinery and 
automobile and parts industries, 
however, caused three Ontario 
areas to be reclassified in the 
opposite direction. At the end of 
June labour market classifications 
were as follows (last year's figures 
in brackets): in shortage, 12 (0); 
in balance, 78 (75); in moderate 
surplus, 19 (34); in substantial 
surplus, (0). 

Labour market classifications 
indicate that the Canadian labour 
market is the tightest since 1953, 
for although 14 areas were in the shortage category at July 1, 1953, 
compared with only 12 areas at the beginning of July this year, those 
14 represented only 8 per cent of all paid workers; this year's 12 
represent 10 per cent. The Prairie and Ontario regions continue to show 
the tightest labour markets, with five Ontario areas and seven Prairie 
areas in shortage. In the Atlantic, Quebec and Pacific regions also, 
there were more areas in the balanced category at July 1 than is usual 
for this time of year. 



July 1, 
1955 



Substantial 
Surplus 




□ 



Moderate 
Surplus 



Shortage 



□ 



Labour Market 
Areas 


Labour Surplus* 


Approximate 
Balance* 


Labour 
Shortage* 


1 


2 


3 


4 


July 1 
1956 


July 1 
1955 


July 1 
1956 


W 


July 1 
1956 


} Wd 


Julvl 
1956 


July 1 
1955 


Metropolitan 
Major Industrial 
Major Agricultural 
Minor 


-■ 


- 


1 
7 
2 
9 


3 
16 

2 
13 


8 

17 
10 
43 


8 
11 
12 

44 


2 

3 
2 
5 


- 


Total 


- 


- 


19 


34 


78 


75 


12 


- 



'See inside back cover May La bo ur Gazette. 



784 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS 
July 1, 1956 





APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 


Group 1 Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 






WINDSOR < 


Hamilton 

Montreal 
Ottawa -Hull 


Edmonton 


METROPOLITAN AREAS 






— > QUEBEC-LEVIS 
— > ST. JOHN'S 




(labour fore* 75,000 or mar.) 






Toronto 

Vancouver -New 
Westminster 








BRANTFORD < 


— > CORNWALL 


^ FORT WILLIAM - 






— > CORNER BROOK 


— > FARNHAM-GRANBY 


PORT ARTHUR 






Joliette 


Guelph 


— > SUDBURY 






— > ROUYN VAL D'OR 


Halifax 


TIMMINS- 






Saint John 


Kingston 


KIRKLAND LAKE 






Showinigan Falls 


Kitchener 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




Trois Rivieres 


— > LAC ST. JEAN 




(labour fore* 25,000 - 75,000; 






London 




60 p*r c*nt or more in 






> MONCTON 




non-agricultural activity) 






— > NEW GLASGOW 

Niagara Peninsula 
Oshawa 
Peterborough 
Sarnia 

— > SHER BROOKE 

— > SYDNEY 
Victoria 








— > RIVIERE DU LOUP 


Barrie 


— > 3RAND0N 






Thetford - Megantic 


Charlotte town 


— > LETHBRIDGE 






St. George* 


> CHATHAM 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL AREAS 






Moose Jaw 




(labour fore. 25,000-75,000; 






North Battleford 




40 per cent or mor* In agriculture) 






Prince Albert 
Red Deer 
Regina 
Saskatoon 
Yorkton 








— > CAMPBELLTON 


Belleville - 


— > BRACE BRIDGE 






Bathurst 


Trenton 


— » LISTOWEL 






Drummondvllle 


Beauharnols 


Medicine Hat 






— > GASPE 


Brampton 


Swift Currant 






Newcastle 


Bridge water 


fc WOODSTOCK - 






St. Stephen 


Central Vancouver 


9 INGERSOLL 






— > PRINCE GEORGE 


Island 








— > RIMOUSKI 


Chllllwack 








Vall.yfleld 


Cranbrook 
Dauphin 
Dawson Creek 
Drumhellor 
— » EDMUNDSTON 
Frederlcton 

GALT < 

Goderlch 










— > KAMLOOPS 










— » KENTVILLE 










Lochut* - 










St*. Therese 










Lindsay 




MINOR AREAS 






— > MONTMAGNY 




(labour fore* 10,000-25,000) 






North Bay 
— > OKANAGAN VALLEY 

Owen Sound 

Pembroke 

Portage la Pralrl* 

Prlne* Rupert 
— > QUEBEC NORTH SHORE 

Sault St.. Marie 

Slmcoe 
— > SOREL 
__. STE. AGATHE- 
*" ST. JEROME 

St. Hyacinth* 

St. Jean 

Stratford 

St. Thomas 
— > SUMMERSIDE 

Trail -N*lson 
— > TRURO 

Walker ton 

W.yburn 
— > WOODSTOCK, N.B. 

Victoriovill* 

Yarmouth 





The areas shown In capital leneri are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow Indicates the group from which th*y moved. 



ATLANTIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS-ATLANTIC 
1954-55 1955-56 



Labour Force 




400,000 — V* % ^, 



75,000 




JASONDJFMAMJ 



EMPLOYMENT increased rapidly 
in the Atlantic region in June, 
reaching an all-time record, as 
outdoor activities expanded after 
being retarded by bad weather in 
the spring. Persons with jobs in 
the region were estimated to 
number 531,000 at June 23, an 
increase of 32,000 from a month 
earlier and 23,000 from the same 
date in 1955. Agriculture accounted 
for much of the increase during 
the month but employment gains 
also occurred in construction, 
fishing and the tourist trade. Con- 
struction employment was higher 
than a year ago and labour short- 
ages were developing in some 
areas. 

Twelve of the 21 areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month, two from the substantial to the moderate surplus category, one 
from the substantial surplus to the balanced category and nine from the 
moderate surplus to the balanced category. At July 1, the area classifi- 
cation was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in balance, 15 
(10); in moderate surplus, 6 (11). 

Local Area Developments 
St. John's (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Seasonal 
employment expansion in construction, fishing, shipping and transport- 
ation resulted in a sharp decline in job registrations. Construction 
tradesmen were in heavy demand during the month but requirements for 
semi-skilled and unskilled workers increased more slowly. 

Corner Brook (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 
Logging employment increased as usual during June. Construction 
activities rose slowly, however, resulting in higher unemployment than 
a year ago. 

New Glasgow (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

Sydney (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Un- 
employment in this area was lower in June this year than in any of the 
last three years. All major industries in the area were very active during 
the month; the most marked improvements were recorded in construction, 
logging and lumbering. Employment in coal mining and steel manu- 
facturing, the most important industries in the area, continued at slightly 
higher levels than a year earlier but not as high as in June 1953. 

Moncton (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Con- 
struction activity was reported to have reached an all-time high during 
the month. Supplies of almost all skilled construction tradesmen were 
becoming depleted by the end of June and there were indications that 
early shortages would develop for some skills. 



786 



Grand Falls (minor). Reclassified from Group 1 to Group 3. 

Campbellton (minor). Reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 

Edmundston, Kentville, Summers ide, Truro and Woodstock (minor). Re- 
classified from Group 2 to Group 3. 



QUEBEC 






LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - QUEBEC 
1954-55 1955-56 




1,450,000 



1,400,000 



Persons Without Jobs 
and Seeking Work 

150,000 M. m * . V 



I I | I I I I I I I II 
JASONDJFMAMJ 



THE employment increase in 
Quebec during June was smaller 
than the record gain of June last 
year but greater than the increase 
during the same period in the two 
preceding years. Persons with 
jobs at June 23 were estimated at 
1,556,000, an increase of 39,000 
from the previous month and of 
37,000 from the previous year. 

Employment in construction 
rose seasonally and continued to 
be considerably higher than last 
year. Shortages of skilled trades- 
men began to develop in a number 
of local areas. Loggers were still 
scarce, except in farming areas, 
and the demand for skilled miners 
also exceeded the supply. Shortage of farm hands continued in many 
areas as workers moved into manufacturing and construction employment. 

Total industrial employment was about 8 per cent higher than a 
year earlier. Employment has increased in most industries, forestry, 
aircraft and electrical apparatus and supplies recording the largest gains. 

Twelve of the 24 local areas in the region were reclassified during 
the month, eight from the moderate surplus to the balanced category and 
four from the substantial to moderate surplus category. At July 1, the 
area classification was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in 
balance, 14 (10); in moderate surplus, 10 (14). 

Local Area Developments 
Montreal (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Employment was about 9 
per cent higher than last year. Labour demand was considerably stronger, 
and the available labour supply much smaller than a year earlier. Engi- 
neers, draughtsmen, auto mechanics, skilled construction workers, 
skilled metal workers and stenographers were scarce. 

Quebec -Levis (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 
Employment increased considerably during June, mainly in construction 
and logging. NES job registrations for male workers were only about 
two-thirds as numerous as in the previous month but registrations from 
females increased, mainly in secondary textiles and in clerical occu- 
pations, in which students usually register during the summer. Employ- 
ment opportunities were twice as numerous as last year, and there were 



787 



shortages of loggers, auto mechanics, bricklayers, shoe stitchers and 
worsted menders. 

Lac St. Jean and Sherbrooke (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 
2 to Group 3. Employment increased mainly in outdoor industries. Log- 
gers were scarce in both areas and Sherbrooke also reported shortages of 
sheet-metal workers, foundry workers, millwrights, carpenters and auto 
mechanics. 

Farnham-Granby (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 
3. The number of job registrations at the NES office decreased con- 
siderably in construction and to a lesser degree in textiles. 

Rouyn-Val d'Or (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 1 to Group 
2. Increased activity in outdoor industries and mining reduced the number 
of job applications registered with the NES, and demand for loggers, 
miners, painters, cranemen and shovelmen, and auto mechanics exceeded 
the available supply. 

Riviere du Loup, Gaspe, Rimouski (major agricultural and minor). Re- 
classified from Group 1 to Group 2. 

Montmagny, Quebec North Shore, Ste. Agathe-St. Jerome, Sorel (minor). 
Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 



ONTARIO 



| LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -ONTARIO 
j| 1954-55 1955-56 




^T.-^T 



Parsons Without Jobs 
and Seeking Work 



IN Ontario during June, a further 
increase in labour requirements 
from already high spring levels 
brought employment to an all-time 
record. Persons with jobs in the 
region reached a total of 2,094,000 
at June 23, an increase of 56,000 
from the previous month and 87,000 
from the previous year. The number 
without jobs and seeking work 
dropped to 32,000, representing 
only 1.5 per cent of the total labour 
force in the region. 

Manufacturing industries as a 
whole continued operating at near 
capacity, although there were some 
employment adjustments in farm 
machinery and automobile firms. 
Shortages of engineers, draughtsmen, skilled metal workers, farm hands, 
miners, loggers and unskilled construction workers were quite pro- 
nounced. 

During the month, 10 of 34 labour market areas in the region were 
reclassified, five from the balanced to the shortage category, two from 
moderate surplus to balance, two from balance to moderate surplus and 
one from shortage to balance. At July 1, the area classification was as 
follows (last year's figures in brackets): in shortage, 5 (0); in balance, 
27 (29); in moderate surplus, 2 (5). 



50,000- 



J I I I L 



JASONDJFMAMJ 



^^^_ 



788 



Local Area Developments 
Hamilton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Most industries continued 
to be very busy but there was some slackening in automobile and agri- 
cultural implement manufacturing. 

Ottawa -Hull (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Although this area 
remained in approximate balance there were severe shortages of farm 
hands, professional workers, sales personnel, machinists, painters and 
mechanics. 

Toronto (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Heavy industry continued 
operating at near capacity although material shortages caused some 
slowdowns. Employment in the construction industry continued to in- 
crease and good construction labour and construction equipment oper- 
ators were very scarce. Skilled metal workers were in very short supply. 

Windsor (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Further 
small layoffs for inventory adjustment at Ford helped to bring the area 
into the surplus category. Construction was still very active but the 
labour supply was adequate. 

Brantford (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
Massey Harris laid off workers early in June and further layoffs were 
anticipated for July or August. 

Cornwall (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Con- 
struction in the area continued to increase, resulting in some shortages 
of skilled construction workers. 

Sudbury (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 4. All 
industries in this area were very busy and the labour supply was al- 
ready very tight. Another 1,000 to 1,500 workers will be required on the 
Blind River development during July. 

Timmins- Kirkland Lake (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to 
Group 4. Shortages developed of diamond drillers, loggers, carpenters, 
machinists and unskilled miners and construction workers. 

Chatham (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

Bracebridge, Listowel and Woodstock- Ingersol I (minor). Reclassified 
from Group 3 to Group 4. 

Gait (minor). Reclassified from Group 4 to Group 3. Temporary layoffs 
in iron and steel firms brought the area back into balance. 

PRAIRIE 

EMPLOYMENT continued to increase in the Prairie region during June, 
reaching the highest figure on record for the month. Persons with jobs 
at June 23 were estimated at 1,000,000, about 9,000 more than a month 
earlier and 23,000 more than at the corresponding date in 1955. Demand 
was strong throughout the month for workers in all occupations and 
there were shortages of skilled construction workers, loggers, oil drillers, 
engineers, draughtsmen, and sales and clerical workers. 

Three of the 20 areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month from the balanced to the shortage category. At July 1, the area 

789 



&l,OO0,0O0r*w— 
950,000* 



""V ,.. , ,. . . . . , . , .... w ■ .,. . . ww . w. ; ; .. ' 

LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -PRAIRIE 



— 1954-55 



1955-56 



Labour Force 



With Jobs: 
Non- Agriculture 



:j: 400,000-*'^ 




JASONDJFMAMJ 



., : .v. : .. v..... ........... 



classification was as follows 
(last year's figures in brackets): 
in shortage, 7 (0); in balance, 13 
(20). 

Local Area Developments 
Calgary (metropolitan). Remained 
in Group 4. Shortages continued in 
a wide number of occupations 
despite a seasonal increase in 
the labour force. Construction and 
oil exploration continued very 
strong and stimulated further em- 
ployment expansion in the trade 
and service industries, which have 
shown a remarkable rate of growth 
during the past two years. 

Edmonton (metropolitan). Remained 
in Group 4. Employment continued 
to expand in this area during June. The most serious labour shortages 
occurred in pipeline construction but suitable workers were also scarce 
in almost all other industries. Job opportunities were much greater than 
in the same month last year. 

Winnipeg (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. All industries recorded 
vigorous employment expansion. The year-to-year increase in job oppor- 
tunities was reflected in the NES figures; vacancies listed at the NES 
office at the end of the month equalled 40 per cent of job registrations 
compared with 20 per cent a year earlier. 

Fort William- Port Arthur (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 
to Group 4. A very tight labour market developed, largely because of 
the record volume of construction work being carried out in the area. 
Forestry operations were curtailed during the month following the transfer 
of workers from the camps to fight forest fires. The generally heavy 
demand for labour is indicated in the NES statistics, which show two 
vacancies for every job applicant at the end of June compared with one 
vacancy for every 11 job applicants at the same date last year. 

Brandon and Lethbridge (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 3 
to Group 4. Farm labour was very scarce and shortages were developing 
in construction and some parts of manufacturing. 



PACIFIC 

ECONOMIC activity in the Pacific region continued to expand in June 
from the high levels already attained early in the spring; employment 
reached an all-time record. The number of persons with jobs at June 23 
was estimated at 466,000, about 12,000 more than a month earlier and 
19,000 more than in June 1955. Labour shortages continued to exist in a 
large number of occupations despite the heavy influx of workers from 
other parts of Canada. The ratio of job vacancies to registrations for 



790 



employment at NES offices is 
considerably higher than a year 
earlier in most areas, particularly 
in the male sector. In some areas, 
such as Kamloops and Kitimat, 
employment opportunities were far 
more numerous than the regis- 
trations for employment. 

All industries were operating 
at high levels, apart from tempo- 
rary interruptions caused first by 
fire hazard then by heavy rains and 
flooding. Construction, logging, 
manufacturing and mining were 
particularly active but agriculture 
continued to suffer from winter frost 



I LABOUR FORCE TRENDS-PACIFIC 





.---1954- 




1955- 




Labour Force 




_ 




y* 




425,000 


* 


-* 




Persons 
With Jobs 




450,000- 


••""•»•. 

*•»*. 








/ 


400.000 — 







I I I 



JASONDJFMAMJ 



damage. 



The greatest year-to-year employment increases were in the non- 
ferrous metal products, iron and steel products, transportation equip- 
ment and service industries. At Kitimat, which now has an estimated 
labour force of 7,000 to 8,000, one additional operating unit went into 
production in June and another was expected to be in operation by 
December. 

Shortages of engineers, draughtsmen, welders, structural iron and 
steel and other metal workers, miners, marine electricians and of a 
number of skilled logging and construction trades were particularly 
severe. 

During the month, three labour market areas were reclassified, two 
from the moderate surplus to the balanced category and one from sub- 
stantial to moderate surplus. At July 1, classification of the 10 areas 
in the region was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in balance, 
9 (7); in moderate surplus, 1 (3). 

Local Area Developments 
Vancouver -New Westminster (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Inter- 
mittent rains early in the month slowed down construction temporarily 
but resulted in the resumption of forest work after a short closure be- 
cause of fire hazard. Employment reached record levels. Labour short- 
ages were reported in more than 20 skilled occupations, particularly in 
the metal trades. 

Victoria (major industrial). Remained in Group 3. Employment continued 
at high levels since practically all industries were operating at or near 
capacity. Shortages existed for almost all trades in the shipyards, and 
for skilled loggers, and female service and office workers. 

Kamloops and Okanogan Valley (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to 
Group 3. 

Prince George (minor). Reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 



791 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of July 10, 1956) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 

From 



Previous 

Month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) 

Total persons with jobs 

At work 35 hours or more 

At work less than 35 hours. 

With jobs but not at work 

With jobs but on short time 

With jobs but laid off full week 

Persons without jobs and seeking work 

Total paid workers 

In agriculture > 

In non-agriculture 

Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 

Claimants for Unemployment 

Insurance benefit 

Amount of benefit payments 

Industrial employment (1949=100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949=100) 

Immigration 

Strikes and Lockouts 

No. of days lost 

No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes 

Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg„) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949=100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949=100) 
Total labour income $000,000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1935-39=100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



June 23 
June 23 
June 23 
June 23 
June 23 

June 23 
June 23 

June 23 

June 23 
June 23 
June 23 



June 21 
June 21 
June 21 
June 21 
June 21 
June 21 



June 1 
May 

May 1 

May 1 

1st qtr. 
1956 

June 
June * 
June 



May 1 
May 1 
May 1 
May 1 
June 1 
May 1 
April 



April 
April 
April 
April 



5,764,000 

5,647,000 

5,156,000 

348,000 

143,000 

22,000 



117,000 

4,42 9,000 

106,000 

4,323,000 



25,395 
65,701 
55,947 
23,787 
21,041 
191,871 



188,927 
$19,154,627 



115.1 
114.1 

18,963 



77,775 

16,815 

36 



$63.84 
$ 1.51 
41.4 
$62.56 
117.8 
128.6 
1,121 



278.5 
286.9 
350.7 
246.1 



+ 1.8 
+ 2.7 
+ 3.2 
-10.8 

+27.7 

- 4.4 



-29.1' 

+ 3.9 
- 0.9 

+ 4.0 



-45.2 
-37.1 
-16.0 
-4 0.0 
-15.8 
-32.0 



-35.3 
-42.3 

+ 1.4 
+ 0.6 



0.6 
0.4 
0.7 
1.1 
1.0 
1.1 
2.6 



+ 0.5 

+ 1.6 

+ 1.5 

+ 1.7 



2.7 
3.5 
3.2 
4.5 
10.9 

21.4 



- 25.5 

+ 5.7 

- 18.5 
+ 6.4 



30.7 
16.6 
27.8 
28.6 
18.2 
23.9 



- 21.5 

- 4.3 

•»- 7.2 

+ 6.3 



+ 7.6(c) 



+120.8(c) 
+120.7(c) 
+ 49.3(c) 



4.7 
3.9 
0.5 
4.4 
1.6 
4.2 
10.9 



+ 7.4 

+ 6.7 

+ 7.3 

+ 6.2 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from 
Labour Force, a monthly publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also 
inside back cover, May Labour Gazette. 

(b) See inside back cover. May Labour Gazette. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year 
with total for same period previous year. 

* Less than 10,000. 



792 



Notes of 
Current 
Interest 



30 Canadians Attending 
Oxford Study Conference 

Names of the 30 Canadians chosen as 
members of the Duke of Edinburgh's Study 
Conference on the Human Problems of 
Industrial Communities within the Com- 
monwealth and Empire were announced at 
the end of last month by the Right Hon. 
C. D. Howe, Minister of Trade and 
Commerce. 

The following is a list of the successful 
candidates, who were nominated by private 
firms, business associations and trade 
unions: — 

J. A. Armstrong, Calgary, Imperial Oil 
Ltd.; E. Benson, Trail, B.C., Consolidated 
Mining and Smelting Co.; W. S. Haggett, 
Winnipeg, Bristol Aeroplane Co.; J. H. 
Doyle, Chicoutimi, Que., Price Brothers and 
Co.; J. W. Henley, Hamilton, Canadian 
Westinghouse Co.; L. B. Jack, Vancouver, 
B.C. Electric Co.; J. J. Kinley, Jr., Lunen- 
burg, N.S., Lunenburg Foundry and Engi- 
neering Co.; Lt.-Col. G. H. Logie, Sher- 
brooke, Que., Canadian Ingersoll-Rand 
Ltd.; J. G. Morrison, Sault Ste. Marie, 
Ont., Abitibi Power and Paper Co.; W. A. 
Martin, Kitchener, Ont., Dominion Rubber 
Co.; J. C. McGlashan, Ottawa, McGlashan 
Silverware Co.; J. R. Phillips, Brockville, 
Ont., Phillips Electrical Co. 

R. D. Archibald, Dominion Textile Co.; 
Dr. W. H. Cruickshank, Bell Telephone 
Co.; K. J. Forbes, Catelli Food Products 
Ltd.; L. Hemsworth, Canadian Industries 
Ltd.; J. A. Hornibrook, Du Pont Company 
of Canada; J. R. Houghton, Northern 
Electric Co.; J. W. McGiffin, Canada 
Steamship Lines; P. B. Thresher, Bathurst 
Power and Paper Co., all of Montreal. 

R. Atkin, Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway Employees, and K. J. McLennan, 
Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers, both 
of Edmonton; Nelson Cox, Barbers' Inter- 
national Union, and C. Ward, United Auto 
Workers, both of Brantford, Ont.; D. I. 
Finn, Sarnia, Ont., Oil, Chemical and 
Atomic Workers; J. A. Huneault, Ottawa, 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen; R. H. 
Brown, Port Credit. Ont., International 
Printing Pressmen and Assistants' Union; 
F. S. Cooke and L. K. Sefton, United 



75803—2 



Steelworkers of America, and F. D. Smith, 
International Photo-Engravers' Union, all 
of Toronto. 

The conference, which is being held in 
Oxford, England, from July 9 to 27, is 
being attended by 280 persons from all 
parts of the Commonwealth. 

The gathering, which is to study the 
human aspects of industrialization, with 
special reference to those factors which 
make for satisfaction, efficiency and under- 
standing within industrial organizations and 
between them and industry and the 
community around them, will take place 
in three stages. 

The first part, from July 9 to 12, will be 
held in Oxford, and will take the form of 
papers by well-known figures in industry 
in the United Kingdom, and group discus- 
sion. The second part will consist of nine- 
day tours of industrial towns and cities by 
the 20 groups into which the conference is 
to be divided. Finally, for the third part 
the members will return to Oxford to hear 
papers by persons from overseas, and for 
further group discussions. 

Two of these papers will be read by 
Canadians. They are: "Social Planning 
and Adjustment at Kitimat" by E. Luch- 
terhand, Research Associate of the Staff 
Training and Research Division, Aluminum 
Co. of Canada; and "The Contribution of 
the Social Scientist to Management" by 
Farrell C. Toombs, Associate of the 
Department of Psychiatry, and Associate 
Professor of the Institute of Business 
Administration, University of Toronto. 

The conference will not make policy or 
pass "pious resolutions" and it will not 
trespass on the field usually covered by 
collective bargaining. Instead it was 
arranged to be a practical study of how 
human life has been influenced by the 
growth of industry, and how those com- 
munities where industrialization is less 
advanced can learn from the successes and 
failures of others. 

It is a conference of young persons who 
are making their mark in industry and 
the community as trade unionists, tech- 
nicians and managers. None of them are 
much above 45 years of age, and some 
may be no more than 25. They have come 
from all kinds of industries and from enter- 
prises large and small. None of them have 
been sent as official delegates or repre- 
sentatives. 

The outline program of the conference 
describes it as "essentially an experiment 
in common effort within the Common- 
wealth, ... a meeting not of research 
workers but of men and women of many 
races and nations who are facing practical 

793 



responsibilities in industry and are pre- 
pared to exchange ideas freely and frankly 
on the tasks and opportunities ahead of 
them". 



Ont. Labour Federation 
Holds Hearings on Act 

Criticisms of the Ontario Labour Rela- 
tions Act and its administration were heard 
during June and early July by a special 
committee set up by the Ontario Provincial 
Federation of Labour. 

The committee expects to report to the 
Federation later in the year on its findings. 

Views of affiliated unions and other 
interested organizations were presented to 
the Committee at public hearings in 
Toronto, St. Catharines, London, Windsor, 
Hamilton, Kitchener, Peterborough, Corn- 
wall, Kingston, Cobalt, Timmins and Port 
Arthur. 

A full account of the hearings will appear 
in the Labour Gazette for August. 



UAW Concerned about 
Auto Industry Layoffs 

Layoffs in the automobile and agriculture 
implement fields, caused by automation 
and other factors, came under scrutiny at 
two separate meetings of United Auto- 
mobile Workers of America. One meeting 
was at Toronto, the other in Brantford, 
Ont. 

In Brantford, 120 delegates, representing 
75,000 UAW workers in Canada, called for 
a labour-management-government confer- 
ence to assess results to date and prospects 
for the immediate future of automation in 
Canadian mass production industries. 

Delegates were informed that unemploy- 
ment, brought on by a combination of 
automation, over-production, United States 
imports and falling farm income, had 
already cut in half the work force in the 
Ford Company of Canada plant at Windsor, 
and that soon the Massey-Harris-Ferguson 
chain would cut its work force to a few 
hundred maintenance and tool workers. 

"It is not enough for industry to say 
automation will work to everyone's benefit 
in the long run," said George Burt, the 
union's Canadian Director. "It is in the 
interest of all Canadians that automation 
be brought into use with a sense of social 
consciousness." 

He said legislators must be made as 
aware as workers of the tremendous social 
forces set in motion by management's new 
philosophy and that management must 
realize at the outset that it must share 
the fruits of automation with all segments 
of society, or bring the Canadian economy 
to ruin. 



At the Toronto meeting of the Inter- 
national Agricultural Implement Workers 
Wage and Hour Council of the UAW, 100 
delegates representing workers throughout 
North America made plans for bringing 
to bear on various levels of industry and 
government the importance of providing 
full employment. 

Council President Stephen Olsen said that 
in Racine, Wisconsin, where Massey-Harris- 
Ferguson had a peak work force of 2,250, 
layoffs were occurring at such a rate that 
within three months only 250 production 
workers would remain on the job. 

Philip Kearns, of Toronto, said that the 
company had reduced the Toronto plant's 
work force from 4,600 in 1952 to 2,400 by 
1956. Workers at Hamilton were being 
laid off in groups — a recent one amounting 
to 300 to 400 men. 

International Representative Paul Siren 
thought that "the decline in purchasing 
power of the farmers is undoubtedly the 
major cause" of the cutback on production 
that is bringing about the layoffs. 

He said the farmers' union and the 
Canadian farm implement branch of the 
trade union movement are planning to 
petition the Government for aid in 
resolving the problem. 

"Trade policies of the Government have 
restricted exports to the point that we've 
lost some of our best customers," he 
declared. 



Automobiles, like strawberries, should be 
priced according to seasonal demand, 
Walter Reuther, UAW President, recently 
told the Detroit Free Press. 

People should be told that if they buy 
an automobile in the summer, when 
demand is greatest, they would pay a 
higher price for their cars, the same as they 
"have to pay more for strawberries in 
February". 

Such a sliding scale in prices, Mr. 
Reuther feels, would help level out the 
peaks and valleys in the auto industry. 



NES Manager in Cornwall, 
Awaiting Award 9 Dies 

J. Rene Laframboise, Manager of the 
Cornwall, Ont., office of the National 
Employment Service since its opening in 
1941, who was runner-up for the 1956 
Award of Merit of the International Asso- 
ciation of Personnel in Employment 
Security (L.G., May, p. 493), died on 
June 11. He was 58 years of age. 

Mr. Laframboise was to have received 
his award at the 43rd annual convention 
of the Association in Toronto the latter 
part of June. 



794 



W. Thomson Named Chief 9 
Employment Service, UIC 

William Thomson, for the past eight 
years Chief of the Analysis and Develop- 
ment Division, Unemployment Insurance 
Commission, has been appointed Director 
of the Employment Service. He succeeds 
J. W. Temple, who has been named 
Director of Staff Relations. 




William Thomson 

Mr. Thomson, who is 52 years old, has 
had 25 years' service in several federal 
government departments. Born in Dundee, 
Scotland, and educated there and in 
Australia, he came to Canada in 1927. 
Four years later he entered the public 
service in the Census Division of the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 

In 1941 he was seconded to the Wartime 
Prices and Trade Board as Director of 
Licensing. Two years later he joined the 
Royal Canadian Navy, in which he served 
as Staff Officer, Personnel Selection, Atlantic 
Command. He was discharged in 1946 with 
the rank of lieutenant-commander. 

After a further brief period with DBS, 
Mr. Thomson joined the staff of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission. He 
served several years as a specialist in 
occupational research and labour market 
information before becoming head of the 
Analysis and Development Division. 



75803— 1\ 



30-Hour J¥eeU Granted 
To CLC Office Staff 

The 30-hour week, which the Canadian 
Labour Congress has set up as one of its 
targets (L.G., June, p. 649), has been won 
by some of the Congress' own employees. 

A new contract between the CLC and 
the Office Employees' International Union, 
covering clerical employees at Congress 
headquarters and regional offices, provides 
for the 30-hour week in addition to sub- 
stantial wage increases, averaging about 
$35 a month. 

The contract does not apply to Congress 
officers, representatives or organizers. 



Chrysler Begins Program 
Of Apprentice Training 

A Canadian automobile manufacturer, in 
co-operation with the union in the plant, 
has begun an apprentice training program 
to help meet the increasing need for skilled 
tradesmen. 

J. G. Craig, Vice-president in charge of 
personnel, Chrysler Corp. of Canada, last 
month announced the establishment of a 
four-year training scheme based on an 
agreement with the United Auto Workers. 
It will offer courses in electrical, mill- 
wright, steamfitter-pipefitter, toolmaker, 
machine repair, and body fixture builder 
trades. 

Applicants aged 18 to 25 years with 
secondary school diplomas are eligible. 

The plan provides for one apprentice in 
training for every eight journeymen. 



"Women Should Encourage 
More Vocational Training" 

Mothers should encourage their children 
to enter vocational training schools rather 
than force them into academic courses, the 
National Council of Women has suggested. 

"There is a tendency among parents and 
some educators to look down on this type 
of education," said, Mrs. Alan Turner Bone, 
outgoing President of the Council. "But if 
Canada is to maintain her position in the 
world we must have more trained engi- 
neers and technicians." 

The Council suggested that women's 
groups could help by offering scholarships 
to vocational school students and by seeing 
to it that schools have adequate courses 
and qualified teachers. 

In another resolution, the Council asked 
the Government to provide not only for 
equal pay for equal work but also for equal 
opportunities for employment and advance- 
ment. 

795 



U.K. Takes Steps to Ease 
Shortage of Technicians 

A further step has been taken to ease 
the shortage of technologists in Britain, 
with a change in the Ministry of Educa- 
tion system of granting state scholarships. 

Technical state scholarships are to be 
increased from 120 to 150 for the 1956- 
1957 academic year. 

In conjunction with the planned build-up 
of the pool of technologists, Britain plans 
to spend 85 million pounds during the next 
five years on buildings and equipment to 
train prospective technical personnel. 

The present annual output of technol- 
ogists amounts to around 9,500. The 
Government hopes to increase this to 
15,000. 



in a hurry and employers should invest 
more in time and money in the training 
of others. This is an investment with good 
'growth' features." 



Urges Contractors Help 
Training of Apprentices 

The attention paid by employers to 
getting the supply of goods needed in 
construction has not been balanced by a 
proportionate solicitude for ensuring the 
necessary supply of manpower, said A. 
Turner Bone, President of the Canadian 
Construction Association, in an address to 
the Calgary Builders' Exchange last month. 

Looking after the training of apprentices 
is a new idea to a number of contractors, 
he went' on to say. "Many still look to 
the schools, to other contractors and to 
immigration as the source of their skilled 
men. The schools — whether they be 
universities, apprenticeship centres or tech- 
nical schools — need our help; all in the 
industry have a responsibility to assist in 
the job-site training that is so essential; 
and we Canadians can no longer rely on 
the training pfograms of other countries 
to supply us with skilled mechanics, pro- 
fessional men or even heavy labour." 

Those in the industry could help, he 
said, by participating in the apprenticeship 
training program, by encouraging the entry 
of recruits to the industry, by seeing that 
the boys taken on receive proper training 
on the job, and by helping the apprentice- 
ship instructors and inspectors. 

The work of the universities could be 
furthered, he suggested, by offering summer- 
time employment to students, by granting 
prizes, bursaries and fellowships, and by 
co-operating in the arrangement of courses. 

"A large number of construction men 
received their training 'informally'," Mr. 
Bone said. "This is fine for building 
character but it is wasteful in both time 
and human resources. Canada is a country 



More, Better Trained 
Graduates Said Needed 

At the final sessions of the 10-day Learned 
Societies Conference in Montreal last 
month, Canadian universities were urged 
to turn out more and better trained gradu- 
ates. The reply of the universities was 
that they needed more money if they were 
to be able to do this. 

Officials of business and industry attend- 
ing the conference sessions said that the 
demand for graduates, especially in tech- 
nical fields, will increase greatly in the next 
ten years, and the universities will be 
called upon to meet the demand. 

University officials said that they need 
more money to enable them to attract 
capable teachers and to enlarge their 
facilities. 

The following are samples of the com- 
ments heard during four days' discussions: — 

"Student enrolment is expected to double 
in the next decade, but universities now do 
not have the money to increase staff or 
facilities," said Claude T. Bissell, University 
of Toronto. 

"The shortage of skilled teachers in both 
colleges and secondary schools is a matter 
of great national importance," said Prof. 
B. W. Sargent, Queen's University. 

"Five of every six university graduates 
applying for Jobs with the federal Govern- 
ment are unsuitable for employment," 
according to 0. E. Ault, Director of 
Planning and Development, Civil Service 
Commission. 

C. R. Armstrong of the Bell Telephone 
Co. said that "graduates expect too much 
to be given them too quickly". 

Msgr. A. M. Parent, Rector of Laval 
University, complained that French- 
Canadians are losing control of a portion 
of their life because French-speaking 
universities are not turning out enough 
graduates to fill industrial positions. 

A somewhat different line was taken by 
Herbert H. Lank, President of Du Pont 
Co. of Canada. Speaking to the University 
Counselling and Placement Association, he 
expressed the opinion that the need for 
engineers and science graduates in business 
has probably been "grossly overemphasized". 

Speaking on the importance to business 
of obtaining men with a liberal arts educa- 
tion, Mr. Lank said that although a large 
number of technically skilled persons are 



796 



needed in business, businessmen have been 
inclined to want engineers and scientists for 
jobs that could be done just as well by 
men without technical education. 

Although the importance of skilled per- 
sonnel should not be belittled, he said, the 
pendulum is now swinging in favour of 
the liberal arts graduate and there is a 
danger that it may swing too far. 



Sees Greater U.S. Bidding 
For Canadian Graduates 

Because the United States has relaxed 
its regulations for compulsory military 
training, Canadian employers are going to 
face stiffer competition from United States 
employers for university graduates, it is 
predicted by J. K. Bradford, Director of 
Placement, University of Toronto. 

"The military draft has been the big 
obstacle in the path of young Canadians 
as far as working in the United States is 
concerned," he said. "The prospect of 
having to undergo military service has been 
the main deterrent to Canadian graduates 
accepting employment across the border; 
but there are signs that the situation is 
changing." 



AFL-CIO Council Acts on 
Organization, Corruption 

Problems of organization "and measures 
to deal with corruption in the manage- 
ment of union welfare funds were among 
the important matters dealt with by 
the AFL-CIO Executive Council at its 
regular summer meeting last month. 

The Council directed the Department of 
Organization to go ahead with plans for 
organizing about 750,000 textile workers in 
northern and southern states. 

Evidence regarding corrupt handling of 
welfare funds was referred to the interna- 
tional unions whose locals were alleged to 
be involved. A report dealing with alleged 
welfare fund corruption in three interna- 
tional unions was referred to the AFL-CIO 
Ethical Practices Committee; the Com- 
mittee was asked to make recommendations. 

The Council decided to postpone filling 
the vacancy in its ranks caused by the 
death of Matthew Woll. President George 
Meany was to appoint a three-man sub- 
committee to make recommendations for 
a replacement. 

Other actions taken by the Executive 
Committee included: — 

Approval of the merger of the 300- 
member Metal Engravers and Marking 
Device Workers Union with the 800,000- 
member International Association of 
Machinists. 



Asking the Building Trades Department 
to call a meeting of the presidents of its 
19 affiliates at which Mr. Meany will ask 
withdrawal of a recent letter which urged 
delay in mergers of state federations of 
labour and industrial union councils until 
jurisdictional questions have been further 
discussed. 

Calling on Congress to give "top priority" 
to increasing the coverage of the Wage- 
Hour Act to include workers not now under 
its provisions. 

Approval of the appointment of Vice- 
president Richard Walsh of the Theatrical 
Workers as chairman of the AFL-CIO 
Committee on Occupational Safety and 
Health, in succession to Dave Beck of the 
Teamsters, who had asked to be relieved 
because of pressure of other duties. 



AFL Staff and Unions in 
Canada iVoti? Part of CLC 

The Canadian staff of the American 
Federation of Labour became part of the 
Canadian Labour Congress on July 1. 

Arrangements for the transfer were com- 
pleted during a June visit to Washington 
by CLC Executive Vice-president Gordon 
Cushing and Secretary-Treasurer Donald 
MacDonald. 

The AFL's Canadian staff, eight in 
number, was headed by Russell Harvey, 
who now becomes CLC Regional Director 
of Organization for Ontario. 

Also transferred to the CLC were the 57 
directly-chartered AFL unions in Canada, 
whose membership totals 6,000. 

Affiliation of the 5,000-member One Big 
Union with the CLC was also completed 
last month. 



Merger Terms Approved 
By Sashatoon Councils 

Conditions for the merger of Saskatoon's 
two labour councils were accepted last 
month. 

According to the merger terms, the 
president of the amalgamated council will 
be chosen from the CCL, one vice-president 
from the TLC and one from the CCL, a 
registrar from the CCL, a recording 
secretary and a treasurer from the TLC, 
and five executive members from each 
group. 

The two councils are the Saskatoon 
Trades and Labour Council (TLC) and 
the Saskatoon and District Labour Council 
(CCL). 



797 



Use Automation's Gains 
To Cut Prices, Says TUC 

A report on automation in offices recently 
prepared by the British Trades Union Con- 
gress has expressed the view that gains 
from automation should be used to reduce 
consumer prices rather than for all-round 
improvements in working conditions. 

The report said that, next to redundancy, 
the chief concern of trade unions in tech- 
nical innovation is that of wage rates and 
earnings. The simplification of work 
through mechanization is regarded by many 
employers as a justification for employing 
less skilled staff and "cutting the rate". 

Resistance to this by unions, the report 
said, could be expected, particularly with 
the increasing responsibilities for material 
and equipment and the feeling that workers 
have the right to share the gains resulting 
from higher productivity. 

For some unions, it was suggested, there 
might be an additional problem in trying 
to "spread" the benefits of automation. 
Efficient highly mechanized firms usually 
have low labour costs and are able to pay 
wage rates above the average. Differences 
in efficiency among firms might limit the 
degree to which advantage of automation 
might be taken by unions seeking uniformity 
and negotiating on an industry-wide or 
national basis. 

Union-company negotiations might pro- 
vide means of extracting a larger share of 
the benefits of automation, including a 
shorter working week, but not necessarily 
on an industry-wide basis, and this could 
lead to friction. Similarly, in one depart- 
ment it might be thought desirable for 
various reasons to keep wage rates "in line" 
rather than try to "exploit" the profit- 
ability of new machines. 

This, said the report, is not necessarily 
an unreasonable approach. It might be 
that trade unionists would have to see the 
prices of some commodities and services 
rise to accommodate their demands for 
uniform improvements in working condi- 
tions. A much superior service to the 
whole community would be performed, 
especially in relation to fixed income groups, 
if the gains from automation could be used 
to reduce consumer prices. 

On the subject of redundancy, the report 
pointed out that in several sections of 
industry agreements have been reached 
providing for compensatory payments to 
workers technologically displaced. "This," 
it commented, "is a fair and reasonable 
charge on increasing efficiency and tides 
workpeople over the period of looking for 



another job, moving to another area or 
retraining. Technological innovation puts 
a premium on flexibility and mobility." 

The report said that, more than any- 
thing else, trade unions demand prior 
notification and opportunities for discussing 
reorganization developments. It might not 
be simple to transfer clerical staff on 
routine work to computer "programming" 
and other jobs. "Raising the average level 
of skill in any single establishment," it 
added, "may require considerable adjust- 
ments in the labour force over a long 
period and emphasizes again the impor- 
tance of retraining facilities, especially for 
the older worker." 

The report suggested that the high cost 
of electronic and other equipment might 
encourage employers to look into shift work 
for clerical workers. 

After surveying the development of 
automation in offices in America and in 
Britain, the report said that it will be 
many years before even all larger com- 
panies in Britain are making extensive use 
of electronic computers. There is a feeling, 
it added, that automatic working in offices 
may have a sharper impact than in indus- 
try, but so far it has not caused difficulties 
beyond the ability of the unions and 
employers jointly to deal with in a 
reasonably satisfactory manner. 

The ideal for trade unions is that auto- 
mation should be introduced not too fast 
and not too slowly, the report went on. 
Trade unions would be justified in con- 
cluding at this stage that the pace of 
automation on a broad front is not going 
to be as alarming as is sometimes forecast, 
notwithstanding the possibility of signifi- 
cant localized developments. 

Over a long period, extensive automation, 
radically altering the size and balance of 
labour forces, might lead to organizing 
problems for trade unions, requiring inter- 
union examination of such matters as 
demarcation and entrance to trade. 

The responsibilities of workplace repre- 
sentatives are likely to increase, stressing 
the need for adequate liaison and com- 
munications between unions and their 
representatives, and the ample provision of 
training facilities in modern management 
and production techniques. 

The report concluded that the general 
situation was confusing and that more 
investigation was needed. "What stands 
out plainly so far in connection with auto- 
mation problems," the report added, "is 
that they are largely the responsibility of 
the unions and employers in each industry, 
to be discussed and negotiated through the. 
appropriate industrial relations machinery." 



798 



Civil Service Groups 
Begin Merger Talks 

Preliminary negotiations towards ultimate 
union of Canada's federal civil servants in 
one organization, conducted last month 
between the two largest employee associa- 
tions, ended in close agreement on most 
points. 

W. J. Bagnato, Executive Secretary of 
the Civil Service Federation of Canada, 
said after a meeting last month with the 
Amalgamated Civil Servants of Canada that 
the two groups agreed closely on most 
issues of organizational structure and 
organization. 

The Federation, with about 70,000 mem- 
bers, bands together autonomous govern- 
ment department organizations, while the 
Amalgamated, with a membership of about 
10,000, accepts all groups in one large 
organization. 

Unity discussions have also been held 
with the 10,000-member Civil Service Asso- 
ciation of Ottawa. The Professional Insti- 
tute of the Public Service of Canada, which 
represents 3,500 professional, scientific and 
technical civil servants, has declined to 
participate, believing that it "can best serve 
the interests of professional civil servants 
by remaining an independent organization". 



"As employers gain more experience and 
confidence in the intelligent use of older 
employees they are finding a formula in 
which they can make use of older persons 
without using an arbitrary fixed retirement 
age," Dr. Griffin contended. 



Half Retired Persons 
Want Return to Work 

Half the retired people enjoy retirement 
while the other half would prefer to be 
back at work, according to recent studies, 
Dr. J. D. Griffin, General Director of the 
Canadian Mental Health Association, told 
members of the Toronto Rotary Club last 
month. 

Of unskilled labourers, 32 per cent wanted 
to return to work, he said. But those 
who had enough money to live on comfort- 
ably did not want to. About 67 per cent 
of the retired professional people wanted 
to continue their work, regardless of the 
money involved, Dr. Griffin said. 

"Retirement plans are increasingly in 
conflict with growing old. Persons reaching 
retirement age grow less and less inter- 
ested in retiring," he asserted. Age is a 
relative thing and depends on the indi- 
vidual's point of view. 

Older persons have wisdom, experience 
and "a certain statesmanship" lacking in 
younger people, and he said that it had 
been shown that 10 to 20 per cent of retired 
people of all kinds could do better work 
than the younger workers kept on. 



1949 Asbestos Strike 
Subject of New Book 

The historic strike in the asbestos in- 
dustry at Asbestos and Thetford Mines, 
Que., in 1949 is the subject of an extensive 
study, recently published, by a group of 
authors under the direction of Pierre Elliot 
Trudeau, Montreal lawyer and economist 
( The Asbestos Strike, Cite Libre publishers, 
Montreal, 430 pages, $3). 

Immobilizing 5,000 miners for 120 days, 
the strike aroused public opinion by the 
spectacular events to which it gave rise as 
much as by its repercussions on trade 
unionism in Quebec province. 

In addition to an interesting analysis of 
events during the dispute, the study, one 
of the few of a strike ever made in Canada, 
also offers a reliable survey of the social 
situation in the province at the time. 

Contributors included: Jean Guerin 
Lajoie, "Financial History of the Asbestos 
Industry"; Fernand Dumont, "History of 
Trade Unionism in the Asbestos Industry"; 
Gilles Beausoleil, "History of the Strike at 
Asbestos"; Rev. Father Gerard Dion, "The 
Church and the Asbestos Dispute"; Charles 
A. Lussier, "The Strike in our Legal 
Framework"; Gerard Pelletier, "The Strike 
and the Press"; Maurice Sauve, "Six Years 
Later"; and Reginald Boisvert, "The Strike 
and the Labour Movement". 

In addition to an interesting epilogue, 
Mr. Trudeau contributed a profound 
analysis of the social situation in Quebec 
province at the time of the strike. 



7-Year No-Strike Pact 
Signed by iV.Y. Union 

A seven-year no-strike contract has been 
signed in the United States by four locals 
of the International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters and the Coca-Cola Bottling Company 
of New York. It covers 1,500 drivers and 
plant employees in the New York area. 

The agreement provides for arbitration 
of all disputes, including those over wage 
increases at annual re-opening periods. 

The contract, signed last month, is 
retroactive to June 1. 



799 



Ont. Accident Prevention 
Meeting Attracts 4,000 

Nearly 4,000 men and women from all 
parts of Ontario, and from outside the 
province, attended the annual safety con- 
ference of the Industrial Accident Preven- 
tion Associations this year. 

At present more than 700 employees and 
officers of member companies are actively 
engaged in the Associations' accident pre- 
vention groups, R. S. Bridge, the retiring 
President, told the conference. These 
groups, he said, have promoted a total of 
259 meetings which have been attended by 
22,566 persons in all. 

During the first six months of 1955, Mr. 
Bridge said, the number of accidents 
reported was considerably below that for 
the first half of 1954. But after that, with 
the constantly increasing pace of industry 
in the province and the long hot spell, 
the number of accidents increased compared 
with the year before, and by the end of 
the year compensation cases reported had 
risen in number by 5 per cent. 

Notwithstanding this increase, the Presi- 
dent said, the total for 1955 was still below 
that of 1947, when a much smaller number 
of workers were employed. 

The total number of permanent disabili- 
ties and of fatal injuries in 1955 was below 
that of 1954, Mr. Bridge said. 

E. E. Sparrow 

Statistics are not a sound gauge of the 
work of accident prevention, E. E. Sparrow, 
Chairman of the Workmen's Compensation 
Board, told the conference. The reason 
for that was that the Board's job was to 
count the accidents that had not been 
prevented. He admitted, however, that 
1955 data showed retrogression from 1954. 

Statistical data concerning permanent 
disability awards and fatalities, on the 
other hand, he said, were more encourag- 
ing. In 1920, with 31,842 compensable 
cases allowed, 2,715 were awarded per- 
manent disability pensions, a percentage of 
8-53. 

In 1955, with 61,484 compensable in- 
juries allowed, the permanent disability 
awards had come down to 1,922, or 3-13 
per cent, Mr. Sparrow said. He added that 
he believed this was the lowest comparable 
percentage anywhere in North America. 

Fatalities allowed were 276 in 1954 and 
278 in 1955. Allowing for the increase in 
the number of workers, he said, this might 
be considered to represent a slight improve- 
ment. 



R. G. D. Anderson 

From all their members, 23,483 com- 
pensation cases were reported in 1955, an 
increase of 5-8 per cent over the previous 
year and a reflection of the high level of 
employment that prevailed in 1955, R. G. D. 
Anderson, IAPA General Manager, told 
the meeting. This total, he said, was well 
below that for 1947, when there were at 
least 75,000 fewer people in their plants. 

The increase in the number of accidents 
in the last six months of 1955, he said, 
might have well been due to the long spell 
of hot weather in the summer and fall 
months. 

"When consideration is given to the 
actual reduction in the number of fatalities 
and the very small increase in the fre- 
quency rate in spite of the high level of 
employment, it is fair to say that con- 
tinued progress was made in industrial 
accident prevention in Ontario in 1955," 
Mr. Anderson asserted, adding that "the 
improvement over the long term is even 
more apparent and encouraging." 

T. A. Rice 

For some years past the Canadian Manu- 
facturers' Association has been asking the 
federal Government to remove the sales 
tax on a long list of equipment and 
materials used in promoting the safety and 
health of workmen engaged in manufac- 
turing, T. A. Rice, CMA President, said, and 
it had been good news to learn that in the 
recent budget the 10 per cent tax had been 
taken off a number of articles of this kind. 

"A good safety record is hard to achieve," 
he remarked. "It only comes if it has the 
active support of management, supervisors 
and employees. In other words, everyone 
from the president to the office boy — from 
the plant superintendent to the most recent 
apprentice recruit — must take part in the 
safety program." 

Election of Officers 

New officers elected were: President, 
D. F. Hassel, Dominion Foundries and 
Steel Ltd., Hamilton; First Vice-president, 
Murray Smith, Canadian Industries Ltd., 
Agricultural Division, Chatham; Second 
Vice-president, L. E. Barchard, Canadian 
Oil Companies Ltd., Toronto; and Hon- 
orary Treasurer, N. E. Russell, Aluminum 
Goods Ltd., Toronto. 



Plan IXow for Building 
Next Winter — CCA Chief 

"Although mid-summer is technically just 
around the corner, now is the time to make 
plans for increasing the volume of con- 
struction next winter," A. Turner Bone, 



800 



President of the Canadian Construction 
Association, told members of the Lakehead 
Builders' Exchange last month. 

A reduction of 20 per cent in the 
number of seasonally unemployed construc- 
tion workers had been brought about, and 
much of this reduction was due to the 
publicity campaign which had aimed to 
overcome the antiquated prejudice against 
wintertime building, Mr. Bone said. 

However, about a fifth of our construc- 
tion labour force would be out of work 
part of the time next winter unless more 
attention was given to the timing of 
projects by owners and designers so as to 
spread out the construction program more 
evenly throughout the year; and this 
unemployment, he said, was an economic 
waste that the country could not afford. 
"Modern techniques," he affirmed, "permit 
most types of project to be built economi- 
cally in the winter months." 

Owners of larger buildings, as well as 
homeowners, would benefit by the better 
supplies of men and materials by having 
repair and renovation work done during 
the winter, Mr. Bone said. 

If work were timed so that a building 
could be "closed in" before the severe 
weather began, the only extra cost, he 
said, was for heating and for material to 
cover openings, and this might well be 
offset by savings in other directions. 

He said that one result of the steel 
shortage would be that many projects 
would be deferred, and this would tend to 
increase employment next winter. "Cement 
will also be in better supply towards the 
end of the year and it is a fact that 
concrete poured in cool temperatures is 
superior to that poured during hot weather," 
he added. 

The CCA President cited the example 
of the Scandinavian countries, which "are 
climatically similar to our own and have 
achieved virtually year-round construction 
operations". 



Long AFL Vice-President, 
Matthew Woll Dies 

Matthew Woll, Vice-president of the 
AFL-CIO and of the International Photo- 
Engravers' Union, President of the AFL- 
CIO's Union Label and Service Trades 
Department, and holder of many distinc- 
tions earned during 60 years as a union 
member, died in New York on June 1 after 
a two-months' illness. 

Chairman of the AFL International 
Relations Committee, after the AFL-CIO 
merger he became a co-chairman of the 



AFL-CIO International Affairs Committee. 
He was also Chairman of the AFL-CIO 
Free Trade Union Committee. 

Mr. Woll was born in Luxembourg in 
1880 and at the age of eleven came to the 
United States with his parents, who settled 
in Chicago. Five years later he became 
an apprentice photo-engraver, and ten years 
after that, at the age of 26, he became 
President of the Photo-Engravers' Union. 

He continued to serve as president of 
the union until 1929, when he stepped down 
from that office to become President of 
the Union Labor Life Insurance Co., a 
post he held until he died. On ceasing to 
be president of the union he became its 
first vice-president, also retaining that 
office until his death. 

He was first elected as one of the vice- 
presidents of the American Federation of 
Labor in 1919, and he continued to be 
re-elected each year until the AFL-CIO 
merger convention in December 1955. At 
that session he became one of the vice- 
presidents of the new united labour body. 

Throughout his career he retained the 
editorship of The American Photo Engraver. 

Mr. Woll at different times held various 
posts in the labour movement and was a 
recognized spokesman for organized labour 
in government circles. He was a member 
of President Harding's Unemployment 
Conference, and in the Second World War 
was a member of the National War Labor 
Board. In 1945 he served on President 
Truman's Labor-Management Conference. 



Mine-Mill Union Certified 
At 4 Ontario Gold Mines 

Certification as bargaining agent for the 
employees at four gold mines in the Red 
Lake district of Ontario was recently 
granted to the International Union of 
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers. 

The four mines are: Madsen Red Lake 
Gold Mines, New Dickenson Mines, 
Starratt-Olsen Mines, and Mackenzie Red 
Lake Gold Mines. 

At the first of these, certification was 
granted without a vote. At the other 
three mines, voting, according to a union 
statement, was fairly close. The vote at 
New Dickenson was: for the union, 95; 
against, 80; at Starratt-Olsen, 33 for and 
23 against; and at Mackenzie Red Lake 
Gold Mines, 45 for and 39 against. 

A vote has also been ordered in the 
neighbouring Pickle Crow Lake district, 
where the union has applied for certification. 



75803—3 



801 



Proceedings of Parliament of Labour Interest 



Industrial Relations 

May 29 

Voluntary Revocable Check-off — Second 

reading of bill to amend the Industrial 

Relations and Disputes Act to provide for 

the voluntary check-off. Debate adjourned. 

June 15 

Annual Holidays With Pay — Bill to pro- 
vide for annual holidays with pay for 
employees debated. 

The Minister of Labour stated he was 
not prepared to support the bill at this 
time for the following reasons: 

Because of the influence which does 
attach to federal legislation extending 
across the country, if we accept two weeks 
as the proper minimum standard, our action 
may be regarded as pressure on some prov- 
inces to provide the same standard whether 
or not this is a standard which, in the light 
of their own experience and circumstances, 
is warranted. The Leader of the Opposition 
indicated this afternoon that when the 
Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act was passed by Parliament it was 
immediately copied or followed in the prov- 
ince of Ontario. 

If, on the other hand, we were to decide 
that one week after one year of employment 
is the proper minimum standard, this might 
be regarded as placing a brake on an upward 
revision in provinces which may consider it 
expedient to provide for some increase over 
one week. We have been influenced in our 
own thinking up to this point by the fact 
that without legislation in the federal field, 
more favourable vacation with pay plans are 
being adopted year by year, by the fact that 
the trend towards annual paid vacations has 
developed in the United States without 
either state or federal legislation, and by 
the experience in the United Kingdom, 
where legislation providing for paid vaca- 
tions is confined to certain industries subject 
to the Wage Councils Act, which are, 
generally speaking, the industries in which 
the workers are to a large extent unorgan- 
ized and which have no counterpart in our 
federal field. 

Tobacco Workers 

May 29 

In view of representations received from 
the flue-cured tobacco marketing associa- 
tion, the Minister of Labour informed the 
House that he had notified the secretary 
of that association that should the necessity 
arise for bringing in more primers and 
tyers than could be provided in Canada, an 
attempt would be made to fill the need 
from the United States. 

Health Insurance 

June 13 

Three provinces — Alberta, Saskatchewan 
and British Columbia — have accepted in 
principle the Government's hospital insur- 
ance program proposal, the Minister of 



National Health and Welfare said, reply- 
ing to an inquiry by Elmore Philpott 
(Vancouver South). The proposal, added 
the Minister, requires acceptance by six 
provinces, representing a majority of the 
people in the country. 

Labour Conditions 

June 8 

Roland Michener (St. Paul's) asked if 
any plans were being developed by the 
Government to deal with the threatened 
unemployment due to layoffs in the farm 
implement and automotive industries. 

The Minister of Labour replied that no 
specific plans were being worked out. 
While it was unfortunate, he said, that 
skilled workers in that field may need 
to take other employment for the time 
being, he was sure other employment would 
be available for most of them. "In the 
period since the middle of April down to 
about two or three weeks ago, the number 
going off our application lists for employ- 
ment across Canada has been almost a 
quarter of a million workers." 

Housing 

June 13 

The Government does not contemplate 
any direct steps to increase the flow of 
mortgage funds for housing purposes, 
the Minister of Public Works said in 
reply to an inquiry by Donald M. Fleming 
(Eglinton) concerning alleged scarcity of 
mortgage funds in metropolitan areas. 

Professional and Technical Manpower 
June 14 

A statement on the steps being taken by 
the Government with regard to profes- 
sional manpower, skilled workers and non- 
professional technicians was made by the 
Minister of Labour during consideration of 
his Department's estimates. 

Unemployment Insurance 
June 20 

Replying to questions by members con- 
cerning the extension of unemployment 
insurance coverage to Canadians working 
on United States bases, the Minister stated 
that arrangements have now been concluded 
with the L T nited States Government for the 
insuring of all Canadian civilian personnel 
employed in Canada by the United States 
armed forces, commencing July 1, 1956. 

Under the agreement, "Canadian 
employees" includes all residents of Canada 
whether or not they are Canadian citizens, 
provided they are not insured under any 
unemployment insurance law of the United 
States in respect of the same employment. 



802 



Professional and Technical Manpower 

Minister of Labour, introducing his estimates in Commons, delivers a 
statement on activities concerning professional and technical manpower 



When introducing the Department's esti- 
mates in the House of Commons on 
June 15, the Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Min- 
ister of Labour, made a statement on 
professional and technical manpower. He 
spoke first about the steps taken with 
regard to professional manpower and then 
with respect to other types of skilled 
workers and technicians who are non- 
professionals. 

The text of the Minister's statement 
follows: — 

Although the training of manpower is 
essentially an educational matter and hence 
is the responsibility of provincial govern- 
ments, the federal Government is actively 
concerned with our resources of skilled 
manpower because they are vital to 
Canada's whole future economic develop- 
ment, and also because there is a need for 
national studies and analyses which are of 
value to the whole country. 

Among the Department of Labour's 
activities directly related to professional 
manpower in Canada are: one, the provi- 
sion of some financial aid to those at 
universities; two, continuing assistance to 
professional workers in finding employment 
and to employers in securing professional 
workers ; three, the provision of information 
about careers in many professional fields; 
and, four, regular studies of requirements 
for and supplies of professional workers, and 
the accumulation of a wide range of detailed 
information about professional manpower 
resources in Canada. 

First of all, financial aid : Financial assist- 
ance to university students has taken two 
forms. The Canadian Vocational Training 
Agreements with the provinces provide for 
sharing with the provinces on a fifty-fifty 
basis expenditures on bursaries to worthy 
and needy students at universities. 

The second type of financial assistance 
to people studying at universities takes the 
form of grants made for specific research 
purposes. For several years, my depart- 
ment has been stimulating research in the 
universities on important labour problems 
by making financial grants to senior grad- 
uate students and staff members. 

Second, placement of professional workers: 
The Executive and Professional Division of 
the National Employment Service has the 
day-to-day responsibility of helping profes- 
sional workers find suitable jobs and of 



assisting employers to secure the kind of 
people required for professional work. In 
addition to bringing together workers and 
employers in the same locality, these activi- 
ties include scouring the country for certain 
types of professional people in scarce supply 
and, in some cases, recruiting such workers 
overseas. The National Employment Ser- 
vice also makes special efforts each year 
to help university graduates find continuing 
employment and to help undergraduate 
students secure jobs during the summer 
months. 

Third, guidance information : The Depart- 
ment of Labour provides information to 
help youth make a wise career choice, and 
which also assists guidance and counselling 
people. This information includes both 
monographs and filmstrips on many profes- 
sional and other occupations. 

Fourth, requirements for professional man- 
power: Every two years, the Economics and 
Research Branch, in co-operation with the 
Executive and Professional Division of the 
National Employment Service, surveys the 
major employers of professional people to 
find out their requirements for such workers 
during the next three years, and to obtain 
other information about the demand for 
these workers. The 1956 survey, which has 
been enlarged to cover provincial and 
federal government agencies and universi- 
ties, is at present under way. 

A longer run forecast of requirements has 
to be based on a general assessment of 
the growth of the Canadian economy. 
Such an assessment is now being made 
by the Royal Commission on Canada's 
Economic Prospects and, as was mentioned 
by the Prime Minister the other day, the 
Department of Labour is preparing for this 
commission a study of Canada's resources 
of professional and skilled manpower and 
the long-run outlook for them. 

In connection with the study of profes- 
sional manpower, one of the most important 
activities of the department is that of main- 
taining in a systematic way detailed infor- 
mation on such items as education, experi- 
ence and occupations, of the majority of 
Canada's engineers and scientists. Similar 
information is being maintained on doctors 
and other key health personnel by the 
Department of National Health and 
Welfare. 



75803— 3J 



These data are the only comprehensive 
sources in Canada of information on the 
characteristics of our manpower resources in 
natural science, engineering and health per- 
sonnel. It should be pointed out that this 
information is obtained on a voluntary- 
basis. Not everyone replies to the inquiries 
made, although a high proportion does so. 
Under conditions of emergency, such infor- 
mation would be highly valuable and could 
be extended as needed very quickly. 

I should mention that there exists also 
information about the number of people 
being trained each year in various profes- 
sional fields. The Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics publishes data on university 
enrolments and graduations each year by 
professional field, while the Department 
of Citizenship and Immigration provides 
figures on the immigration of professional 
workers. There also is information on the 
number of professional workers emigrating 
to the United States, and this is by far 
the largest part of all emigration from 
Canada. 

I have referred to various sources of 
information about our professional man- 
power resources. We are regularly using 
this information as a basis for analyses and 
studies. Most of this material is published 
in a quarterly technical personnel bulletin 
prepared in the Economics and Research 
Branch. Over recent years this bulletin has 
contained special studies of the important 
engineering groups, physicists and mathema- 
ticians, geologists, and of the employment 
experience of several of the recent science 
and engineering graduating classes. 

The Department of Labour recently con- 
vened an advisory committee on profes- 
sional manpower to serve as a medium 
for the exchange of ideas and opinions 
about scientific and other professional man- 
power in Canada, and to act as a con- 
sultative body to assist the Department in 
its work in this field. Representatives on 
the committee came from a number of 
professional associations, and from govern- 
ment departments and agencies interested 
in professional manpower problems. 

I do not want to leave the impression 
with you that we know all the answers 
about professional manpower. Some of my 
earlier remarks have indicated we do not. 
What we are trying to do is to use our 
resources in the Department in ways that 
will pay the greatest dividends towards 
increasing our knowledge about Canada's 
resources or professional manpower. There 
are many problems which should be exam- 
ined, and this is being done. 

I have here a number of tables and 
charts, not very long, which give statistics. 



They are as follows: Table No. 1 shows 
immigration to Canada in professional 
occupations during recent years. Table 
No. 2 shows the new supplies of profes- 
sional persons from that immigration and 
from graduations over the past four years. 
Table No. 3 gives the same for engineers. 
Chart No. 1 is on the new supply of profes- 
sional personnel from 1946 to 1953. Chart 
No. 2 is on the growth in selected profes- 
sional occupations from 1931 to 1951. 
Finally, Chart No. 3 gives a comparison of 
the degree of shortage and graduations of 
engineers from 1947 to 1955. 

(The tables and charts were printed in 
Hansard for June 15, 1956, as follows: 
Tables 1, 2 and 3 on page 5067; Chart 1 
on page 5068; Chart 2, page 5069; and 
Chart 3, page 5070.) 

What I have been talking about so far 
has been related in the main to Canada's 
professional manpower. I would now like 
to make some comment about a broad 
study of Canada's requirements for non- 
professional skilled tradesmen and tech- 
nicians in relation to future supplies. Apart 
from the importance of professional workers, 
adequate supplies of skilled and technical 
manpower are fundamental to the healthy 
development of a dynamic and progressive 
economy such as ours. 

The productivity of industry and our 
competitive position in world trade depend 
very heavily on the skills of our labour 
force and on their adaptability in the light 
of changing technological requirements. In 
addition, over the next decade, many more 
young Canadians will be coming forward 
for training than has been the case over 
the past decade, owing to the rapidly rising 
birth rates of the early forties. It is also 
possible that Canada will not be as 
successful in securing skilled immigrant 
workers over the next few years as we have 
been in recent years. 

All these reasons strongly suggest that 
increasing emphasis should be placed on 
the training of skilled tradesmen and 
technicians if our resources of skilled man- 
power are to meet the technological 
challenge of today's world. A program of 
research had been developed to throw light 
on these problems with a view to providing 
reliable information to assist management, 
labour, government agencies and educational 
authorities in reviewing and assessing the 
policies and actions which might best be 
taken in this important field. 

Present and future skilled manpower 
training needs have been under considera- 
tion at recent meetings of the National 
Vocational Training Advisory Council. At 



804 



its last meeting, the Council requested that 
a study of this kind be undertaken as soon 
as possible by the federal Department of 
Labour in co-operation with the appro- 
priate provincial departments and other 
interested agencies. This request was 
subsequently endorsed very strongly by 
the National Apprenticeship Advisory 
Committee. 

This research program will, of course, be 
centred on vocational and technical train- 
ing as distinct from general education. It 
is recognized, however, that technical train- 
ing must be built on the basis of a sound 
general education. 

This research program might be described 
in terms of a three-pronged attack on the 
problem of vocational and technical train- 
ing. The first part of the program is a 
project designed to evaluate industrial 
requirements for skilled and technical 
workers as they are being affected by the 
rapidly changing technology of industry in 
several important industrial groups. 

As we are all aware, the pace of techno- 
logical development is being stepped up 
very rapidly in this country and other 
industrial nations and, for this reason, its 
effect on training requirements for skilled 
and technical workers will become of 
increasing importance. Through interviews 
with key personnel in selected industrial 
plants, associations and unions and in other 
ways, an examination will be made of the 
relationship between technological change 
and requirements for skilled workers. 
Highly competent engineers on the staff of 
two of our leading universities are assisting 
in this part of the research program. 

The second phase of the program is 
designed to secure information on typical 



ways in which skilled workers acquire their 
competence. This is important in assessing 
the adequacy of present methods of acquir- 
ing skills. In this phase of the work, 
experienced social scientists from university 
staffs are assisting in interviewing electronic 
technicians, tool and die makers and other 
selected occupational groups. 

The third phase of the research program 
is designed to evaluate our existing 
resources for training skilled workers and 
technicians in public institutions, in private 
trade schools, and in industry. This will 
involve a review of physical facilities, staff 
resources, enrolments and graduations, the 
content of typical vocational courses and 
plans for future expansion. 

When put together with the information 
from the other two projects, it will help in 
making an assessment of the adequacy of 
our training facilities in the light of future 
requirements and future technological 
developments. 

This part of the project is being under- 
taken in co-operation with the appropriate 
provincial departments involved, with in- 
dustries, unions and other groups having 
responsibilities for the training of skilled 
workers. 

I am sure that hon. members will appre- 
ciate that this sort of study cannot be 
completed quickly. We hope, however, as 
the facts come in, that we shall be able to 
put together a picture of our resources for 
vocational training in Canada and a picture 
of the probable requirements for skilled and 
technical workers. This will enable govern- 
ments, industries and other groups having 
responsibilities in the training field to 
evaluate their training programs in the light 
of changing conditions. 



White-Collar Workers' Gains Do Not Match Production Workers' 



White-collar workers have not achieved 
economic gains in the past 15 years 
comparable with those obtained by pro- 
duction workers, the AFL-CIO Economic 
Policy Committee asserts in the June issue 
of its Economic Trends and Outlook. 

One reason for this, the Committee says, 
is the relative lack of unionism among 
white-collar workers. 

While admitting that white-collar workers 
have an advantage in terms of steady 
employment, the AFL-CIO economists 
point out that manual workers' job security 
has risen considerably through seniority and 
discharge provisions, and through welfare 



benefits and the adoption of supplemental 
unemployment benefit and severance pay 
plans that have cut down income loss during 
unemployment. 

From 1939 to 1954, the average income of 
male clerical workers rose 163 per cent, the 
bulletin says, while that of male non- 
clerical skilled workers rose 224 per cent 
and that of operatives or semi-skilled 
workers, 233 per cent. 

Certain fringe benefits, too, are now more 
common among plant than among office 
employees, the bulletin asserts, citing sick- 
ness and accident, and hospital and surgical 
benefits. 



805 



"Women Go to Work at Any Age 



// 



... is subject of panel discussion sponsored by the three Soroptimist 
Clubs in the Toronto metropolitan area. Texts of speeches given here 



The three Soroptimist Clubs in the 
Toronto metropolitan area on May 8 
sponsored a panel discussion on "Women 
Go to Work at Any Age". Miss Marion 
Royce, Director of the Women's Bureau, 
Department of Labour, was moderator. 

Members of the panel, and the subjects 
on which they spoke, were: Mrs. A. C. 
Kenny, Personnel Director for Canada, 
Mutual Benefit Health and Accident Asso- 
ciation, "Employing the Older Woman"; 
Miss Margaret Mclrvine, Co-ordinator of 



Women's Employment, Ontario Region, 
Unemployment Insurance Commission, 
"Employment Counselling for the Older 
Woman Worker"; Margery R. King, Ph.D., 
Director, Toronto Branch, Canadian Mental 
Health Association, "Orientation to New 
Learning and New Employment at an 
Older Age"; and Miss Helen B. Monk- 
house, medical-social worker at Sunnybrook 
DVA Hospital, "Retirement and Its 
Alternatives". 
Texts of addresses follow: — 



Introduction by the Moderator 
Marion V. Royce, Director, Women's Bureau, Department of Labour 



Women go to work at any age. This 
is a new pattern of living, one aspect of 
our response to industrialization. At the 
present time more than one-fifth of the 
working women of Canada are 45 years of 
age or over, and the proportionate increases 
in the women's labour force are highest in 
the upper age ranges, especially in the group 
from 45 to 54. The chic young grand- 
mother who takes the tram or the subway 
to a job away from home has replaced the 
elderly lace-capped lady of 50 years ago in 
her wide-skirted frock of black alpaca. 

Not that the little grandmother of the 
past lived an idle life nor yet an unsociable 
one. But many of the tasks that filled her 
day and drew her neighbours into pleasant 
"bees" of work and talk are now done 
commercially outside the home, and gadgets 
of all kinds also have lessened the labour 
of keeping a household. Modern medicine, 
too, has contributed to this new way of 
life; longer life expectancy gives the 
middle-aged woman of today a sense of 
many active years ahead. These, for many 
women, may include years of widowhood, 
for by now it is a well established fact 
that women tend to live longer than men. 
It is lonely at home when the children 
"have fled the nest"; the cost of living is 
high; so a paid job, if one is to be found, 
seems to be the answer. 

Most women in this situation have not 
worked outside their homes for many years. 
Some have never held a paid job, and the 
difficulties of adjusting to new demands and 
to a different rhythm are formidable. 
Under the circumstances, women need job 
counselling and perhaps even some kind 



of training or retraining. Equally lacking 
in confidence is the woman who after 
many years of uninterrupted employment 
suddenly finds herself having to look for a 
new job. She, too, needs moral support 
and often some training to enable her to 
resume work in different surroundings. 

Everywhere, to whichever of the three 
groups a woman of mature years may 
belong, she encounters the handicap of a 
vaguely defined but very real prejudice 
against the older worker in search of a 
job. It is a prejudice not exclusively 
directed to women. Men feel it also, but 
for some jobs a woman is "old" at 35 
while for men the point of prejudice more 
usually begins at 45. 

We are faced by a combination of cir- 
cumstances, paradoxical and frustrating in 
the extreme. Women are living longer, 
and increasing numbers in their mature 
years want or need gainful work. Many 
are employed and filling their jobs to the 
full satisfaction of their employers. Actu- 
ally 19-4 per cent of all the women in 
Canada who are from 45 to 64 years of 
age are working for pay and 4-1 per cent 
of those who are 65 or over. At the same 
time we are told that the economy is in 
need of more workers, yet prejudice and 
fear still stand as barriers to the employ- 
ment of older women. The resulting 
problem has become an urgent one in our 
society, one that, if it is to be solved, 
requires wisdom, imagination and intelligent 
action. We are indebted to the women's 
service clubs of Toronto for this oppor- 
tunity to think about various phases of the 
subject. 



806 



PER CENT DISTRIBUTION, INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH 10,000 OR MORE 
WOMEN ARE EMPLOYED, BY AGE GROUP, CANADA (1), 1951 



65 years 
and over 



Stenographers and typists 

Office clerks 

Sales clerks 

Hotel, cafe and private household workers. 

Teachers— school 

Bookkeepers and cashiers 

Sewers and sewing machine operators 

Waitresses 

Graduate nurses 

Telephone operators 

Housekeepers 

Nurses — practical 

Proprietors and managers— retail trade 

Laundresses, cleaners, dyers 

Packers and wrappers 

Cooks 

Nurses in training 

Dressmakers and seamstresses not in factory 

Hairdressers and manicurists 

Charworkers and cleaners 



Total 


14-19 
years 


20-24 
years 


25-34 
years 


35-44 
years 


45-54 
years 


55-64 

years 


100-0 


17-3 


31 4 


27-9 


13-3 


7-2 


2-6 


100-0 


20-6 


27 4 


24-5 


14-3 


8-8 


3-8 


100-0 


21-0 


19-9 


240 


19-1 


10-5 


4-5 


100 


23 6 


17-2 


16-2 


14-4 


13-3 


10-3 


100-0 


7-8 


23 3 


22-1 


22-0 


16-2 


7-2 


100-0 


15-0 


27-5 


28-5 


15-8 


8-9 


3-5 


100-0 


20-0 


21-3 


22 9 


17-9 


12-0 


4-8 


100-0 


25-9 


23-4 


26 i 


14-9 


6-4 


25 


100-0 


* 


22-0 


32-9 


22-0 


13-8 


71 


100-0 


26-4 


29 1 


19-1 


12-5 


9-6 


2-8 


100-0 


10-7 


11-1 


16-3 


18 


180 


16-7 


100-0 


15-0 


200 


19-2 


15-6 


14-0 


11-2 


100-0 


0-3 


3-4 


17-8 


30-3 


25-5 


16-0 


100-0 


17-6 


17-7 


22-2 


20-8 


13-4 


6-5 


100-0 


290 


22-0 


21-7 


15-2 


8-2 


3-2 


100-0 


6-4 


9-5 


19-3 


25 6 


21-9 


13-5 


100-0 


33 


59 3 


6-6 


1-1 


* 


— 


100-0 


4-8 


8-6 


17-2 


21-4 


20-6 


17-2 


100-0 


9-5 


18-3 


331 


25-1 


10-4 


3-0 


100-0 


3-5 


3-8 


11-5 


22-0 


29 1 


21-5 



50 

6-7 
1-8 
0-7 
3-8 

10-2 
0-6 
8-6 



* Less than 0-1 per cent. 

(1) Excluding Yukon and Northwest Territories. 

Note: For each occupation, age group showing proportion of women employed is indicated in bold face type. 

Source: Table 11, Volume IV Labour Force — Occupations and Industries, Census of Canada 1951. 



Employing the Older Woman 
by Mrs. A. C. Kenny* 



In the field of insurance we are very 
conscious of the needs of man because 
that is our business. We know that every 
member of the human race, regardless of 
age, must be provided with food, clothing 
and shelter in order to survive. 

Women live longer than men. This used 
to be attributed to the different working 
and living conditions. Today, however, 
women live much as men do; they work 
alongside men and are exposed to the same 

*Mrs. Kenny is Personnel Director for Canada of 
the Mutual Benefit Health and Accident Association. 
She holds memberships in two personnel associations 
in Toronto, she chairs committees for both Red 
Feather and the Poppy Fund, and she takes an active 
part in politics, being a member of the executive 
of the Spadina Women's Progressive Conservative 
Club. Mrs. Kenny has been particularly interested 
in the employment problems of older workers, and 
is a member of the committee on training and 
re-training opportunities for older people sponsored 
by the Toronto Welfare Council. 



conditions in every respect. With more 
older people alive today than at any other 
time since the beginning of man, everyone 
has reason to take a careful look at this 
new situation. 

Dr. Lawrence E. Ranta, Medical Director 
of the Vancouver General Hospital, recently 
said: 

There is no proof that persons over 65 
present communities with bad work experi- 
ences because of health, but there could be 
a burden laid upon the shoulders of the 
younger work force, if we don't find ways 
of enabling the older worker to share the 
production load. We could bring to bear 
on their problems the same human genius, 
the same dogged perseverance, the same 
patience and devotion, the same fine sense 
of adventure and discovery that gave the 
world a vaccine for polio. We could prob- 
ably do this without spending a single extra 
dollar and in the long run we would save 
thousands of dollars. 



807 



The Second World War made necessary 
the hiring of mature women to replace the 
men in the services. These older women 
knew how heavily Canada's very survival 
depended on their performance — on the 
quality and regularity of their work both 
in the home and in the labour force — and 
they came through with flying colours. 

Today thousands of senior women have 
had to seek paid employment. Hundreds 
of them have been out of the labour force 
for perhaps ten, fifteen or twenty years or 
longer. The skills they learned long ago 
must be brought up to date in order for 
them to compete in today's labour market. 

Women are in largest proportion among 
the clerical workers in Canada, and we at 
Mutual Benefit Health and Accident 
Association are steadily increasing the 
number of older women employees in this 
field. Our experience with the middle-aged 
and older woman has demonstrated that 
they can learn new work skills. They are 
not recommended for our permanent staff 
until they have been with us for three 
months. With the individual counselling 
and training at their disposal in our 



company, we find that most of them fit in 
with our requirements and do their jobs 
well. The specific occupations for which 
they have been engaged are stenographers, 
file clerks, switchboard operators, account 
clerks, clerk-typists, IBM trainees, claim 
clerks and underwriters. Their occupational 
progress is proving to be very good; several 
have received promotions. 

Work opportunities for the older woman 
are a problem in every large city and town. 
The more sponsors who are willing to set 
up training programs that best serve the 
interests of employers, the easier it will 
become for the senior job-seekers in our 
community. I should suggest that mature 
women who are seeking work should them- 
selves do everything in their power to 
increase their labour skills. 

I am a member of a committee who 
are investigating plans for training and 
retraining older people who need employ- 
ment. Our aim is eventually to establish 
a training school for senior citizens only, 
because we believe that useful activity is 
the wonder drug for the older citizen. 



Employment Counselling for the Older Woman Worker 
by Miss Margaret Mclrvine* 



For those who are not familiar with the 
work of the National Employment Service, 
it may be of interest to learn that the 
first counselling unit in the world to be set 
up by a state employment agency which 
recognized the problems of older appli- 
cants seeking employment was that set up 
in the Toronto Office of the National 
Employment Service in 1947 on an experi- 
mental basis. 

B. G. Sullivan, Ontario Regional Super- 
intendent, Unemployment Insurance Com- 
mission, recognized that many older persons 
need special assistance if they are to obtain 
suitable employment. Dr. W. G. Scott, 
psychologist, was placed in charge of 
the development of the project and so 
successful was the experiment that after a 

*Miss Mclrvine started her working career in 
Brantford, Ont., first as a teacher at the Brantford 
Business College, then as Executive Secretary of the 
Brantford Collegiate Institute and Vocational School. 
In 1942 she was appointed Supervisor of the 
Women's Employment Division in the Brantford 
office of the Unemployment Insurance Commission. 
Four years later she became Co-ordinator of 
Women's Employment for the Ontario Region of 
the Commission. In this position she acts in advis- 
ory capacity with respect to all matters relating to 
women's employment in the 64 National Employ- 
ment Offices in this region. 



two-j^ear trial period the program was 
adopted by the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission and extended to all of its 
offices in Canada, using the facilities of 
the Special Placements Divisions. 

This panel is concerned especially with 
the problems of older women who seek 
remunerative employment outside their 
homes. In thinking about employment 
counselling it should be kept in mind that 
the counselling process is the same for any 
type of job applicant, i.e. youth, handi- 
capped, older age, or any other category 
of worker needing assistance in finding a 
job, except that older persons possibly need 
more consideration and must be allowed 
time to tell their stories in an unhurried 
atmosphere. 

Perhaps it is in order to define what is 
meant by the term employment counselling. 
One definition is that "employment 
counselling is the process of assisting the 
person counselled to relate his or her 
training and experience, interests and abili- 
ties to job requirements and occupational 
trends, and to form a suitable vocational 
plan". The process ends when the person 
counselled has selected a suitable vocational 
goal and has formed a plan that will 
permit her to reach it. 



808 



It is important to recognize that the 
person counselled makes the decisions 
rather than the counsellor, and also that 
there is a distinction between employment 
counselling and job placement. Job place- 
ment should be the end result of successful 
employment counselling but it is a separate 
function. 

Let us think for a few moments about 
some of the attributes of a good employ- 
ment counsellor. What is her attitude to 
the older woman needing help to obtain 
employment? What are some of the skills 
she requires to do an effective job of 
counselling? 

First and foremost the counsellor must 
regard the mature woman, like other 
persons seeking employment, as a poten- 
tially competent worker if placed in suit- 
able employment. In addition she must 
treat each applicant as an individual 
without sentiment or condescension. 

In order to be effective the counsellor 
must have a good knowledge of occupa- 
tions and related types of work, of the 
supply of and the demand for workers in 
a wide field of occupations, the prevailing 
rates of pay, hours of work and conditions 
of employment. During the counselling 
interview the counsellor discusses types of 
jobs but never a specific job. Information 
about specific jobs is supplied by a place- 
ment officer, who may or may not be a 
counsellor. Such information is provided 
after the person counselled has reached a 
decision about what she wants to do. 

During the counselling interview the 
counsellor helps the applicant to develop 
a realistic attitude about wages, type of 
company, type of building and area in 
which the desired kind of employment is 
to be found. In addition she may have 
to give advice tactfully about such inti- 
mate matters as grooming, suitable dress 
and the need for dental work, etc. 

And who are the women in need of 
counselling? Generally they fall into three 
main categories. 

The first group is made up of women 
who have been employed in business, 
industry or one of the professions and who 
are required to seek new employment at 
middle age or later. In many cases age 
alone is a barrier to employment because of 
the arbitrary age limits for new employees 
which prevail in many firms today, under 
35, 40, etc. Another factor is the policy 
in vogue in many businesses of hiring 
young workers at junior levels, training 
them and then promoting them up through 
the ranks. This is a good policy but it 
makes difficult the entry of mature women 
at relativelv senior levels. 



Women who at middle age or later wish 
to re-enter the paid labour force after a 
period as housewives make up the second 
major group in need of counselling. These 
women usually think first of the occupa- 
tion in which they engaged prior to 
marriage, although they may have lost their 
skills or their skills may be outmoded. In 
many of these cases there is a special need 
for counselling in order to have them 
appraise the skills they have learned as 
housewives which may be in demand. 

Very closely related to this group, and 
fortunately comparatively small in number, 
are those women who have never been 
employed outside their homes. They have 
perhaps the greatest need of assistance in 
finding suitable employment, as frequently 
they are untrained for business or industry 
as well as being inexperienced. 

The third group needing counselling are 
those job applicants who, it appears, would 
benefit from training or re-training. Such 
a woman requires information about the 
courses and the facilities available in the 
field of employment in which she is 
interested. 

With respect to community resources to 
meet counselling, training and placement 
needs, the following is the first paragraph 
from a bulletin entitled "Training Mature 
Women for Employment" issued by the 
United States Women's Bureau: 

A wealth of resources that can be used 
to meet the special counselling, training and 
placement needs of mature women job 
seekers exists in almost every Community. 
Most of these resources are found among 
established community organizations — the 
public schools, state employment services, 
the public welfare authorities, employers, 
and many other local groups. New facilities 
— on a large scale — are frequently unneces- 
sary; what is always necessary, however, is 
new thinking and willingness to adapt exist- 
ing facilities to meet newly recognized needs. 

The final sentence in that paragraph is 
significant. Usually the training facilities 
of a community are adapted to meet the 
needs of youth, and an older woman may 
suffer some embarrassment if she is required 
to take a course in which the other students 
are 20 to 30 years younger than she is. 
Neither in Toronto nor elsewhere in 
Ontario are there courses specially adapted 
to meet the needs of older women. The 
facilities are the same for all age groups. 

In some courses, such as the Nursing 
Assistant Program of the Ontario Depart- 
ment of Health, applicants from 17 to 45 
years of age are acceptable, so there is a 
considerable spread in the age range of the 
students taking the course. 



809 



The Toronto Visiting Homemakers' 
Association has no rigid age restrictions 
in so far as trainees are concerned, but 
the recruitment of younger women is 
encouraged because of the heavy demands 



of work. In this instance younger women 
are those approximately 35 to 40 years of 
age. Many of the most successful Visiting 
Housekeepers, however, are women over 50 
years of age and even 60 years of age. 



Orientation to New Learning and New Employment at an Older Age 

by Margery R. King, Ph.D.* 



The area which has been assigned to 
me this evening covers the "psychological 
aspects of training for and entering into 
employment at a later age". I have inter- 
preted this to indicate a concern with the 
way older women, and older men too for 
that matter, will handle the new situation 
and the new learnings necessitated by a 
change of occupation as they grow older. 

Our culture is very mixed in its attitudes 
to older people and their capacity to learn. 
We say, on the one hand, "you're never 
too old to learn" and on the other, "you 
can't teach an old dog new tricks". Alter- 
natively, we may say that life begins at 
forty and that one is past one's prime at 
forty. It seems that in our every day 
language we can find support for almost 
any point of view that we want to advance. 
This is very comforting but also very 
confusing. 

Nor has science been of much assistance 
in clarifying this confusion. For many 
years psychological tests of intelligence 
have implied that people are at their 
greatest peak of ability to learn in their 
late teens or early twenties. However, it 
is now fairly clear that it is our capacity 
to test learning potential after the late 
teens that is at fault and that in reality 
people remain capable of new learning and 
intellectual effort at an undiminished level 
until actual physical deterioration may 
occur in the seventies or beyond. 

Why then is it that the average person 
assumes that as we grow older we can't 
learn in spite of all the evidences we see 
around us of people who have acquired 
new skills and competencies far beyond 
middle age? In order to understand this 
we need to look at some of the character- 
istics of a learning situation. 



*Dr. King, a graduate of the Universities of 
Western Ontario and of Toronto, is Director of the 
Toronto Branch of the Canadian Mental Health 
Association. Much of Dr. King's work has been in 
the field of Child Study, but, in addition to the 
research she has done in the social adjustment of 
school children, including a period spent in Thailand 
as consultant for UNESCO with the International 
Institute of Child Study, she has done a considerable 
amount of work with veterans at Sunnybrook DVA 
Hospital. Also, immediately following the Second 
World War she was associated with the Veterans' 
Counselling Service at the University of Toronto. 



For any situation to be a learning situa- 
tion implies that there is something 
unknown about it; we learn nothing if 
everything is completely familiar. But we 
know that anything that is unknown 
carries with it a certain amount of fear. 
In a completely unknown situation we are 
very much afraid. This is natural and to 
be expected. Unfortunately most of us 
don't anticipate this very normal but rather 
uncomfortable response and so we avoid 
new situations. This then is one of the 
very reasons why older people so often 
avoid new employment. 

Perhaps if we look at the way an 
individual develops we shall be able to 
understand how this occurs. When a child 
is born, everything is unknown to him; 
every experience involves a new situation. 
We try to make our children secure so that 
the fear element in the newness of the 
world around them will not be overwhelm- 
ing. One of our great excitements as 
parents is at the point where we can say, 
"I think he recognizes me". All through 
childhood children are faced with the 
unknown. For most, this is a new and 
exciting experience.. Growing up is an 
adventure. For some, there is not a secure 
known base from which they can venture 
forth to explore the great unknown; they 
cannot overcome their fear of what is new 
and strange, and so learning is impeded if 
not completely inhibited. 

As we grow older, more and more is 
known and we are called on less and less 
frequently to meet and overcome the 
uncertainty that comes with the new — and 
we lose the habit. In our twenties we 
usually settle into our "life work"! For 
some, this may continue to involve them 
in new situations daily, and if so they are 
lucky. For others it may be the "same old 
thing" day after day. The latter is more 
comfortable; it doesn't introduce the 
anxiety, the element of fear, which is really 
what we call excitement, but it is also more 
devastating in that we lose the habit of 
overcoming this anxiety and eventually 
settle into a rut where the greatest 
unknown that we have to face is whether 
to wear the pink or the blue hat on Sunday. 



810 



I have overdrawn my picture a little — 
but only a little — because I think that it 
is this inability to face the unknown and 
to overcome the anxiety that goes with it 
that makes so many difficulties for older 
people seeking new employment; and 
because excessive fear always interferes with 
effective functioning, this, I think, is the 
reason so many employers are disappointed 
with the results they obtain if they employ 
an older person. The older person — shall 
we say, the older woman — is quite capable 
of learning but, because she lacks practice 
in dealing with unknown situations, she 
may take longer to learn and may be quite 
insecure during the learning process. 



This paints a rather black picture, but 
fortunately it is one where it is fairly easy 
for each and all of us to find solutions for 
ourselves. I shouldn't want to suddenly 
find myself at outs with all employers by 
having them think that I am immediately 
suggesting that everyone should find a new 
job. But I do want to suggest that it is very 
good insurance against a future which may 
hold many unknowns if we continually 
challenge ourselves with new, and conse- 
quently learning, experiences. Make oppor- 
tunities for doing things that are different 
and you'll be surprised how much more 
exciting life will be at the present and 
how much more secure you will feel in 
facing whatever life may hold in the 
unknown future. 



Retirement and Its Alternatives 

by Miss Helen B. Monkhouse, B.A., Dip.S.W.* 



The subject of retirement is a complex 
one, dependent on many factors. Basic to 
the whole question is the fact of the in- 
creased and increasing number of older 
people alive today, who if not productive 
become a drain on the national economy 
but who, if retained in employment beyond 
their capacity to be useful, could become 
a strain on the management and operation 
of individual industries and businesses. 
Such people, if forced into an unwanted 
leisure, may be a problem to themselves, 
to their relatives and to local community 
resources. 

My experience of this problem has been 
acquired at the level of the individual 
interview, and it is from this point I shall 
begin. The problem is in reality one of 
adequate preparation for later years. 
Whether retirement at a certain specified 
age is compulsory or voluntary, sooner or 



*Miss Monkhouse is a graduate of the University 
of Toronto and of the Toronto School of Social 
Work and a member of the Canadian Association of 
Social Workers. A medical-social worker at Sunny- 
brook DVA Hospital, she is one of the "assess- 
ment team" which, under the direction of Dr. L. F. 
Koyl, has been studying aspects of the aging process 
as observed in the older veteran patients and 
employees of the hospital. The objectives of the 
enquiry include the setting up of criteria for con- 
tinued employment beyond fixed retirement age and 
for the development of practical ways of determining 
suitability for continued employment as well as study 
of the rate, direction and varieties of physical and 
intellectual deterioration associated with advancing 
age. Miss Monkhouse participated in the preparation 
of a progress report on the results of the health 
aspect of this study, which was published in the 
April issue of the Canadian Services Medical 
Journal. 



later the day arrives when withdrawal to 
a less strenuous manner of operating is 
essential. This later period of life pre- 
supposes some change in the familiar 
pattern of living, a change involving 
adjustment which may be easy or difficult, 
depending on what work has meant to the 
person. 

I wonder how many of you have ever 
analysed your reasons for working? Until 
you have done so you will not know what 
alternatives to explore which will provide 
satisfactions in later years equal to those 
presently found in your work. Is retire- 
ment going to mean loss of a feeling of 
usefulness? loss of prestige associated with 
holding a responsible position? loss of 
opportunities for creative use of your skill 
and experience? or simply a loss of a daily 
objective when you no longer have a place 
to go every day with the consequent 
dislocation of a familiar routine? Is it 
going to mean an adjustment to a lower 
economic standard or insufficient interests 
to fill the gap created by unaccustomed 
leisure? There are as many problems of 
successful adjustment to retirement as there 
are satisfactions obtained from one's work. 

You may wonder why I am looking at 
retirement in terms of adjustment to it 
rather than how to postpone the event. It 
is because one's attitude to it can be either 
positive or negative. A positive approach 
is much more conducive to finding a satis- 
factory alternative to retirement than is a 
negative one. Even to those people for 
whom financial reward is the chief satis- 
faction or need, the outlook is more hopeful 
if they have developed avocational interests 



811 



or community contacts which could be 
productive of part-time work of some 
monetary returns when regular employment 
is terminated at an arbitrary age of retire- 
ment set by company policy. 

For the past two years I have been 
working on a research project being carried 
out at Sunnybrook Hospital, in order to 
study the incidence of disease and its rate 
of progress in the older worker, aged 50-65 
years. This has included a study of social 
and economic factors in the lives of the 
persons involved as well as their physical 
and mental health. My particular field has 
been the study of the social circumstances 
of the group of people examined, who are 
still working and in their productive years, 
as it were. Other members of the research 
team have studied their health, physical 
and mental, and their economic status. 

The social survey was focused primarily 
on the person's present position in respect 
of certain social factors and what implica- 
tions the results might hold for a satis- 
factory adjustment to retirement and the 
later years of life. My findings indicated 
that only a small percentage of the group 
had given any thought to plans for meet- 
ing the problems contingent on retirement 
from their present work, though most of 
them admitted that retirement would 
present problems to them. To many it is 
a matter of financial necessity to find other 
work; but in addition, to these same people 
and to others in better economic circum- 
stances, the problem is also one of keeping 
busy and occupying their time. Since 75 
per cent of the persons interviewed have 
leisure interests of only minor importance, 
such as the conventional time-passing 
occupations we all indulge in, social and 
family visiting, home maintenance jobs or 
watching the TV, you will understand how 
dependent they are on the home, family 
and work range of interests and how any 
disruption of this familiar pattern is bound 
to be painful for them. 



It has been our experience that the small 
group who have a "side line" from which 
they derive some additional income or a 
good deal of emotional satisfaction is less 
likely to be apprehensive about the future. 
They therefore make a better adjustment 
to retirement whenever it comes. 

Specific problems confronting women in 
the pre- and post-retirement years have not 
been abstracted in our study since it was 
felt that the number of women seen was 
not sufficient for such a differentiation nor 
were the occupational levels sufficiently 
representative to draw valid conclusions on 
the basis of sex. 

However, my impression is, and other 
studies bear this out, that the issues are 
basically the same. Economic need and a 
lack of other interests make working women 
almost as dependent on continuing in 
employment as men. I say "almost" in 
consideration of the fact that women 
characteristically seem better equipped than 
men to pass their leisure time in home- 
making activities. They are therefore not 
quite so devoid of means of keeping busy 
when separated from regular paid employ- 
ment. On the other hand I have not found 
them so progressive in developing interests 
of any depth or with money-making possi- 
bilities. This, however, may have been 
because it was not a varied enough sample 
interviewed. 

Although I have not mentioned specific 
alternatives to retirement, I have tried to 
indicate the importance of thinking ahead 
and planning, of analysing satisfactions 
found in present work and possible sub- 
stitutes for these in less demanding occupa- 
tions. This kind of preparation is needed 
so that one will be prepared to keep on 
leading a busy, contented and useful life. 
The emphasis should be on retirement to 
such a state rather than from it. Aging 
with all its implications may then assume 
its proper place, which Browning has so 
well described as "the last of life for which 
the first was made". 



Discussion 



Question : 

If, because of retirement age limits, 
industries must retire senior personnel, 
can these people be absorbed in lesser 
positions, or can new fields of work be 
developed for senior personnel? 

Mrs. Kenny: 

In our company 95 per cent of the senior 
employees are engaged for lesser positions. 
We gather all the information from former 



employers, personal references, etc. On 
many occasions I have made personal visits 
in order to get this information. We then 
decide together (at the second interview) 
which opening will provide the applicant 
with the greatest job satisfaction, and they 
receive training on and off the job. 

Question : 

Are pension plans a real deterrent to 
employing older women? 



812 



Miss Mclrvine : 

When placement officers make contact 
with employers in the interests of older 
aged applicants they are frequently told 
that a firm does not hire new employees 
over 35 or 40 years of age because the 
pension plan makes it uneconomic to 
do so. 

Because of the shortage of clerical 
workers, especially, we think there is 
evidence that some firms are reviewing their 
policies in this respect and are finding that 
the pension plan is not as great a deterrent 
as they thought it was. 

Mrs. Kenny: 

Age is a real concern because of pension 
and other fringe benefits. We advise 
prospective employees that they cannot 
participate in any pension plan if over 50 
years of age, and they accept employment 
understanding this. Our Group Life is 
fifty-five and our Group Hospital Medical 
Surgical Plan sixty. All other benefits such 
as sick leave, vacations, etc., are designed 
to cover older employees. 

Question : 

What problems arise in a situation in 
which a younger employee is responsible for 
the supervision of an older worker? 

Miss Mclrvine: 

It is my opinion that any problems that 
arise in a situation in which a younger 
worker supervises an older worker relate 
to the quality of the supervision. If the 
supervisor understands the basic principles 
of good supervision and applies them in 
dealing with staff, the age of the supervisor 
should not affect the relationship between 
supervisor and employee. There are good 
supervisors who are 25 years of age, and 
there are poor supervisors who are 65 years 
of age. 

Dr. King: 

It is not possible to give a "blanket" 
answer that will cover all situations of this 
type because so much depends on the 
personality of the individuals involved. 
However, difficulties might well be antici- 
pated particularly if the older employee 
has recently taken a job after a period 
spent at home raising a family. In an 
older-younger relationship it is usually the 
older, or parent-figure, who is in the posi- 
tion of authority. If a woman comes into 
employment directly from being a mother, 
it is natural that she will carry with her 
attitudes which she held in the family 
situation. She will tend to consider her 
younger supervisor as a "child", and as 



such, someone who should be treated as 
she treated her own family. It may be 
very threatening to her security if she has 
to accept that this "child" knows more 
than she does and is responsible for the 
supervision of her work. The amount of 
difficulty likely to be encountered will, of 
course, vary depending on the type of 
relationship between the mother and child 
in the home. If the mother has had a 
relaxed, easy relationship with her children, 
to be supervised by a younger person may 
not create any great problem. On the 
other hand, if she was only comfortable in 
her relationship with her children if she 
could control them, it may be impossible 
for her to accept supervision from a 
younger person. This is one of the factors 
that employers need to keep in mind when 
they are placing older workers in their 
organization. Some older workers will only 
be able to function adequately if they can 
work more or less independently. 

Question : 

What problems have to be taken into 
consideration in planning re-training pro- 
grams for older workers? 

Miss Monkhouse: 

In planning re-training programs for 
older workers, the findings of our Sunny- 
brook research project indicate that the 
increasing rigidity of thought and concept 
of the aging employee makes large re- 
training programs progressively more futile 
with advancing years. To be useful any 
type of program would need to be under- 
taken on a more or less individual basis 
to fill special requirements in plant or 
business and/or in re-training injured 
employees. 

This points up the lack of development 
by most people, during their middle years 
of life, of avocational skills or interests. 
The possession of additional skills or 
cultivated interests could be drawn upon in 
later years to supply both financial and 
occupational benefit when fixed age retire- 
ment policies make this period of life a 
frustrating and frightening one for those 
unprepared for it. 

Question: 

How could the women's service clubs 
give leadership in helping older women 
who are looking for work to prepare for 
employment or re-employment? 

Mrs. Kenny: 

In order to be of real service to older 
women seeking employment a great deal 
of consideration should be given to the 
"know how" required to do a good job. I 



813 



should suggest that service club leaders 
work closely with the NES placement 
services and with welfare agencies that are 
studying the employment problems of older 
people. 

Miss Mclrvine: 

Most of the members of women's service 
clubs are in the older age category (over 
35) and many hold senior executive posi- 
tions. Some are responsible for hiring staff. 
These women by their attitude on the job 
and by promoting the interests of older 
women could do much to create a favour- 
able atmosphere for the employment of 
older women in the firms by which they are 
employed. 

Question : 

What leadership can women's service 
clubs give in preparing women for retire- 
ment? 

Miss Monkhouse: 

Women's service clubs could give leader- 
ship by associating with other groups 
working for the welfare of older persons. 
They could send representatives from their 



clubs to such bodies as welfare councils 
or other community organizations focussing 
on some aspect of senior citizens' needs. 

As individuals in their respective fields 
of employment, they could work toward 
creating a favourable attitude toward the 
employment or continuation of services of 
older women. 

As a joint service project they might plan 
some favourable publicity stressing the 
capabilities for work, of older women. 

Dr. King: 

Through their volunteer activities, service 
clubs can give women an opportunity for 
new experiences. This will mean that an 
individual will, therefore, be better equipped 
to meet the new experience of retirement. 
In addition, after retirement the volunteer 
activity can be continued, thereby giving 
an opportunity for continued usefulness. 
The feeling of not being needed any 
longer is usually more feared by those who 
are retiring than the loss of monetary 
return, and through service clubs women 
can continue to find satisfaction through 
the performance of activities that have 
social value and meaning. 



85* Annual General Meeting of the 
Canadian Manufacturers' Association 

Six conferences on program include one on employer-employee rela- 
tions, which comprised panel discussions on the guaranteed annual wage, 
on health insurance, on grievances arising under collective agreements 



"Leadership Today for Canada's 
Tomorrow" was the theme of the 85th 
annual general meeting of the Canadian 
Manufacturers' Association, held in Toronto 
June 6-8. Industrialists from all parts of 
Canada attended. 

"Is the Canadian Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation really providing the leadership that 
is required to make Canada an industrial 
nation capable of better standing on its 
own sturdy manufacturing legs — is it 
giving the leadership that will see Canada 
improve its present position of seventh 
industrial and fourth trading nation of the 
world," President T. A. Rice asked, or is 
this theme just lip service to a bounden 
duty? 

Conferences on six specific subjects or 
group of related subjects made up the 
program. These took the form of panel 



discussions, led by experts in their par- 
ticular fields, and dealt with the subjects: 
employer-employee relations, trade and 
taxation, transportation, management, sell- 
ing, and public relations. 

Guest speakers included His Excellency 
the Right Hon. Vincent Massey, C.H., 
Governor General of Canada; Prof. 
Donald P. Campbell, S.M., Sc.D., Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass.; Admiral Ben Moreell, U.S.N. 
(ret.), Chairman of the Board, Jones & 
Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh, 
Pa.; and Hon. Thomas E. Dewey, former 
Governor of New York State. 

President's Address 

Increased mechanization has forced us to 
take another hard look at education, 
President T. A. Rice declared. 



814 



Frankly, I think we should steal a leaf 
from Russia's handbook of five-year plans 
and set ourselves some sort of Canadian 
target as to the required number of gradu- 
ates by a specified time. 

In fact, we have little choice in the matter 
if we are not to suffer from blinding 
production headaches in the increased 
mechanization of tomorrow. The advances 
we make in manufacturing industry are 
going to depend largely on the educational 
level of the people who enter it in the 
immediate future. 

For this reason alone, said Mr. Rice, 
industry generally must give this problem 
of education top priority rating; and this 
is bound to bring up the question of money. 

Expansion of investment in education by 
industry as a whole is going to grow more 
costly but when we think of the cost, let 
us face up to the fact that ignorance is 
infinitely more expensive than education. 

With a view to helping to resolve this 
mounting problem of shortage in the whole 
range of skilled personnel, the CMA is 
setting up a special committee to co- 
operate with the federal and provincial 
governments, education authorities and 
other interested parties, Mr. Rice announced. 
This committee, he felt sure, would attempt 
to cope not only with the shortage but 
would seriously study the need for promot- 
ing secondary, technical and higher educa- 
tion to the greatest extent possible. 

I think I have shown that we, as manu- 
facturers, have a keen interest and duty 
in the field of education and I hope that 
others, as a result of active association 
leadership, will soon be convinced that they 
must play a greater part than they have in 
the past in investing today and tomorrow in 
minds as well as machinery. I think they 
all realize that a balance must be achieved 
between them to prevent the machines from 
outracing the minds. Our cleverness in 
devising machines in this so-called Age of 
Automation must not be allowed to gallop 
ahead of our ability to run them. 

Although he hesitated to make any fore- 
cast, Mr. Rice said he was satisfied that, 
despite any temporary setbacks, the tide 
is still on the flow for Canada and Cana- 
dians. He sounded a note of warning, 
however, that the current upswing cannot 
help but contain elements of further 
inflation. 

National acceptance of the theory that 
annual wage boosts are vital to the expan- 
sion of purchasing power and that manage- 
ment can keep increasing the rate each 
year "for the rest of time" is exactly the 
same as national acceptance of "a per- 
manent economy of creeping inflation," Mr. 
Rice declared. Wherever and whenever 
money wages have outstripped productivity, 
the inevitable result has been enfeeblement 
of the currency, he said. 

Further inflation could only mean double 
trouble for Canada, not only nullifying 



CMA Officers for 1955-56 

President: J. N. T. Bulman, Bulman 
Bros. Limited, Winnipeg. 

1st Vice-president: H. V. Lush, 
Supreme Aluminum Industries Limited, 
Toronto. 

2nd Vice-president: Ian F. McRae, 
Canadian General Electric Co., Ltd., 
Toronto. 

Treasurer: J. Ross Belton, Gutta 
Percha and Rubber, Limited Toronto. 

General Manager is J. C. Whitelaw, 
QC, Toronto. 



wage gains but threatening her ability to 
compete in the domestic and world markets. 
Labour, management, government and 
the general public all have a stake in 
curbing inflation, said Mr. Rice. He out- 
lined their responsibilities as follows: — 

Labour: Common sense in its wage 
demands, coupled with some consideration 
for the fortunes of the consumer and more 
internal emphasis on productivity, "the only 
real gateway to plenty". 

Management: Continued ingenuity in 
devising ways and means of cutting costs 
and improving efficiency. 

Government: A closer look at everything 
that concerns its national housekeeping bill 
and avoidance of restriction of the com- 
petitive market. 

Public: To wake up to the fact that it is 
their pocket which will be picked if 
persistent inflation becomes the order of 
the day. 

Referring to Canada's ability to compete 
in the domestic and world markets, Mr. 
Rice noted that there are other factors 
besides inflation to be taken into con- 
sideration if Canada is to sell her products 
both here and abroad. 

Manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers and 
the general public will purchase Canadian- 
made articles only if the price, quality, 
performance and delivery are competitive; 
and, in my view, this is the only realistic 
approach in the sale of "Made-in-Canada" 
merchandise, whether it be here at home or 
in the markets of the world. 

Buying Canadian isn't only patriotism — it 
is sound common sense, dictated by enlight- 
ened self-interest. When we buy Canadian 
products made by Canadian workers we are 
keeping fellow Canadians employed. We are 
also encouraging Canadian manufacturers to 
build new factories, to produce things we 
haven't yet got around to making. This in 
turn creates new opportunities for employ- 
ment — and I need not stress before this 
audience how important this is. 

815 



Because more Canadians are now ing for their livelihood than ever before, 

employed in manufacturing than in any our responsibilities as leaders of industry 

other segment of our economy and because are greater now than they have ever been," 

more Canadians depend upon manufactur- the CMA President concluded. 



Showing the Way in Labour Relations 
(Employer-Employee Relations Conference) 



The employer-employee relations confer- 
ence opened with an address by the Hon. 
Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour. 

Mr. Gregg referred briefly to the activi- 
ties of his Department in the field of 
labour research. Noting that the main 
subjects for discussion were the guaranteed 
annual wage, grievances arising under 
contracts, and health insurance, Mr. Gregg 
said he would concentrate on the two 
former ones as his colleague the Minister 
of National Health and Welfare would be 
addressing the conference later. 

Co-chairmen of the panel were Ian F. 
McRae, Vice-President, Canadian General 
Electric Company Limited, Toronto, and 
H. J. Clawson, Director of Industrial 
Relations, The Steel Company of Canada, 
Limited, Hamilton, Ont. 

Speakers in the panel discussion on the 
guaranteed annual wage, and their topics, 
were: Owen Fairweather, "An Analysis of 
the Major Types of GAW Plans"; C. B. C. 
Scott, "A Description of a Canadian GAW 
Plan"; W. L. Monck, "The Impractica- 
bility of GAW Plans"; and C. A. L. 
Murchison, "GAW Plans and Unemploy- 
ment Insurance". 

On the panel on health insurance, they 
were: Dr. George F. Davidson, "Health 
Insurance in Relation to our National 
Social Securitjr System"; J. C. Broatch, 
"Experience Under the B.C. Health Insur- 
ance Scheme"; Col. W. Wallace Goforth, 
"Financial, Administrative and Other 
Problems and Pitfalls of Health Insurance"; 
and Prof. Malcolm Taylor, "Health Insur- 
ance in Perspective". 

On the panel on grievances arising under 
labour contracts, speakers and their topics 
were: Douglas R. Brown, "Drafting Griev- 
ance Procedure Clause and Pre-arbitration 
Handling of Grievances by Management"; 
F. C. Burnet, "Drafting Arbitration Clause 
and Arbitration Procedure"; Norman L. 
Mathews, QC, "Preparation and Presenta- 
tion of Management's Case"; and R. V. 
Hicks, "Jurisdiction of Arbitrators and 
Enforcement of Awards". 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg 

There is nothing so injurious to morale 
and efficiency, or more likely to undo the 
work of management in building up good 



relations with employees, as grievances that 
are not promptly and effectively dealt with, 
declared the Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Min- 
ister of Labour, in the opening address at 
the employer-employee conference. 

"Grievances in industry are as old as 
industry itself," he said. "For that reason, 
I think, there may be an unfortunate 
tendency to ignore the subject or to treat 
it in a perfunctory way. You are to be 
commended for giving it, in your program, 
the prominence it deserves." 

The most important thing in tackling 
grievances is an earnest and fair-minded 
attitude on the part of people involved 
on both sides, the Minister continued. 
Besides this, prompt and effective settle- 
ment depends on a number of factors; 
these included: clearly-drafted collective 
agreements; a clear-cut, time-saving pro- 
cedure for the consideration of grievances; 
foremen and shop stewards who thoroughly 
understand the agreement and who have 
some idea of elementary psychology; 
exercise of discretion by the parties con- 
cerned; and, last but not least, respect by 
them for the grievance procedure and a 
determination to make it work. 

Mr. Gregg reminded the meeting of the 
contribution being made by the federal 
Government to the settlement of griev- 
ances through the machinery of the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investigation 
Act. The requirement of the Act that 
collective agreements must contain a 
procedure for the settlement of grievances, 
without stoppage of work, by binding 
arbitration or otherwise, he said, "has 
become one of the unique features of 
industrial relations legislation in Canada". 

Turning to supplementary unemployment 
benefits, the Minister said it was important 
that supplemental unemployment benefits. 
although not a wholly new idea, had 
emerged from the bargaining table. 

"I, for one, am inclined to look with 
interest and a healthy measure of respect 
at the products of collective bargaining, 
which is recognized throughout the free 
world as a system of reaching practical 
decisions that make possible a unique and 
successful combination of business enter- 
prise and employee welfare," he said. 



816 



The present concept of SUB evolved out 
of earlier ideas and "might give way to 
other concepts in years to come," the 
Minister observed. The two main problems 
with which government is concerned at 
present are, he said, any relationship there 
might be to the national unemployment 
insurance program and the connection 
between SUB contributions and benefits 
and income tax. 

As an experiment "designed to secure 
greater stability of income for the average 
industrial worker," SUB plans will be 



watched with sympathetic interest by most 
Canadians, Mr. Gregg said. "We will not 
forget, however, that stability of income for 
the individual is ultimately dependent on 
a stable or expanding level of production. 

"The plans in their present form rep- 
resent an effort to ease the hardship caused 
by temporary layoffs," stated the Minister. 
"Their introduction should not be allowed 
to divert attention from the continuing 
need to develop in industry the steadiest 
possible production and employment both 
year round and from year to year." 



Guaranteed Annual Wage 



A review at this time of the guaranteed 
annual wage is timely, Ian F. McRae, 
Co-chairman, observed in introducing the 
panel discussion on the subject. The 
CM A, he said, had not adopted any policy; 
its sole purpose was to throw as much 
light as possible on the problem. 

Owen Fairweather 

"We are here today because the desire 
of working people for more security has 
burst forth in a new series of union- 
management programs designed to decrease 
the wage-loss injury during periods of 
unemployment," Owen Fairweather, a 
partner in the Chicago law firm of Seyforth, 
Shaw and Fairweather, said. 

At one time people believed that by 
individual thrift they could save for the 
rainy days of unemployment but the great 
depression of the thirties destroyed people's 
faith in thrift, he said. 

The plans negotiated with the unions 
during the last year are simply plans to 
supplement public unemployment compen- 
sation benefits with payments from a trust 
fund into which money has previously been 
deposited by the employer, Mr. Fair- 
weather said. They are known as supple- 
mental unemployment benefit plans — 
"SUB" plans. 

He described the first such plan, nego- 
tiated by the Ford Motor Company and 
the United Automobile Workers in June 
1955. When a few days later, General 
Motors Corporation followed — reluctantly, 
he said — "the union-imposed program set 
the pattern that swept through the major 
automobile producers throughout the 
industry". 

The United Steelworkers of America "got 
into the SUB act" during August of last 
year when the union negotiated agreements 
with the American Can and Continental 
Can Companies. The union's President, 
David J. McDonald, has made it clear, 



Mr. Fairweather said, that these agree- 
ments are to be the pattern for the steel 
industry negotiations now under way. 

The next major plan, he. said, was the 
Allis-Chalmers plan, negotiated with the 
UAW. 

These are the important types of SUB 
plans which have a trust fund pool, he 
explained, and have been referred to as 
the "Pooled Type" plans. 

A pooled type plan requires the employer 
to deposit the money into a trust fund from 
which the payments are made to the 
employees who are laid off. No individual 
employee has any vested rights in any of 
the funds deposited into the pooled trust. 
Some employees with high seniority who 
won't get laid off don't like these plans as 
they represent wage money spent for the 
benefit of only the newcomers. 

While these pooled type plans were being 
negotiated another group of plans sprang 
U p — the "Individual Account" plans, some- 
times called "Thrift" plans, Mr. Fair- 
weather said. The major plan of this type 
was the one negotiated between the two 
leading companies in the flat glass indus- 
try, the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 
and the Libby-Owens-Ford Glass Company, 
and the United Ceramic Workers union. 
"The plan is actually nothing but another 
forced savings plan," commented Mr. Fair- 
weather, "and hence is a thrift plan similar 
to many others that have been established 
in other companies." All have as their 
purpose the providing of additional income 
during periods of unemployment, Mr. 
Fairweather said. 

The governmental unemployment compen- 
sation payment is supplemented by a pay- 
ment from a private trust fund. Therefore, 
these plans are based upon the fundamental 
assumption that the public unemployment 
compensation benefit is too low. Now, if 
these programs are unsound from a social 
point of view, they are unsound because 
the assumption that the public benefit is too 
low is incorrect. Therefore, to evaluate the 



817 



wisdom of adopting a supplemental unem- 
ployment benefit program, we must develop 
conclusions concerning this fundamental ques- 
tion — should unemployment compensation 
payments be increased? 

In this connection, it is necessary that 
we examine briefly the British unemploy- 
ment compensation history, said Mr. Fair- 
weather. The Act as passed in 1911 was 
designed to give temporary relief, "modest 
benefits for short periods," he explained. 
From the end of World War I, benefits 
were so liberalized in amount and duration 
until they equalled 90 per cent of an 
employee's pay and were payable over a 
term of more than a year. 

Administration of the system soon broke 
down, he said, and entire families lived on 
the "dole" for years. Malingering was so 
extreme that it became a habit, Mr. Fair- 
weather said. He quoted the following from 
a government report: 

Many of these young persons have done 
practically no work and they have little or 
no conception that a man's ordinary occupa- 
tion is to provide the means of subsistence 
for himself and for his family. They have 
seen their own families and their friends 
kept for years by the State and they have 
come to accept this as a normal condition 
of life. 

"When this mass malingering habit 
reached its climax, a budgetary crisis 
occurred," Mr. Fairweather said. "The 
English Government was practically broke 
in 1931." 

Evidence of malingering habits was not 
confined to England, he said. In the 
United States, even though the benefit 
levels have been traditionally far more 
conservative, thousands of fraudulent claims 
for unemployment compensation were filed. 
Malingering, said Mr. Fairweather, will 
increase as payments go up in relation to 
the wage the employee would receive if 
he were working. This, he said, has been 
borne out by the experience under the 
Veterans Readjustment Act of 1944. 

Mr. Fairweather mentioned as another 
influence in malingering the fact of whether 
a man had dependents. 

In this connection some very interesting 
facts were discovered when the General 
Motors Plant at Lavonia, Michigan, burned. 
As a result, people with all kinds of seniority 
dates and various numbers of dependents 
were turned out upon the labour market at 
one time. A study was made to find out 
when these people found other employment. 
It was found that the single people — those 
without any dependents — took seven weeks 
to get a job, whereas a man with a wife 
and at least one child found a job within 
two weeks. The speed with which the men 
with dependents got back to work had 



nothing whatsoever to do with their seniority 
with General Motors but was very definitely 
affected by the number of persons dependent 
upon them. 

The reason, he explained, was that 
Michigan unemployment compensation 
benefits were below the subsistence level 
for families with two dependents, above 
the level for single persons. 

Employers in the United States continue 
to make agreements to provide 65 per cent 
of after-tax income when an employee is 
unemployed, Mr. Fairweather said. This 
means that for working the employee 
receives only 35 per cent additional income. 

"It seems quite clear that with such a 
benefit many persons will consciously 
attempt to stay idle," he declared. "The 
question is whether we can afford the 
resulting loss in productivity. Are we so 
productive that we can support idle people 
who might otherwise be producing?" These 
questions, said Mr. Fairweather, involve 
judgments and are not subject to precise 
answers ; he was merely attempting to point 
out the main problem. 

Mr. Fairweather concluded with a 
warning : 

Remember that the 60 per cent-65 per cent 
of take-home pay level of payment for not 
performing any work is only the start. The 
unions will attempt to bargain up that level. 
They will assert that it is economically wise 
to pay employees full pay for no work because 
it increases their purchasing power. This 
was the economic argument the Fabians used 
to lead England into the serious "dole" mess 
25 years ago. We must exercise care lest 
we be led down the same path and wake up 
too late to find ourselves in the grip of 
mass malingering habits that will sap away 
the national strength of our two countries. 

C. B. C. Scott 

In his address, "A Description of a 
Canadian GAW Plan," C. B. C. Scott, of 
Massey-Harris-Ferguson Limited, Toronto, 
compared the plan operated by his com- 
pany with the plan accepted by Ford and 
General Motors in Detroit. 

"When we agreed to concede a supple- 
mental unemployment benefit plan during 
negotiations," he said, "we did not go into 
the detail of the plans negotiated in 
Detroit. We merely said in our agreement 
that we would give the union a supple- 
mental unemployment benefit plan based 
on the Ford and General Motor plans in 
Detroit but adapted to suit Canadian 
conditions." 

The differences in the plans are minor, 
Mr. Scott said, but interesting. 

The Ford plan, he explained, provides 
for two funds, one for the benefit of 
employees engaged in defence production 



818 



and one for those engaged in the ordinary 
business of the company. His company has 
only one plan, as defence work does not 
run to such substantial proportions. 

The American plans provide for non- 
alienation of benefits. While his company 
has been advised on the best legal authority 
that such a provision would not be enforce- 
able in Canada, the clause is contained in 
the plan merely as a deterrent to employees' 
assigning their benefits. 

Because of the size of the automobile 
Companies in the United States, provision 
is made for first-stage appeals on a local 
basis, to facilitate administration of the 
plan, which covers such a great number of 
personnel in different locations. Only one 
board of administration is provided but 
local appeals can be handled on a local 
basis subject to the approval of the board. 
In the case of Massey-Harris-Ferguson, 
this was not necessary, although it is 
intended to have an administrator in both 
the Brantford and Toronto plants; but all 
appeals will be handled by the one board 
of administration. 

In the United States, the impartial 
chairman of the board of administration is 
usually their permanent labour relations 
umpire. Since there are few permanent 
umpires in Canada, provision is made for 
the parties to select a chairman and, failing 
agreement, for a chairman to be appointed 
by the Minister of Labour for Ontario. 

In most of the automobile companies 
hourly rates only are used, as there is no 
incentive system. As Massey-Harris- 
Ferguson has an incentive system, provision 
had to be made for the compilation of 
earnings of incentive workers. 

Under the American plan, the invest- 
ment of trust funds is very much restricted. 
The union's original submission to his com- 
pany provided that trust funds could be 
invested only in securities which were an 
obligation of the Canadian Government. 
The company persuaded the union to 
change this to provide that trust funds 
could be invested in securities which are 
legal for Canadian life insurance companies, 
with the exception of mortgages. 

The American plans specify what shall 
be done relative to the accumulation of 
credit units and the adjustment of funding 
after termination of the plan. The wording 
is ambiguous and in his company's plan the 
provisions have been clarified, he said. 

Another difference is in the composition 
of the board of administration. 

These, said Mr. Scott, are the main 
differences. There is one point, however, 
which should be pointed out, he said, and 
that is that state benefits in Michigan are 



substantially higher than the benefits paid 
under the Canadian Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act. 

It would be worth while for manage- 
ment to analyse carefully some of the 
provisions in plans submitted by unions, 
Mr. Scott said. Among them, he men- 
tioned the definition of "active employ- 
ment roll"; the provision with regard to 
accrual of credit units; duration of credit 
units; time condition governing the actual 
payment of benefits; wording of the provi- 
sions pertaining to "substitute supplemental 
benefits" and over-payment of benefits; 
retroactive crediting of units; and pay- 
ments for supplemental unemployment 
benefits an allowable expense of the 
company. 

There are still two important issues to 
be cleared, said Mr. Scott. The first is 
whether, under Canadian law, it is possible 
to integrate this supplemental unemploy- 
ment insurance plan with unemployment 
insurance benefits payable under the Act 
and whether such supplemental benefits will 
be regarded by the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Commission as earnings. 

The other point is whether the Depart- 
ment of National Revenue will consider 
supplemental unemployment benefits as 
income and therefore taxable. 

"The whole plan is a very intricate and 
complicated one and the administrative 
difficulties are going to be very great," 
Mr. Scott concluded. 

W. L. Monck 

So-called guaranteed annual wage plans 
are not new "but are becoming fashion- 
able; like most fashionable things, they 
appear nice but unfortunately everyone 
cannot afford them," said W. L. Monck, 
Industrial Relations Officer, Trenton Steel 
Works, Limited, Trenton, N.S. He titled 
his address, "Guaranteed Annual Wage — 
Fashionable, Expensive, Will Not Wear 
Well". 

It is doubtful, said Mr. Monck, if any- 
one in the CMA or elsewhere in Canada 
would take serious issue with the proposi- 
tion that every Canadian should be suit- 
ably sheltered, clothed and fed. Unem- 
ployment insurance, he said, came into 
being to take care of temporary periods 
when the individual is unable to do the 
job of providing for himself. 

"The fact that the individual con- 
tributes personally to this protection adds 
dignity and a measure of independence to 
the scheme. 

That unemployment insurance, in the 
opinion of some labour groups, does not 
do adequately the job for which it was 



819 



intended is the principal reason that some 
groups are making demands for guaranteed 
annual wage plans, he said. "Please note 
the words 'some groups' because there are 
many thoughtful and studious men, high in 
the councils of the labour movement, who 
disagree with guaranteed annual wage 
because in a great many industries it is 
impractical," he declared. 

Regardless of the ability of any particular 
industry to adopt a guarantee plan, said 
Mr. Monck, it should be appreciated early 
in negotiations that many things, such as 
overtime bonus, shift differentials and, 
perhaps, even the right to strike, hitherto 
regarded as finalized "and indeed sacred," 
must be seriously re-examined in the light 
of this development, and it may well be 
that some of them must be sacrificed. 

Welfare benefits, he believed, are a 
function of government. He based his 
opinion on "the undeniable insolvency 
which frequently occurs in industry and 
the solvency we all at least continue to 
hope for in some reasonably benevolent 
form of government" and also on the 
ground that if these things are necessary, 
everyone should enjoy them, not only the 
few able to obtain them by organized 
effort. 

The reason that these things are now, and 
continue to increase as, a part of industrial 
costs, may well be the recognition by indus- 
try of the need for them rather than an 
acceptance of responsibility for them, which 
is a different thing. History seems to prove 
that great, but not always good, changes are 
made in the main by and for minorities. 

The only basic requirement for a GAW 
plan can be simply stated, said Mr. Monck: 
"the wherewithal to meet the payroll and 
stay in business, considered from the long- 
range point of view." This, he said, 
requires considerable ingenuity and some- 
times is impossible. 

While there are some industries to which 
GAW can be readily applied, there are 
some important ones that employ a large 
part, if not the majority, of the working 
force to which it can not be applied with- 
out completely revolutionizing methods of 
production and marketing, Mr. Monck 
stated. 

As an example of a satisfactory GAW 
plan, Mr. Monck referred to the agree- 
ment negotiated between the Wabana Ore 
Limited and the United Steelworkers, which 
contains the following clause: 

Provided production remains in excess of 
12,000 tons per day, the company under- 
takes that there will be no reduction in the 
working force during the period 1956-1961. 



Moreover, said Mr. Monck, wage rates 
go up automatically for each 1,000 tons 
over 10,000 tons daily. 

"The reason for such a clause is obvious: 
the ore can be sold," he said. "This clause 
seems the ideal GAW — guaranteed assur- 
ance of work in contrast to payment for 
not working. Please note it contemplates 
no idle time or compensation for it." 

As an example of an industry to which a 
GAW plan cannot be applied, he cited the 
Eastern Car Company at Trenton, N.S., 
which produces railway rolling stock. In 
the past ten years, he reported, the per- 
centage of capacity at which the company 
has operated ranged from 18-8 to 105-4, 
with an average of 63-4 per cent. 

A plan has long and diligently been 
sought, he said, whereby the railways might 
find it advantageous to budget their pur- 
chases over a more extended period and 
smooth out the "boom and bust" cycle 
which has traditionally been the pattern in 
this industry, both in Canada and the 
United States, but so far nothing workable 
has been discovered. 

Twice in ten years the industry's 
customers — there are only three or four — 
decided at the same time to buy nothing 
for a year. Try to devise a GAW plan 
to cover that situation, he challenged. 

These, said Mr. Monck, are examples of 
extreme conditions. The industries with 
the greatest problem in so far as GAW 
negotiations are concerned are not the ones 
at either end of the scale but the ones in 
the middle, where is becomes a debatable 
issue. 

Why, asked Mr. Monck, are the plans 
referred to as guaranteed annual wages? 
"Annual, most of them are not; wages, in 
the politico-economic sense at least, are 
compensation for work performed. Person- 
ally, he said, I am going along with the 
folks who call most existing GAW plans 
what they are — either a guarantee of work, 
very rare, or supplementary unemployment 
benefit." 

It is fundamental that in the GAW 
problem, as in others, everyone finds out 
everything possible about the problem and 
its consequences in his own industry and 
makes his decision, not on short-term 
expediency but on the facts as they apply, 
he declared. 

Whatever form the solution takes, Mr. 
Monck concluded, it must be borne in mind 
that the cost must be added to the selling 
price of products "already so expensive 
they can be readily sold only to ourselves". 



820 



C. A. L. Murchison 

The term "guaranteed annual wage" has 
no single or acceptable definition, Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commissioner C. A. L. 
Murchison said, in a discussion of "Guar- 
anteed Annual Wage Plans and Unem- 
ployment Insurance". 

In their literal sense, the words might 
describe a contract to pay each employee 
a predetermined sum for whatever service 
he might perform during a 12-month period, 
he explained. Or it might be implied that 
the undertaking is one that would run 
from year to year. He knew of no such 
contract or undertaking. 

"There would be no need for unemploy- 
ment insurance" in a state where such 
annual wages were in effect, the Commis- 
sioner remarked. 

Approximately 24,000 of Canada's 4,413,000 
wage-earners are covered by some form of 
supplemental unemployment benefit plan, 
Mr. Murchison stated. These plans normally 
call for limited employer contributions to 
a special fund from which, under carefully 
defined conditions, benefits in stipulated 
amounts may be paid to laid-off employees 
as a supplement to benefits available under 
the Unemployment Insurance Act. Inte- 
gration with unemployment insurance is a 
cardinal aim of most of the plans, he 
remarked, and some are dependent on 
rulings from the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission, permitting workers to receive 
company layoff benefits without being 
disqualified from unemployment insurance 
benefits concurrently. 

The Commission, Mr. Murchison said, is 
making a careful study of the several 
collective bargaining agreements which pro- 
vide for the payment of supplemental 
unemployment benefits. A ruling governing 
such cases, he said, has not yet been made 
by the Commission. 

Though he avoided saying anything 
which might be construed as a statement 
of policy, he pointed out some of the 
problems confronting the Commission in 
dealing with the issue. 

The first question to be decided by 
the Commission, Mr. Murchison said, is 
whether money received by an unemployed 
worker as and by way of a supplemental 
unemployment benefit should be held to 
be earnings. (The Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act provides for the deduction from 
benefits the amount earned in excess of 
"allowable earnings".) The dictionary 
defines "earnings" as "that which is 
acquired as the reward of labour," he 
pointed out. 



Would it be correct to say that the 
supplemental unemployment benefit is that 
which is acquired as a reward of labour, 
or should it be ruled that since the money 
reserved to pay SUB has passed from the 
control of the employer to a trust fund, 
which is administered jointly by management 
and the workers, the fund should be 
regarded as a potential savings account 
standing to the credit of the unemployed 
worker ? 

It is possible that our decision might be 
influenced to some extent by the rulings of 
the income tax people. If they decide that 
SUB payments are taxable in the hands of 
the worker the savings account argument 
might not be considered tenable. 

A further point to be noted, Mr. 
Murchison said, is that a typical SUB 
agreement does not establish a trust in 
favour of the individual; no vested interest 
is conferred. 

If the Commission decides that supple- 
mental unemployment benefit payments are 
to be regarded as earnings, it would seem 
reasonable, he said, to expect that deals 
might be made between management and 
labour whereby payment of SUB would be 
deferred and paid in a lump sum every 
three weeks of unemployment. 

This brings up another question and it 
will be our responsibility to decide whether 
such a practice should be recognized and 
approved, or whether rules should be made 
which, in effect, would say that the lump 
sum payment plan is merely an attempt to 
circumvent the Act and we are going to 
allocate the payments on a weekly basis not- 
withstanding, for the purpose of computing 
the amount of unemployment insurance 
benefits to be paid each week. 

No problem is presented, Mr. Murchison 
said, by a supplemental unemployment 
benefit plan which limits payments to 
amounts established by the Act as allow- 
able earnings; but one does arise where the 
plan provides for payments greater than 
the allowable earnings. "The problem is 
to avoid anomalies as between those who 
stand to benefit under a supplemental 
unemployment benefit plan and those who 
are not so covered." 

Complications are also presented by the 
fact that most companies having SUB plans 
are subsidiaries of United States companies, 
he pointed out. For example, several 
states have ruled that claimants will be 
entitled to supplemental payments without 
reduction of their state unemployment 
compensation, while others have amended 
their laws to say, in effect, that SUB pay- 
ments are wages and that concurrent 
payment of both benefits is illegal. There 
is, however, a difference in the applicable 
laws, Mr. Murchison pointed out. 



821 



In the unemployment insurance laws of 
the United States there is usually some 
such provision as that in the Massachusetts 
law, which is, "that a person shall be deemed 
to be in total unemployment in any week 
in which he performs no wage earning 
services whatever and for which he receives 
no remuneration". Our law approaches the 
problem in a somewhat different way. Sec- 



tion 56 requires the Administration to take 
all earnings into consideration when calcu- 
lating the amount of unemployment insur- 
ance benefit. It may well be that arguments 
will be heard in support of the plea that we 
in Canada should be as generous as pro- 
nouncements made by United States officials 
would indicate their several systems will be. 
(To be continued in the August issue) 



McGill University's 8 th Annual 

Industrial Relations Conference 

This year's theme: "Security in an Industrial Economy". For purpose 
of discussions, "security" defined to include psychological as well as 
material needs of people, as individuals and as members of groups 



"Security in an Industrial Economy" was 
the theme of the 8th annual industrial 
relations conference at McGill University, 
April 16 and 17. 

Attending the conference were delegates 
from various branches of industry, business 
organizations, trade unions, educational 
institutions and federal and provincial 
government departments. 

The conference was addressed by five 
speakers and terminated with a panel dis- 
cussion in which all speakers took part. 

For the purpose of the discussions, 
"security" was defined broadly to include 
consideration of psychological as well as 
material needs of people as individuals and 
as members of related groups. 

The speakers were: Dr. Graham C. 
Taylor, Assistant to the Director, Allan 
Memorial Institute of Psychiatry, who dealt 
with "The Importance of Security for the 
Individual"; Dr. George F. Davidson, 
Deputy Minister of Welfare, Department 
of National Health and Welfare, who 
discussed "Security and the Role of the 
State"; Dr. Edwin E. Witte, Chairman, 
Department of Economics, University of 
Wisconsin, whose subject was "Security and 
Economic Change"; and W. Allan Camp- 
bell, Vice-president and Secretary, Cana- 
dian Westinghouse Company Limited, who 
discussed "Private Enterprise and the 
Security Issue". Nat Weinberg, Director, 
Research and Engineering Department, 
UAW-CIO, Detroit, Mich., who was to 
have spoken on "A Union View of the 
Security Problem", was prevented at the 
last minute from attending; his address 
was read by Carrol Cobourn, of his depart- 
ment. 



Dr. Graham C. Taylor 

The effect of anxiety and fear on the 
human being was discussed by Dr. 
Graham C. Taylor, who noted that our 
age has been described as an age of 
anxiety and also one of fear. 

"Anxiety and feelings of insecurity are 
inversely related, so that the greater the 
forces tending towards security in the 
individual, the less will be his anxiety. It 
has been said that anxiety is about the 
most uncomfortable emotion a human being 
is called upon to endure," he said. 

Noting that "our society is primarily an 
industrial one," Dr. Taylor said that 
"security within industry will be of great 
importance in the life of each individual." 

In general, he believed, it can be said 
that feelings of insecurity arise when one 
is exposed to stressful situations for which 
there is no easy solution for the indecision 
and conflict involved. 

Dr. Taylor divided his subject into four 
main parts: security and reactions to 
authority; the emotional reactions of man- 
agement; the emotional reactions of the 
supervisor; the emotional reactions of the 
hourly worker. 

"The executive and the psychiatrist look 
at authority in different ways," he said. 
"The executive may think from the point 
of view of his administrative responsi- 
bility, while the psychiatrist is more 
inclined to think of authority in terms of 
individual reaction to authority along with 
other emotional reactions established in 
early childhood. Emotional problems often 
stem from the way we learn to handle our 
feelings. Reactions to authority are no 
exception." 



822 



Both individual and executive function 
in decision making are an important part 
of healthy handling of feelings in this 
regard, and Dr. Taylor declared that "each 
level in management has associated with 
it administrative responsibility roughly 
divided into an area of authoritative 
responsibility and one of decision making. 
"They are closely related. The entire 
process is complicated, however, by the 
presence of people. Their feelings stem 
from two sources. First, the problem of 
management in exercising authority — the 
problem of the reactions of people to it. 

There are a number of possible stumbling 
blocks to the healthy exercise of authority. 
We all have aggressive impulses towards 
others. For various reasons, there may 
develop in any of us strong needs to 
dominate, exploit and to control other 
people. ... In industry, we occasionally see 
that the granting of power in an admin- 
istrative sense may bring out these 
unhealthy tendencies to control and dominate 
others. ... A person who daydreams and 
phantasies himself all-powerful may, when 
the opportunity presents itself, act upon this 
unreal dream and become a very destructive 
person indeed within industry. 

The use of power in terms of an indi- 
vidual's inner phantasies rather than in 
accordance with the real demand of the 
industrial situation can produce an 
unhealthy situation. When such a person's 
victims recognize the situation there is 
open resentment and counter-hostility. 
This in turn produces in the people sub- 
jected to the ruthless exercise of power 
"feelings of insecurity and confusion". 

In such a situation, people are unsure, 
often wondering if the difficulty lies with 
the leader of the group, but usually having 
serious doubts about themselves. "They 
wonder if they are not producing the 
problem instead." 

The abuse of an authoritative position 
is only one difficulty in exercising authority. 
A supervisor may react with feelings of 
discomfort and inadequacy to his own 
authoritative and aggressive role. Conse- 
quently he may find difficulty in directing 
others and is only supervising because he 
is stalemated by his own inhibitions, the 
latter resulting from having ingrained in 
him as a youth that to be aggressive and 
self-seeking is normally bad. 

"In our present highly industrial society 
there is increasing pressure towards mass 
conformity. . . . Each person is anxiously 
trying to sell his personality to his super- 
visor, to become accepted by key people 
in his work group." He seeks to prove 
that he is not different from the other 
people in his group. This may deteriorate 
the value of the individual rather than 
increase it. 



The person in authority handling such 
a situation finds himself in difficulty, 
especially when he reaches supervisory 
standing. He himself is subject to pressure, 
as are the men that report to him. "In 
short, he has to be a good leader, which 
involves standing out from the group," 
rather than conforming to it, and yet, he 
must still be "one of the boys". 

The problems are control of aggressive 
strivings, the control of feelings of guilt, 
and the ability to identify with a work 
group yet remain its leader. These are all 
problems of management. 

On reactions to those exercising authority, 
Dr. Taylor noted that: 

Well-adjusted people can take a fair 
amount of moderately aggressive and hostile 
authority with relatively little psychological 
stress reaction 

Successful management considers adapting 
its actions to certain specific personality 
difficulties to avoid arousing feelings of 
insecurity. F'or example, one employee may 
readily accept challenges and when a difficult 
assignment is given to him, takes it in his 
stride. Another tends to lack confidence 
and, while fairly capable, always under- 
rates himself. When this employee is given 
the tricky problem to handle, he needs to 
be given specific encouragement. The idea 
should be conveyed to him that he really is 
capable of solving the particular problem. 

Ideas about executives are poles apart, 
Dr. Taylor found in analysing emotional 
reactions of management. There are those 
who believe that executives are always 
making many lightning-like decisions per 
minute, and the others who think that 
assistants do all the work while the 
executive himself has a soft job, and that 
all he is required to do is "maintain an 
imposing facade of dignity and detach- 
ment". 

Executives, however, are under the same 
general stress as their employees, but with 
some factors unique to their role. The 
executive in the industrial structure fills a 
position fraught with feelings of loneliness. 

The further a man rises in administrative 
responsibility, the fewer can be his con- 
fidants within the company The conflict 

between the executive's personal values and 
business principles at times leads to the 
stimulation of feelings of guilt and resulting 
axiety. . . . Pressure arising out of the need 
to compete with others to maintain one's 
position are also among the emotional pit- 
falls of the executive. 

In the case of the hourly worker, "the 
emotional reactions of resentment may be 
stimulated by all manner of overt and 
implied stresses including his own feelings 
of inadequacy. 

"There are many stresses affecting the 
hourly employee. Some of these stresses 



823 



arise from the need to conform to the 
standards of the working group, others are 
related to employee-management conflicts 
and still others arise from the impersonality 
of modern technology. 

"In dealing with such feelings, super- 
vision is faced with first an understanding 
of their origin and a paramount need to 
deal with them not simply on the basis of 
a superficial reaction, but rather on the 
basis of an attempt to really understand 
what is going on." 

Dr. George F. Davidson 

Everyone today recognizes the need of 
the individual to achieve security, Dr. 
Davidson said. It is this need which 
supplies much of the drive and incentive 
to the individual to improve his personal 
and family status, educationally, vocation- 
ally, and in economic and social terms. 

Where people begin to disagree, said Dr. 
Davidson, is on the question as to whether 
the individual should be left entirely on 
his own or should be given some help and. 
if so, by whom, in his endeavour to achieve 
this desirable goal of security. 

Is the goal of security something to be 
sought and achieved, unaided, by personal 
effort of the "rugged individualist"? Can 
it properly be regarded as a collective 
responsibility of the community, to be 
sought and achieved exclusively at the non- 
governmental level, through the efforts of 
the individual himself, buttressed and sup- 
ported by community agencies, co-operatives, 
and the joint and separate efforts of labour 
and management within the industrial 
setting? Or is there a job that government 
should be doing in this field and, if so, how 
much should be left to the individual, how 
how much to the organized forms of 
community non-governmental enterprise, and 
how much should be assumed by the state? 

The last-mentioned question is really the 
critical issue in the social security field 
today, Dr. Davidson said. How should the 
responsibility be shared, divided, allocated? 
Not many today, he said, would suggest 
turning the clock back to the days of 
"sink-or-swim" individual effort, unaided 
from any quarter. There is fairly general 
agreement that in the urbanized, indus- 
trialized society of the 20th century the 
community has some responsibility in help- 
ing to protect the individual from at least 
some of the hazards of our complicated, 
impersonal, urban way of life. 

The rise of trade unionism, the growth 
of collective bargaining and the increasing 
evidences of enlightened management's con- 
cern for the health, welfare and security of 
its employees and their families — all of these 
facts have created today a growing accept- 
ance of the view that, in a private enter- 



prise economy, management can, should and 
does accept a measure of responsibility for 
helping the individual employee to achieve 
security for himself and his family. 

None of this is any more seriously 
disputed, said Dr. Davidson. Nor is there 
any serious questioning of the principle 
that government too, especially the local 
governments, has some responsibility. 

Clearly, some of the necessary social, 
health, educational and economic needs of 
individuals in our complicated modern in- 
dustrial society can be met only by the 
action of governmental authority at some 
level, and not many question that. But 
what a good many people do question is 
the extent of governmental intervention that 
is necessary or desirable in the human 
welfare field. 

The concern is even greater when big 
governments are involved in services 
affecting the people of the nation as a 
whole, than when the governmental inter- 
vention is confined to a limited jurisdic- 
tion, he added. 

Dr. Davidson then proceeded to an 
examination of some of the factors affecting 
the apportionment of responsibility for 
meeting the universally recognized need for 
personal and family security among the 
individual himself, the employer and 
government. 

There is no need, he said, to dwell on 
the role and responsibility of the individual. 
The individual is still, and must be in any 
democratic form of society, primarily 
responsible for achieving his own and his 
family's wellbeing and security. The diffi- 
cult}' arises from the fact that not all 
individuals are equally endowed with skills 
or knowledge or opportunities. Conse- 
quently, some form of collective community 
help must be forthcoming for those who 
cannot, whatever the reason, provide 
entirely for their own security needs. 

The question is: "What group?" 

Most believe that the family should be 
the group. More and more, however, it 
is coming to be recognized that the family, 
and the religious sect or work group, while 
able to deal with many of the social and 
economic problems that lie beyond the 
ability of the individual, are themselves 
too narrowly circumscribed and too limited 
in their resources to cope with the major 
hazards of modern industrial society. 
These hazards must then be dealt with 
through the collective action of the whole 
community, Dr. Davidson said. 

The next question is: "What do we mean 
by community?" 

It is capable of many meanings: among 
others, what we choose to call "government 
action". At whatever level this govern- 



824 



mental action may be undertaken, it 
should always be recognized, he said, that 
the machinery of government is the 
"chosen instrument" for community action 
in the achievement of a measure of security 
for the group. 

The bogey of the "welfare state" has done 
a lot in recent years, Dr. Davidson feared, 
to becloud our understanding of this 
important fact. As a result, we tend too 
often to think of the non-governmental 
social plans, including those developed by 
industry, as something different — inherently 
better or inherently worse, according to our 
particular point of view — from the pro- 
grams operated under public auspices. We 
look upon the public and the private 
programs as largely separate and inde- 
pendent one from the other. We tend to 
forget that they are not two separate 
things but rather separate manifestations 
of the same thing. 

"Both endeavour through different forms 
of organization to fulfil the sense of mutual 
obligation within the group, large or small, 
that we have chosen to call the community," 
he said. 

If we can accept this double concept 
of the relationship between public and 
voluntary enterprise, said Dr. Davidson, 
then the problem of establishing the proper 
roles for governmental and non-govern- 
mental action in social security matters 
becomes much simpler. 

The infinite variety of the pattern of 
governmental and non-governmental relation- 
ships in the social security field is, of 
course, but a symptom of the way in which 
our programs have evolved by patient 
democratic processes down through the years. 

So long as the laissez-faire concept of 
government prevailed, the private agency 
was almost the sole instrumentality by 
which the community sought to discharge 
its social service responsibilities, Dr. 
Davidson said. As laissez-faire began to 
give ground to a more positive and dynamic 
concept of the role of government in 
society, some of the responsibilities in 
the social welfare field began to shift 
from the voluntary agency to governmental 
authority. 

In a recapitulation, Dr. Davidson said he 
had endeavoured to establish that: — 

1. In our complex industrial society the 
individual can no longer be counted on as 
having the capacity and resources to meet 
all the contingencies which he and his 
family may have to face; 

2. The community in consequence had a 
responsibility to provide support and rein- 
forcement in these circumstances; 



3. Whether the community discharges its 
responsibility through action of a non- 
governmental or governmental instrumen- 
tality, it is utilizing in either case a 
"chosen instrument", which the community 
itself has established, by free and demo- 
cratic processes, to meet social and 
economic need. 

Dr. Davidson proceeded then to examine 
what he described as "a particular type of 
non-governmental approach — the labour- 
management, employer-employee plan for 
meeting health, welfare and security needs." 

Such plans, said Dr. Davidson, while 
"non-governmental", cannot be regarded as 
voluntary, except by stretching the ordinary 
meaning of the term. 

The contract established on the basis of 
collective bargaining and agreement has in 
it some of the elements of compulsion and 
statutory obligation which are characteristic 
of governmental rather than non-govern- 
mental initiatives in the social welfare field. 
But perhaps this_ is only a refinement: 
basically, otherwise, the employer-employee 
programs in the social welfare field belong 
clearly to the family or non-governmental 
undertakings. Indeed, there is a disposition 
in some quarters to argue that the approach 
of labour and management to the achieve- 
ment of social security for employees and 
their families holds greater promise of 
success than does governmental action, and 
that consequently government should stay 
out of the field and leave the job to be done 
through the time-honoured industrial rela- 
tions process of patient collective bargaining 
and employer-employee agreement. 

A great deal has been accomplished in 
the field of industrial health, welfare and 
pension plans under the stimulus of collec- 
tive bargaining, said Dr. Davidson. 

There is no doubt, said Dr. Davidson, 
that these plans have accomplished much 
that is good and that they have brought 
countless benefits to a great many indi- 
vidual employees and, taken as a whole, 
have added significantly to the sense of 
security of large segments of the working 
force of Canada. 

No person who is concerned with the 
development of adequate social security for 
the Canadian people would ever suggest any- 
thing other than the maintenance, and 
indeed the strengthening, of these industrial 
social security programs as indispensable 
elements in the building of an over-all 
structure of social, health and economic 
security to meet the needs of an important 
section of our people. 

Dr. Edwin E. Witte 

"This is an age of rapid economic change. 
Nowhere has economic change been as 
great and continuous as in the two friendly 
neighbours, Canada and the United States," 
Dr. Witte, the banquet speaker, said. 



75803—4 



825 



Taking for his subject, "Security and 
Economic Change," Dr. Witte referred to 
the economic changes that have taken 
place, primarily in the United States, 
during his 70 years of life there. 

Equally, if not more significant, he said, 
have been social changes of economic 
import. Among these, he would mention 
only changes in the labour force and in 
business organization. For one, he said, 
the labour force has become much better 
educated. In his home state of Wisconsin 
— "a leader in progressive labour legislation" 
— as recently as the First World War the 
only educational requirement for full-time 
employment in a factory at age 14 was 
completion of fifth grade or six years' 
schooling. Today, a high school education 
is the minimum insisted upon by many 
employers for any sort of industrial 
employment. Increasingly, industry 
demands a college education for all workers 
whom it will consider for executive posi- 
tions, and for an ever-growing number of 
technical, professional and scientific lines 
of work, post-graduate training has become 
necessary. 

Not less important, Dr. Witte noted, has 
been the increase in the employment of 
women and the decrease in child labour. 

Significant also has been the ever- 
increasing importance of associations and 
associational effort in the economy of the 
United States, he said. More than 95 per 
cent of all manufacturing is now carried on 
by corporations, with ever higher percent- 
ages in finance, insurance, rail and air 
transportation, said Dr. Witte. "Trade 
unions, co-operatives, farmer organizations, 
trade associations, and employer and profes- 
sional organizations, all, veritably, have 
become a part of what we like to call 'the 
American way of life'." 

These changes have given rise to many 
problems, said Dr. Witte, but there can be 
no doubt that, at least in the economic 
sphere, they have represented progress — an 
improved standard of living, a better and 
longer life for the great majority. 

While for a time Canada appeared to 
be making economic progress more slowly 
than the United States, he said, since the 
Second World War growth has been more 
rapid than that of his country. The 
promise of still more and even greater 
progress in the decades ahead seems bright 
in both countries. 

Note must be taken of automation in 
appraising the possibilities for economic 
growth, Dr. Witte said. As it will in most 
fields require large new capital investment, 
new knowledge and skills, it will probably 
be slower in coming, but automation 



presents possibilities for greatly reduced 
costs of production and wider use of many 
products, he said. 

As in the past, non-material develop- 
ments are likely to operate not only to 
assure continued economic progress but to 
speed its momentum, Dr. Witte said. 
These he enumerated as research; promise 
of improved industrial relations; improved 
knowledge and action in forestalling, miti- 
gating and ending depressions; prospect of 
more and better-trained scientists and 
professional and technical workers; and a 
growing appreciation of the interdependence 
of all peoples, overshadowing differences of 
race, colour, creed and beliefs. 

Although our two nations have the 
highest per capita incomes, which makes 
for the best progress for security, it does 
not mean that there is no longer any 
poverty or need in these countries, Dr. 
Witte said. According to a recent study 
of low income families in the United 
States, it was found that 20 per cent of 
all families and 64 per cent of all unattached 
individuals had an income of less than 
$2,000 in 1954. 

Although it is true that the unemployed 
include a high proportion of marginal 
workers, particularly in periods of high 
employment, most people are poor because 
they never had large earnings or because 
of an unusual amount of sickness in the 
family, or because they are not in good 
health, are members of minority groups or 
live in areas which have not enjoyed the 
same measure of prosperity as the rest of 
the nation, he remarked. 

Social security, Dr. Witte noted, is not 
a recent phenomenon. He told how work- 
men's compensation laws were the earliest 
form of social insurance in the United 
States. He pointed out that under these 
laws, the costs of industrial accidents are 
not imposed on the employers but are 
shared by employers and workers and 
ultimately become a part of the costs of 
production borne by the consumers. 

It was not until the Depression that any 
new form of social insurance was adopted 
in the United States. Unemployment in- 
surance legislation was first enacted in 
Wisconsin in 1932, Dr. Witte stated, but 
did not become widespread until the passage 
of the Social Security Act of 1935. In 
this one Act, he remarked, were included 
a federal old-age insurance system, stimula- 
tion for the enactment of state unemploy- 
ment insurance laws, the beginnings of 
federal aid to the state for specialized 
forms of public assistance, and federal aid 
for many types of state and local health 
and welfare services. 



826 



In the nearly 20 years since then, Dr. 
Witte noted, the social security institutions 
contemplated in the Social Security Act 
have been extended and improved and 
others have come into being. Despite all 
the progress which has been made, social 
security in the United States is still very 
incomplete and far from even reasonably 
satisfactory, he declared. 

There is still a widely held view that 
social security is inconsistent with free 
enterprise, Dr. Witte continued. To many, 
social security either is socialism or a long 
step towards it, for no more logical reason 
than that the word "social" occurs in both 
terms, he said. 

"Social security is not inimical to indus- 
try, thrift and free enterprise but a 
bulwark for these economic virtues, needed 
at home and most valuable for our safety 
in the troubled world in which we live." 

What will- be the effects of social security 
programs depends upon what they propose 
to do and still more upon what they actu- 
ally provide. "It is possible," he said, "to 
make of social security something of an 
unrealistic Santa Claus program. Emphasis 
in social security can be placed upon redis- 
tribution of wealth or upon the much less 
radical concept of assuring a necessary 
minimum income for a reasonably satis- 
factory existence for the individual and the 
family on the occurrence of the immediate, 
personal hazards of life." 

As institutions for the redistribution of 
wealth and income, social security pro- 
grams have proved quite feeble, Dr. Witte 
said. There are more direct and effective 
means for redistributing income and wealth, 
he said, citing tax policies as one. 

Social security institutions do not have 
their principal justification in their effects 
upon purchasing power, promoting full 
employment and economic stability and 
prevention of hazards, Dr. Witte observed. 
While they have some values in these 
directions they have not been, and cannot 
be, their main objectives. 

We would not look to government alone 
for the minimum protection against the 
consequences of the occurrences of the 
personal hazards of life, he continued. In 
an economy of free enterprise, the primary 
responsibility for his economic support rests 
upon the individual and his family. This 
has not been altered by social security. 
All social insurance benefits are conditioned 
upon prior and, usually, recent and exten- 
sive employment. 

As social security has developed in the 
United States, the greatest growth in recent 
years has been in industrial security pro- 
grams, Dr. Witte stated. This has come 



about, in large part, through prodding from 
labour but also because of the belief, widely 
held in industrial circles, that government 
should be kept out of the picture; that its 
encroachments threaten private enterprise. 
He did not share that view, he said, but 
he did believe that industry has an 
important role in social security, broader 
than contributing to the costs of govern- 
ment programs. That role is to supplement 
these programs by collectively bargained 
or industrially established private security 
programs to provide better protection to its 
employees and their dependents than they 
get from government programs standing 
alone, he declared. 

Government should, and it alone can, pro- 
vide minimum necessary security protection 
to all Americans and their families in all 
personal contingencies of life. But it can 
and shall attempt no more than such neces- 
sary minimum reasonable protection. Social 
security, as I conceive it, is not a featherbed, 
nor a concrete floor, but a net to catch those 
who fall. For the luxuries and even some of 
the comforts of life, under the American 
philosophy of social security, dependence is 
placed upon the individual and the family, 
with assistance from the employer. 

It is at this point that industrial security 
programs must come in. Along with man- 
agement, the industrial workers are the 
greatest contributors to our marvellous pro- 
duction. Those who contribute actively to 
production have a strong claim for additional 
security beyond the reasonable minimum 
which government alone can assure. Both 
in the United States and Canada, industry 
is increasingly meeting its responsibilities in 
this respect. 

This does not lessen the need for govern- 
mental social security programs. Assurance 
of a minimum income for all people in all 
contingencies of life is an absolute essential, 
which no modern nation can afford to 
neglect. 

There is not, Dr. Witte said in conclu- 
sion, just one sound governmental social 
security program. Social security programs, 
to be sound, must vary with and reflect 
history, the traditions and the total institu- 
tional pattern of the particular nation in 
which they are instituted. 

Canada has utilized British and American 
experience in formulating its social security 
programs but has not blindly copied what 
these other nations have done. 

President Roosevelt, in one of his messages 
on social security, said: "We will make the 
greatest progress if we look upon social 
security not as a finished product but as an 
objective towards which we strive, ever 
realizing that what we have can and must 
be improved." 

W. Allan Campbell 

"Is our Canadian economy an indus- 
trial economy?" asked Mr. Campbell, who 
spoke on "Private Enterprise and the 
Security Issue". 



75803—41 



827 



That the national economy has changed 
from an agricultural to an industrial basis 
is definitely established by the changing 
pattern of the labour force, he said. Since 
1939, the agricultural labour force has 
decreased 40 per cent; while the manu- 
facturing labour force has increased 107 per 
cent. In the space of one generation, 
Canada has changed from a producer and 
exporter of mainly primary products to a 
producer and exporter of mainly manu- 
factured goods. 

The feeling of need for security is a 
very powerful force, said Mr. Campbell, and 
to a large measure human progress depends 
on this drive by individuals. It also finds 
expression in government defence budgets 
and welfare budgets, in the investment 
portfolios of insurance companies, institu- 
tions and pension funds. The drive is also 
there in industrial management, finding 
expression in wider diversification of 
products, in research for new and better 
products, in advertising to strengthen 
market position and in increasing capital 
expenditures for better and more efficient 
means of production. 

This drive for greater security on the part 
of industrial management is possibly the 
greatest single assurance of security for 
industrial workers. Unfortunately, it is 
often overlooked and ignored; so when we 
talk of security as we do today, I can assure 
you that management is very much aware of 
this problem and its implications and ramifi- 
cations, both as it affects the individual 
employee and the company. 

Security as seen by management is a 
means to an end, not an end in itself, Mr. 
Campbell said. 

Social security is a means to a stable 
national growth, to stable industrial employ- 
ment, to a steadily rising standard of living 
and to the growing productivity of both 
labour and capital, which alone makes a 
better standard of life possible for everyone. 

If then, there is a security problem, and 
I believe there is in some form, it is one of 
emphasis and degree: of perhaps trying to 
protect ourselves against every form of 
change as well as of adversity; of seeking to 
be safe to an extent that we disregard the 
very essence of economic and personal 
security, namely that we all earn enough to 
pay our way and stay solvent. 

This quest for personal and social security, 
except where it is synonymous with thrift — ■ 
in saving to provide ourselves with the means 
to insure against and to tide over difficulty 
and adversity when they appear — has, I 
believe, become an exaggerated and perhaps 
even perilous feature of our modern society. 

We are reaching the point, said Mr. 
Campbell, both in the collective bargain- 
ing demands on corporations and in the 
growing number of government security 
programs especially, where we have no 



choice but to take stock and decide how 
much security we can afford, which are the 
more urgent and beneficent measures to 
adopt and retain, which can be dispensed 
with safely and fairly and just how we 
are going to finance them. 

Mr. Campbell quoted from a paper by 
Prof. C. L. Barber, of the University of 
Manitoba, on the cost of public welfare 
expenditures to Canadians, in which he 
showed that peacetime national defence 
costs, as a ratio of our national income, 
have risen from one-half of one per cent 
in 1929 to more than nine per cent in 1954. 
Tax revenues, at all levels of government, 
had, he showed, in 1954 reached 31-1 per 
cent, as contrasted to 30-1 per cent in 1944, 
when war expenditures were at their peak. 

Thus, said Mr. Campbell, social security 
must be viewed not as an isolated case but 
in relation to the already high load of 
government tax revenues and expenditures. 
Moreover, at the provincial and municipal 
levels we are faced with costly programs 
for education, housing and highways. 

There is, he said, a mistaken tendency 
to refer to social security expenditures as 
"public welfare measures". All expendi- 
tures of government are intended for the 
public welfare, and "what we really mean 
by these social security expenditures is 
public assistance programs which transfer 
to individuals and families payments which 
are not directly earned — except partially 
in the case of unemployment insurance 
benefits." 

Federal and provincial social security 
costs are estimated by Prof. Barber to 
have risen as a percentage of the national 
income from slightly more than one-half 
of one per cent in 1929 to more than six 
per cent in 1954. Allowing for municipal 
expenditures and hidden administrative 
costs, this is estimated by another economist 
at more than eight per cent. Thus, social 
security now ranks close to national 
defence as our greatest single item of public 
cost, Mr. Campbell said. 

If this were the end of the story, he 
continued, we could all agree, perhaps, that 
we have kept within reason in what has 
already been done in respect of unemploy- 
ment insurance, family allowances and old 
age pensions; that what has already been 
done may even have acted as a stabilizing 
and sustaining influence on purchasing 
power and may even have contributed to 
the goal of high productive employment. 

Many thoughtful Canadians would ques- 
tion this optimistic conclusion, he said, but 
the situation is gravely altered by new 



828 



security, welfare and health measures which 
have been proposed or are actually under 
way. 

Again quoting Prof. Barber, Mr. Camp- 
bell said he estimates proposed new exten- 
sions of government security measures, 
omitting health and hospitalization plans, 
would add a further $650 millions annually 
to the Canadian tax burden. The federal- 
provincial hospitalization and health pack- 
ages proposal is estimated to cost some 
$365 millions more annually. On the 
United Kingdom model, this proposal would 
cost annually well over $600 millions extra, 
he declared. 

Significant developments have taken place 
recently in our general system of social 
security, Mr. Campbell said, and the time 
is approaching when we should seek to 
review and possibly revise our social 
security structure in order to get the best 
value for each dollar spent. There is need 
also to avoid duplication between govern- 
ment and industry, he said. 

On the short-term and long-term aspects, 
Mr. Campbell quoted the view of a Cana- 
dian economist who predicted that the role 
of government in the social welfare field 
will continue to grow for a time because 
government will assume increased respon- 
sibilities in the field of education, housing 
and health. With the adoption of adequate 
schemes covering these sectors, however, 
the major phase in the development of our 
social welfare system will be completed, 
since minimum needs will have been met. 

"There will be a growing resistance to 
extending social welfare beyond that point 
because people will develop a preference to 
spending their incomes as they wish rather 
than pay more taxes," he said. 

Undoubtedly, Mr. Campbell observed, 
responsibility at the present time is a 
divided one. So long as we are a free 
society, the individual must bear some 
share. Yet we have gone beyond the old 
laissez-faire period when everything was 
left to the individual. We live in an age 
when some responsibility for security 
necessarily falls on the State and some on 
industry itself — both organized labour and 
management. 

There is a limit, admittedly difficult to 
find, beyond which industry and government 
should not be expected to go and it appears 
possibly that this area should establish the 
basic level of social security and, beyond 
this, the individual must assume responsi- 
bility. 

In the field of health, we can easily agree 
that the state not only carries certain 
responsibilities but also that in specified 
fields — such as the prevention of epidemics, 
the provision and distribution of immunizing 
agents — the State can actually act faster 
and more efficiently than private agencies. 



Mr. Campbell proferred two main criti- 
cisms that apply more or less equally to 
the State and to the trade unions as a 
whole. First, he said, they have tended 
to eliminate, or at least restrict progres- 
sively, the individual's responsibility for his 
own security. Second, they have frequently 
clouded and confused the limits and areas 
of security responsibility as between indus- 
try and the State. 

One aspect of the security problem as 
it exists today, Mr. Campbell said, is the 
gradual tendency towards the restruction 
of the mobility of labour. This, he said, 
has definite drawbacks, both from the 
standpoint of government and labour, as 
well as industry. 

It is well understood between manage- 
ment and labour that what results from 
collective bargaining negotiations and 
agreements is a specified and measureable 
"wage packet", Mr. Campbell said. The 
union may forego some or all of a wage 
increase in order to secure fringe benefits. 
The new drive for guaranteed wage plans, 
or supplemental unemployment benefits, 
goes well beyond the concept of a predict- 
able wage packet, he said. "I understand 
that no such plans are actuarially predict- 
able, even when they set a ceiling (as 
existing plans now do) on the employer's 
total liability to the fund." 

Another criticism, said Mr. Campbell, is 
the threat of confusion between industrial 
hospitalization and health plans and the 
new federal-provincial hospitalization and 
health proposals. 

If the latter, as seems likely, replaces all 
or part of existing industrial schemes, it 
means that industry — in some form or other 
will be taxed for the public plan. Where, 
then, do existing contracts stand under such 
a situation? If an industry in good faith 
negotiates such a plan of its own with its 
union, it is part of the total "wage package" 
agreed upon. But if industry is to be taxed 
— as ultimately it must be — to finance a 
public plan, then it faces a very serious 
problem of paying twice for the same thing. 

Mr. Campbell suggested that, in meeting 
the "real and growing" security program, 
management's primary responsibility to 
society, as well as to its own shareholders, 
"is to ensure that earnings are well main- 
tained and that new capital investment is 
kept up". This is possible only when based 
on re-invested earnings or on a good earn- 
ings record, he declared. 

All economists are agreed, he said, that 
the investment process in our type of 
economy is the principal and indispensable 
key to continued economic growth and to 
the maintenance of a rising level of high 
productive employment. 



829 



Anything which threatens this process is 
harmful to everyone, perhaps to the hourly- 
rated worker more than to anyone else. It 
is only out of the earned "wage package" 
that payrolls can be met. It is only out 
of expanded investment that a rising total 
labour force can be employed. 

Industry, said Mr. Campbell, has been 
doing much to even out production as 
much as possible, thus avoiding the peaks 
and valleys which existed years ago. The 
challenge still remains, he said, although 
not facing industry alone, of altering the 
buying habits of people and the many 
things they have become accustomed to 
expect. 

Industry welcomes the devising of a 
better over-all pattern of social security, 
he said in conclusion, but not one which 
involves any larger net burden of taxation 
to the individual or to the corporation, 
"simply because any higher level would 
seriously menace the whole savings, in- 
vestment and earnings process out of which 
all security costs must be paid". 

Industry will play its role, said Mr. 
Campbell, but we must not fail to recognize 
that private enterprise, as we know it, 
cannot be divorced from individual enter- 
prise. "Industry sees the real key to 
social security as being an expanding and 
healthy economy, from which all groups 
will benefit but all must work for it. There 
is still no sound substitute for work!" 

Nat Weinberg 

"Man is not merely an instrument of 
economic activity but the purpose of 
economic activity . . . not merely a tool for 
the production of wealth" but also "the 
reason why we engage in productive efforts. 
. . . Man is not a means to an end, he is the 
end itself." 

This was the opening premise of the 
address of Nat Weinberg, Director of the 
Research and Engineering Department of 
the United Automobile Workers, on "A 
Union View of the Security Problem". 

As Mr. Weinberg was unable to be 
present to deliver the address himself, it 
was read by Carrol Cobourn, also of the 
UAW Research Department. 

Thus we think of man, not as a collec- 
tive abstraction, but as an individual human 
being, Mr. Weinberg went on to say. "He 
does not exist to serve the economy. The 
economy exists to serve him," For this 
reason we reject the idea that the welfare 
of the individual should be sacrificed to 
the general welfare. In those cases where 
the individual is called upon to make a 
sacrifice for the sake of the common good 
it is the duty of the community to ease 
the hardship for him as much as possible. 



This was diametrically opposite to the 
philosophy of totalitarian societies, in 
which "millions of individuals may be 
starved to death in order to achieve the 
collectivization of the farms. Or millions 
of individuals may be sent to the gas 
chambers to protect the alleged 'purity of 
the race'." 

Nevertheless, Mr. Weinberg continued, 
although we do not allow individuals to 
inflict suffering on others in the name of 
the common good we do allow hardships 
to be inflicted on individuals by impersonal 
economic forces. Although this was better 
than the morality of the totalitarians it 
did not go far enongh, the speaker con- 
tended. Although we have made progress 
in the past three decades "we have not 
yet raised our moral sights to the point 
where we reject outright the notion that 
it is entirely legitimate for most of us to 
profit from the sufferings of some of us". 

As an illustration, Mr. Weinberg said 
that during the 1953-54 recession in the 
United States, which was called in many 
quarters a period of "healthy readjustment," 
those who were unemployed as a result of 
the readjustment could have been cared 
for by the rest of the population, who 
supposedly were benefiting by the read- 
justment, by the undertaking of public con- 
struction paid for by the taxpayers. Or 
better still, the government could have 
taken steps to prevent the occurrence of 
the maladjustments which made the read- 
justment necessary, or could have corrected 
them before they brought on the recession. 

Since by and large none of these things 
were done, "the many were acting on the 
essentially totalitarian principle that the 
welfare of the society is sufficient excuse 
for damage to the welfare of the indi- 
vidual," Mr. Weinberg contended. 

As another illustration of the sacrifice of 
individuals in the interest of the community, 
consider for a moment the question of 
mobility. Whenever it is proposed to add 
to the security of workers through collective 
bargaining the argument is raised that the 
mobility of labour will be impaired. This 
was true of seniority, it was true of pen- 
sions, and, more recently, the mobility argu- 
ment was one of the most widely used 
ideological weapons in the fight against the 
guaranteed wage. 

Mr. Weinberg agreed that mobility of 
labour was desirable, not as an end in 
itself, but only "as a means to the maximi- 
zation of total production through optimum 
allocation of labour. He went on to argue 
that since society benefited by this mobility 
of labour, society and not the individual 
worker should be required to pay the price 
of it. 



830 



He said that when changes in consumer 
preferences lead to the decline of one 
industry and the rise of another we ought 
to be willing that the price of the new 
product should include provision for "a 
bonus sufficient to attract workers to move 
voluntarily from their old jobs into the new 
ones created by our shifting preference". 
Instead of this, he claimed, the proponents 
of the mobility argument said, in effect, 
that when a worker "gets hungry enough 
he will take a job in the new and expand- 
ing industry created by our new preferences 
even if his new job pays less than his old". 

The same people argued, Mr. Weinberg 
said, that "it would be a mistake to provide 
unemplo3nment benefits adequate to sustain 
his family decently while he is between 
jobs because then he will not take the new 
job as quickly as we would like him to". 

The objective of mobility could be 
attained, the speaker contended, without 
"making the worker the victim of perpetual 
insecurity" by a national policy of full 
employment, which "would make the 
worker much more willing and much more 
able to take the risks of greater mobility". 

That the effects on worker mobility of 
collectively bargained security programs 
had been grossly exaggerated, Mr. Weinberg 
said, was shown by the fact that the labour 
force of North America, "which is the only 
sizeable labour force in the world that has 
widespread seniority protection and pen- 
sions, is probably the most mobile labour 
force in the world". 

Mr. Weinberg claimed that if the decline 
of an industry leads to the creation of a 
depressed area while jobs are available 
elsewhere, the community should pay the 
moving and other expenses incurred in the 
migration of workers to the places where 
jobs are to be had. 

In regard to workmen's compensation, 
which had been opposed at first, although 
the recognition of the principle of compen- 
sation for injuries was an important step 
forward, the speaker said that benefits paid 
were often "at shamefully inadequate levels" 
and constituted "little more than insub- 
stantial gestures in the direction of the 
collective responsibility for individual risks 
which the laws theoretically assume". 

The same was true, he said, of unem- 
ployment insurance. He cited recent cases 
of what he considered callousness towards 
the unemployed on the part of highly 
placed members of government. He said 
that although the Department of Labour 
had for some years been making studies 
of seasonal unemployment he could not 
find that any "substantial" action had been 
taken towards developing alternative sources 
of seasonal employment. "The number of 



workers who are cast adrift every fall and 
winter remains a national disgrace," he said. 

Mr. Weinberg said that the average 
weekly unemployment benefit in the United 
States last year was such that more than 
67 per cent of the cost of "the failure to 
meet the collective responsibility (for full 
employment) was saddled on individuals 
who were no more guilty than the rest of 
us for the lapses from full employment". 
By the same method of reckoning he found 
that Canada's record "was slightly worse 
than that of the United States". 

Going on to the question of old age 
security, the speaker said that by providing 
pensions for retired workers we recognized 
"a social responsibility"; but again, he said, 
''implementation of the principle falls far 
short of our moral pretensions". He 
referred to the "magnificent" sum of $40 
monthly not payable "as a matter of right" 
until after age 70 in Canada. In the 
United States, he said, the Social Security 
Act pays pensions to workers retiring at 
age 65 but even there the primary benefit 
last year averaged less per month than the 
earnings of the average manufacturing 
worker per week, although the benefit levels 
were substantially higher than in Canada. 

In correcting the inadequacies of social 
security legislation through collective bar- 
gaining, we have tried to do so in ways 
that would benefit not only our own mem- 
bers but all others who are covered by the 
legislation involved. We have learned to use 
the collective bargaining process as a tool 
to achieve legislative objectives. 

After consultation with an advisory com- 
mittee of distinguished experts we deter- 
mined to conduct our collective bargaining 
on pensions on a basis that would not 
undermine but rather would strengthen the 
drive for increased public pensions. 

In pursuance of this policy, he said that 
the pension agreement negotiated with the 
Ford Motor Company in 1949 provided for 
"direct integration", the company-paid 
pension being applied together with the 
pension paid under the Social Security Act 
to make up a certain sum. In this way 
the larger the amount paid under the Act 
the less the company's trust fund had to 
pay. 

The result was soon apparent in the 
substantial raising of the size of public 
pensions, the speaker said. 

He said that auto workers in the United 
States can now count on receiving from 
company and public sources together a 
monthly pension nearly equal to three 
weeks wages for the average worker prior 
to his retirement. This he considered a 
pension "approaching adequacy". 

We expect to see similar progress in unem- 
ployment insurance benefits now that we 
have established through collective bargain- 
ing the principle of the guaranteed wage or, 

831 



as we prefer to call it, guaranteed employ- 
ment. During the union's drive before 
negotiation of the agreement, in state after 
state improved benefits were provided under 
the unemployment compensation laws. 

He thought that the outlook was even 
more favourable in Canada than in the 
United States. In nearly all of the states 
unemployment insurance was paid for 
entirely by the employers, and tax rates 
paid by individual employers varied with 
the amount of benefit drawn by the firm's 
workers. This tended "to reduce and to 
some extent to obscure the savings obtain- 
able by the corporations under our agree- 
ments through increases in public unem- 
ployment insurance benefits". 

In Canada, on the other hand, where the 
workers and the government also bear part 
of the cost and all employers are taxed 
at the same rate, there would be obvious 
and substantial savings to companies oper- 
ating under guaranteed employment agree- 
ments, even making allowance for the 
possible effect of higher benefits in increas- 
ing taxes on payrolls, he asserted. 

However, the speaker declared, the unions' 
real aim was not to win higher benefits 
"but to promote steady employment week 
by week throughout the year". 

As a result of the savings to be made 
by doing so, "corporations are intensifying 
their efforts to level out the peaks and 
valleys of employment," he said, although 
he admitted that there was a limit to what 
an individual company or even an industry 
can do to stabilize its own operations in 
the face of instability in the economy as a 
whole. 

Mr. Weinberg expressed confidence that 
in the United States the motor companies 
that had established SUB plans would "do 
much more than they have in the past, 
both within their own plants and in the 
national capital, to protect these trust fund 
reserves from being drained by workers 
whose layoffs could be avoided". He added 
that this applied to Canada also. 

He pointed out, however, that "our 
present agreements are not the last word 
on the subject — they are just beginning". 
He expected that later negotiations would 
add to the benefits under these plans in 
the same way that pensions had been built 
up from comparatively modest beginnings. 

The speaker raised the question whether 
a thing which was morally sound was of 
necessity economically sound. He thought 
that it was, or at any rate should be. He 
defended such measures as pensions and 
guaranteed employment plans from both 
the moral and the economic point of view. 

The thought that increased economic 
security for the individual contributes to 
increasing security of the economy as a whole 



is at least suggested by the fact that the 
period since we began to pay serious atten- 
tion to the development of national social 
security programs has also been one of 
unparalleled economic progress. 

Mr. Weinberg also derided the idea that 
"you cannot have both security and 
freedom," asserting that "whether we like 
it or not we are living today in a closely 
integrated society and an economy in 
which social decisions continually affect 
business." He said that businessmen did 
not hesitate to ask for government assis- 
tance for themselves, and objected to 
government "interference" only when it 
hampered them in taking "the maximum 
profit the market will bear" or when it 
taxed away part of the businessman's profit 
"to assist those who do not share his 
freedom from concern as to how his 
personal needs are to be met from day to 
day". 

With regard to the cost of social security 
measures he argued that "the social and 
economic costs of insecurity are almost 
invariably even greater". He asserted that 
if there was any truth in the claim, as he 
thought there was, that existing social 
security measures constitute a stabilizing 
force in our economy which might well have 
contributed to prevent at least one post- 
war depression, then the cost of such 
measures must be weighed against the 
"immeasurably greater cost of an economic 
recession". 

In conclusion Mr. Weinberg, reverting to 
his opening proposition, said that the trade 
unionist had before him in collective 
bargaining "the concept of man as the 
purpose of economic activity". The rep- 
resentatives of management, on the other 
hand, "from the very nature of their func- 
tion are required to consider man essen- 
tially as an instrument". The frequent 
conflict between the two sides he believed 
"stems from that basic difference in philo- 
sophic concepts". 

"Fortunately for the welfare of our 
economy the trade unionist seems usually 
to be on the winning side," the speaker 
said. "We never get all we want — at least 
in the first round — but every year marks 
new advances in security that we have won 
for our members, and I can promise you 
every year marks new goals that we set for 
the future." 

Panel Discussion 

A panel discussion, led by a representa- 
tive of labour and a representative of 
management and under the chairmanship 
of Dr. G. A. Ferguson, of the McGill 
Department of Psychology, ended the con- 
ference. The discussion leaders were Marcel 






832 



Francq, Quebec Federation of Labour, and 
Dr. W. Harvey Cruickshank, Bell Tele- 
phone Company of Canada. 

Listening to a discussion on security is 
something very close to his heart, Mr. 
Francq said, because a union's purpose is 
to get security for its members. "Security, 
it seems to me, is the strongest of human 
urges of self-preservation. . . . Everyone who 
is not either in his mother's arms or a 
moron feels insecure today." 

A great deal of insecurity arises from 
lack of knowledge of what is happening, 
from the international level down to the 
personal level, said Mr. Francq. It is 
better to know what are the facts to be 
faced and know where we are going. Truth 
does not make for insecurity, he thought. 

To illustrate his point, Mr. Francq said: 

What do you think people feel who work 
in an establishment which will do away with 
at least half of them? The employees are 
not supposed to know but they all do. They 
are wondering from day to day what is going 
to happen to them and who is going to be 
let out. I think it might be good to come 
straight out and say: "We have got to get 
this machine and some of you will have to 
go as of such a date and you might as well 
provide for it now". Instead of having 325 
insecure people, they would have 150 who 
would know they were going to be let out 
and could make provision for it. 

That, said Mr. Francq, is a type of 
insecurity that we create ourselves within 
our own society and perhaps we can do 
something about it. 

Referring briefly to the role of the State, 
Mr. Francq said: "Any government which 
out of fear of being termed socialistic 
refuses to provide for the safety, welfare 
and happiness of its people is not going to 
remain the government very long. 

Another factor making for insecurity Mr. 
Francq mentioned is arbitrary retirement 
at the age of 65. A man, he said, earning 
good wages, maybe $5,000 a year, is told 
to go; and drops from $500 to $50 a month. 

Speaking for management, Dr. W. H. 
Cruickshank expressed himself somewhat 
concerned over the extent to which the 
conference had directed its attention to 
security in the materialistic sense. 

"Security," he said, "implies something 
in living, in my opinion, that is not subject 
to crisis." In personal or in national life, 
through the centuries, material possessions 
have been more subject to crisis than any 
other phase of living, he observed. 

He would rather equate security to a 
feeling of happiness, to confidence and the 
absence of major fear. 

In talking, as an industrial physician, to 
people with problems, said Dr. Cruick- 
shank, he found that most problems of 
living tend to fall in one of six or seven 



areas: finance, sex, philosophy as related 
to physical and spiritual well-being, social, 
avocation and vocation. 

While leaders of industry and of labour 
have an obligation to contribute to the 
security of employed persons, Dr. Cruick- 
shank said he would define security as 
"happiness which comes through a sense of 
responsibility, through satisfactions result- 
ing from achievements, from confidence 
and the absence of major fears". 

Mr. Cobourn referred to the feeling of 
insecurity arising from the introduction of 
automation. If automation should develop 
with increasing rapidity, he said, there is 
a real danger that a substantial number of 
skilled workers will find there is no longer 
any market for their particular skills. The 
only answer, Mr. Francq said, is "integra- 
tion of large-scale programs of re-educa- 
tion". It is, he said, a matter to which 
the trade union movement, management 
and government should give serious con- 
sideration. 

"I think this is going to be one of our 
major problems within the foreseeable 
future," said Mr. Cobourn, "the need for 
helping workers to acquire new skills when 
their present skills have become obsolete, 
and I am quite sure that if we don't tackle 
the problem we will have a great many 
workers presenting Dr. Taylor and Dr. 
Cruickshank with very deep-seated and 
very justified problems of insecurity." 

Asked what concrete proposals are being 
made by the unions to deal with the 
problems created by automation, Mr. 
Francq replied with a reference to the 
typographical union which, with the intro- 
duction of the linotype machine 50 years 
ago, went along with it and saw to it that 
the interests of their members were 
protected. 

We all know that in the long run we 
will all benefit, he said, but right now our 
concern is with the temporary aspects and 
what can be done to retrain the worker 
whose skills are no longer required. These 
problems the unions are studying, he said, 
and it can only be done by working hand- 
in-hand with the company and dealing with 
them as humanely as possible. 

Income security is tremendously 
important, Dr. Witte reiterated. While 
security is a much broader matter than just 
income security, he agreed, "for a very large 
number of people — not the doctors, not the 
psychiatrists, not even the college pro- 
fessors — it is of primary consideration. 
With quite a lot of people in both Canada 
and the United States, that is the insecurity 
they are talking about and we have not 
solved it today. 



75803—5 



833 



1956 Research Grants Announced 



Four universities receive grants under Labour Department-University 
Research Program for studies in the labour-management relations field 
by faculty members or graduate students. Grants made now total 26 



Research grants to four Canadian univer- 
sities were authorized last month under the 
Labour Department-University Research 
Program. Such grants, for research in the 
field of labour-management relations, are 
made by the Department of Labour each 
spring under the joint research program 
with the country's universities. 

The four universities were : University 
of Montreal, McGill University, University 
of Toronto and the University of British 
Columbia. 

The projects approved under the pro- 
gram, which were proposed by members 
of the staff or graduate students of the 
four universities, and the persons who will 
undertake them, are: — 

1. A study of the economic interpreta- 
tion of collective agreements, by Prof. 
Maurice Bouchard of the Economics 
Department, University of Montreal. 

2. A study of employee relations in the 
federal Civil Service, by Prof. Saul J. 
Frankel of the Political Science Depart- 
ment, McGill. 

3. A study, particularly from the point 
of view of indexing, of the Labour Gazette 
as a source of material for labour research, 
by R. Brian Land, graduate student at the 
Library School, University of Toronto. 

4. A comparison and critical annotation 
of Canadian collective bargaining statutes, 
by Prof. A. W. R. Carrothers of the 
University of British Columbia Law 
Faculty. 

The four grants authorized this year 
bring to 26 the number of studies that 
have been supported under the program. 
To date, 14 reports have been com- 
pleted and forwarded to the joint 
Labour Department-University Research 
Committee, on whose recommendations the 
grants are paid. 

The studies for which grants were 
authorized in 1954 and 1955 were: — 

The Courts and the Labour Relations 
Boards, by Prof. G. McAllister, University 
of New Brunswick. 

Arbitration Board Procedures and 
Awards in the Province of Quebec, by 
G. Beausoleil, McGill. 

834 



Conciliation Board Techniques in the 
Province of Ontario as a Means of Settling 
Industrial Disputes, by A. Porter, 
University of Toronto. 

Settlement of Labour-Management Dis- 
putes in the Ontario Textiles Industry, by 
Mrs. Sheila Eastman, University of 
Toronto. 

Criteria Lteed in Conciliation Cases in 
the Canadian Railway Industry (Non- 
operating Unions), by Prof. Sylvia Wise- 
man, McGill. 

Influence of Background and Social 
Relations on the Decisions of Conciliators 
and Arbitrators, by Mrs. Elaine G. Wrong, 
University of Toronto. 

Conciliation in the 1954-55 Ford and 
Chrysler Negotiations, by Prof. W. G. 
Phillips, Assumption College. 

Conciliation and Arbitration under the 
Alberta Labour Act, by Prof. G. F. 
MacDowell, University of Alberta. 

Industrial Relations Policies in the 
Ontario Agricultural Implements Industry, 
by Mrs. Sheila B. Eastman, University of 
Toronto. 

Studies for which grants were authorized 
during the period 1951 to 1953 inclusive 
were listed in the April 1954 Labour 
Gazette, page 540. 

One study supported by the program has 
been published as a book, Municipal 
Labour Relations in Canada, by S. J. 
Frankel and R. C. Pratt. 

Another study to which financial support 
was given is in the process of publication: 
State Intervention and Assistance in Collec- 
tive Bargaining: The Canadian Experience 
1943-54, by Prof. H. A. Logan of the 
University of Toronto. 

A volume edited by Prof. H. D. Woods 
of McGill, composed of five of the studies 
dealing with the settlement of industrial 
disputes in various industries, is also being 
prepared for distribution. 

Preliminary plans are also being made for 
the circulation of other studies. Summaries 
of those now in the process of publication 
will appear in later issues of the Labour 
Gazette. 






Industrial Fatalities in Canada 

during First Quarter of 1956 

Deaths from industrial accidents* decreased by 103 from the previous 
three-month period. Of the 248 fatalities in the first quarter, the 
largest number, 48, occurred in manufacturing; 45 in transportatation 



There were 248 1 industrial fatalities in 
Canada in the first quarter of 1956, 
according to the latest reports received by 
the Department of Labour. This is a 
decrease of 103 fatalities from the previous 
quarter, in which 351 were recorded, 
including 19 in a supplementary list. 

During the first quarter there were three 
accidents that resulted in the deaths of 
three persons in each case. On January 17, 
a plane crash in Northern Quebec resulted 
in the deaths of the pilot, co-pilot and the 
stewardess. The plane, a commercial air- 
liner, was on a flight between Knob Lake 
and Seven Islands. In another flying acci- 
dent on February 13 all three members of 
the crew were killed when their aircraft 
crashed shortly after taking-off from a base 
in the North West Territories. At Hunts- 
ville, Ont., three employees of a leather 
company died on March 31 when overcome 
by hydrogen sulphide fumes. At the time 
of the accident the men were removing 
fluid from an unused tanning vat. 

Grouped by industries (see chart, p. 836), 
the largest number of fatalities, 48, was 
recorded in manufacturing. These include 
17 in wood products, seven in iron and 
steel and five in each of the food and 
beverages and transportation equipment 
groups. In the first quarter last year 66 
fatalities were listed in manufacturing, 
including 17 in wood products, 15 in iron 
and steel and eight each in paper products 
and non-metallic mineral products. 

In the transportation industry, accidents 
were responsible for 45 deaths. Of these, 
24 were in steam railways, 10 in local and 
highway transportation and eight in air 
transportation. During the same period of 
1955, 43 deaths were reported: 19 in local 
and highway transportation, 13 in steam 
railways and five in water transportation. 

*See Tables H-l and H-2 at back of book. 

lr rhe number of industrial fatalities that occurred 
during the first quarter of 1956 is probably greater 
than the figure now quoted. Information on acci- 
dents which occur but are not reported in time 
for inclusion in the quarterly articles is recorded in 
supplementary lists and statistics are amended 
accordingly. The. figures as shown include 50 
fatalities for which no official reports have been 
received. 



The industrial fatalities recorded in 
these quarterly articles, prepared by the 
Economics and Research Branch, are 
those fatal accidents that involved 
persons gainfully employed and that 
occurred during the course of, or which 
arose out of, their employment. These 
include deaths that resulted from indus- 
trial diseases as reported by the Work- 
men's Compensation Boards. 

Statistics on industrial fatalities are 
compiled from reports received from the 
various Workmen's Compensation Boards, 
the Board of Transport Commissioners 
and certain other official sources. News- 
paper reports are used to supplement 
these data. For those industries not 
covered by workmen's compensation legis- 
lation, newspaper reports are the Depart- 
ment's only source of information. It is 
possible, therefore, that coverage in such 
industries as agriculture, fishing and 
trapping and certain of the service 
groups is not as complete as in those 
industries which are covered by com- 
pensation legislation. Similarly, a small 
number of traffic accidents which are in 
fact industrial may be omitted from the 
Department's records because of lack of 
information in press reports. 



Mining accidents caused the deaths of 
45 persons during the quarter, 28 occurring 
in metalliferrous mining, nine in non- 
metallic mining and eight in coal mining. 
In the same period last year, 33 fatalities 
were recorded in this industry. These 
included 17 in metalliferrous mining, 10 in 
coal mining and six in non-metallic mineral 
mining. 

During the quarter, accidents in the con- 
struction industry were responsible for 38 
deaths. Of these, 22 occurred in buildings 
and structures, nine in miscellaneous con- 
struction and seven in highway and bridge 
construction. In January, February and 
March last year 31 fatalities were recorded, 
including 13 in buildings and structures and 
12 in highway and bridge construction. 

Accidents in logging accounted for 36 
deaths during the first quarter of 1956, a 
decrease of 10 from the 46 reported in the 
same period last year. 

An analysis of the causes (see chart 
p. 836) of these 248 fatalities shows that 
81 (33 per cent) of the victims had been 
(Continued on page 869) 



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836 



Report from Civilian Rehabilitation Branch 



Atlantic Region Rehabilitation Workshop 

More than 80 delegates attend, including Provincial Co-ordinators of 
Rehabilitation Services and representatives of provincial government 
departments interested in rehabilitation, and of voluntary agencies 



More than 80 persons from the four 
Atlantic provinces, whose work contributes 
in various ways to the rehabilitation of 
disabled persons, met in Halifax from 
June 4 to June 8 in the Atlantic Region 
Workshop on Rehabilitation, the first 
meeting of its kind in Canada. 

The Workshop was organized co- 
operatively by the Civilian Rehabilitation 
Branch of the Department of Labour and 
by the Provincial Rehabilitation Co- 
ordinators of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. 

It brought together municipal, provincial 
and federal officials working in such fields 
as public health, welfare, vocational train- 
ing, workmen's compensation and employ- 
ment, as well as representatives of hospitals, 
the medical profession and the private 
voluntary agencies which serve the 
handicapped. 

The purpose of the workshop was to 
give these persons, with diverse back- 
grounds, an insight into each other's work 
and problems, and to provide them with an 
opportunity to discuss the techniques and 
processes of an over-all rehabilitation 
program, and how they could best co- 
ordinate their facilities and services in the 
interest of the disabled. 

Ian Campbell, National Co-ordinator, 
Civilian Rehabilitation, Department of 
Labour, outlined the scope and progress of 
the national rehabilitation program at the 
opening session of the five-day meeting. 

The problem of rehabilitation of the 
handicapped in Canada is a tremendous 
one, he said. The Canadian Sickness 
Survey conducted by the Department of 
National Health and Welfare in 1951 had 
shown 957,000 disabled persons in Canada, 
of whom 423,000 were seriously disabled. 
There were 236,000 disabled of working 
age, but only 55,000 were employed and 
these in most cases only because they had 
been eligible for help by the Department 
of Veterans Affairs or provincial Workmen's 
Compensation Boards, or had been lucky 
enough to be cared for by one of the 
voluntary agencies which assist the handi- 
capped. 



The Canadian rehabilitation program, he 
said, grew out of the need for helping all 
the disabled. The program was designed 
to fill in the gaps between existing services, 
and to give all disabled people the services 
they need. 

"Here we are dealing with a segment of 
humanity which after centuries of neglect, 
can now, we know, be restored to a much 
more satisfying place in the community," 
Mr. Campbell said. 

Bruce McKenzie, medical social work 
consultant, Department of National Health 
and Welfare, Ottawa, speaking on the 
social aspects of rehabilitation, said there 
is no point where social factors are not 
involved in the problem. As a result, in 
its broadest sense, rehabilitation means all- 
out attacks on the social problems of 
illness and disability; a co-ordinated attack 
from every angle in order to maintain the 
individual in a purposeful place in society. 

During the week, the regular sessions 
were given over to panel presentations and 
discussions of the various steps of the 
rehabilitation process. The first panel 
discussed the intake process — the method 
by which disabled persons are located and 
brought into the rehabilitation program. 
Other sessions considered the role of 
medicine in case finding and assessment, 
the medical management of disabilities, the 
vocational aspects of rehabilitation and, 
finally, the last step in the rehabilitation 
process, the placement of the disabled in 
suitable employment. The Workshop also 
discussed the place of the private voluntary 
agencies in the program, and the co- 
ordination of all rehabilitation services at 
the working level. 

Chairmen of workshop panels were: 
G. W. Crandlemire, Provincial Co-ordinator 
of Rehabilitation for New Brunswick; F. G. 
Wellard, Provincial Co-ordinator, Nova 
Scotia; Brig. W. W. Reid, Provincial Co- 
ordinator, Prince Edward Island; Walter H. 
Davis, Provincial Co-ordinator, Newfound- 
land, and T. A. Fishbourne, Chief Employ- 
ment Specialist, National Employment 
Service, Ottawa. 

(Continued on page 889) 



837 



From the Labour Gazette, July 1906 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Shortage of some kinds of labour occurring in summer 1906. Wage 
increases reported in a number of centres. Mackenzie King achieves 
settlement of two strikes in Calgary during one visit to that city 



A shortage of certain kinds of labour 
was being felt in various parts of Canada 
in June 1906. Coal and steel companies 
in the Maritimes were forced by lack of 
help to curtail their operations slightly. In 
Ontario and Quebec farm and railway 
labourers and domestic servants were very 
scarce, as also were factory hands in some 
of the large centres. Ship labourers were 
reported to be hard to obtain in Quebec 
and Montreal. 

In the Prairie Provinces, railway build- 
ing and agricultural expansion were giving 
rise to a demand for labour which even 
the heavy arrivals of immigrants did not 
satisfy, and in British Columbia there was 
a shortage of labourers in railway construc- 
tion and metal mining. 

Increases in wages at a number of places 
were reported in the Labour Gazette for 
July 1906. Builders' labourers in Quebec 
City had their wages increased from 152- 
16f to 18j cents an hour. Stonecutters at 
Guelph, Ont., had their wages increased 
from $3 to $3.20 for an 8-hour day. 
Bricklayers' wages at London, Ont., rose 
from 40 to 45 cents an hour ; and at Calgary 
stonemasons had their wages increased from 
55 to 60 cents an hour, and bricklayers 
from 55 to 62 2 cents an hour, as the result 
of an agreement reached under the 
Dominion Conciliation Act on June 12, 
:after a strike which began on May 18. 

Wages were raised for coremakers in 
Toronto from $2.50 to $2.75 a day, for 
hand compositors in Ottawa from $13 to 
$13.50-$15 a week, and for linotype oper- 
ators in the same Ottawa establishment 
from $15418 to $15.50-$19.50 per week. 

A special committee recommended in- 
'creases for labourers employed by the City 
of Montreal to bring their wages from 
$1.50 to $1.75 a day, while teamsters in 
the employ of the city were to have their 
wages raised from $2.25 to $2.75 a day. 

Ottawa Electric Street Railway employees 
received an increase of 10 cents a day. 

On May 18, 1906, bricklayers and masons 
employed by several contractors in Calgary 
went on strike after being refused in- 
creases, which they had demanded, of 5 
cents an hour for masons and 10 cents for 
bricklayers. 



Early in January the Calgary local of 
the Stonemasons and Bricklayers' Union 
had sent a notice to the contractors to 
the effect that workmen of those trades 
would expect that in three months' time 
their wages would be raised from a flat 
rate of 55 cents an hour to 60 cents for 
masons and 65 cents for bricklayers. 

At the end of the three months a 
number of contractors began paying the 
higher rate. About that time, however, a 
large number of other contractors succeeded 
in forming the Calgary Builders' Exchange, 
and on May 4 the secretary of this new 
organization informed the union that the 
members of the Exchange after May 15 
would continue to pay the masons and 
bricklayers the 55 cents an hour paid 
formerly. 

Although a few contractors who did not 
belong to the Exchange began paying the 
higher rates after May 15, the rest refused 
to do so, and this led to a strike. 

Early in June, at the request of the 
mayor of Calgary, the federal Deputy 
Minister of Labour, W. L. Mackenzie King, 
went to the city to try to settle the dispute. 

After a four-hour meeting between the 
parties, with Mr. King in the chair, a 
settlement was reached, as a result of 
which a three-year agreement was signed 
between the Builders' Exchange and the 
union granting the masons' demand for 60 
cents, and raising the bricklayers' wages to 
62 2 cents an hour, instead of the 65 cents 
they had demanded. 

The agreement also provided that any dis- 
pute which might occur between the parties 
in future should be submitted to a con- 
ciliation board consisting of three members 
appointed by the exchange and three mem- 
bers appointed by the union. If this board 
was unable to agree on a settlement, pro- 
vision was made for the appointment of an 
arbitrator, whose decision was to be final. 

Besides arranging this settlement, during 
his visit to Calgary Mackenzie King 
succeeded in settling a strike of members 
of the Leather Workers' Union employed 
by the Great West Saddlery Co. and the 
Calgary Saddlery Co. 



S38 



Mn ier national 
Labour Organization 



Deputy Minister Presides at Opening 
of International Labour Conference 



Seventy countries represented by 737 delegates and advisers, largest 
number ever. Despite heavy agenda, two days spent on discussion of 
McNair Report on workers', employers' freedom from government control 



Arthur H. Brown, Deputy Minister of 
Labour, who is Chairman of the Governing 
Body of the International Labour Organ- 
ization, opened the 39th session of the 
International Labour Conference in Geneva 
on June 6. 

Delegations from 70 countries attended 
the conference. Delegates totalled 258, 
comprising 131 government delegates, 63 
employer delegates and 64 worker delegates. 

There were 479 advisers in attendance: 
205 government advisers, 127 employers' 
advisers and 147 workers' advisers. 

The number of delegates and advisers 
totalled 737, the largest number to attend 
an ILO conference. 

Observer delegations from a number of 
non-metropolitan territories, from the 
United Nations and various specialized 
agencies, and from non-governmental organ- 
izations brought to more than 800 the 
number present at this year's conference. 

Labour Minister Mohsein Nasr of Iran 
was elected President of the 39th session. 
He received 138 votes to 89 for M. A. 
Raschid, Minister of Labour, Housing and 
Commerce of Burma. There was one 
abstention. 

A. H. Brown 

In his opening address, Mr. Brown 
pointed out that Jordan, Rumania and 
Spain had recently accepted the obliga- 
tions of the ILO Constitution, a thus 
becoming the 71st, 72nd and 73rd members 
of the ILO". He noted the conference 
this year had before it applications for 
membership from Tunisia, the Sudan and 
Morocco. 

Mr. Brown said: 

The International Labour Organization, as 
a world organization, has always welcomed 
new members from every part of the world. 
Such enlargements of membership afford 
both increased support for the work of the 
organization and the opportunity for enlarge- 
ment of the scope and area of its effective 
operation. 



Enlargements of membership, however, he 
said, meant very little in themselves unless 
the new member states were prepared to 
give effective support and adherence in 
matters of both domestic and international 
policy to the principles set forth in the 
ILO's Declaration of Philadelphia and to 
the promotion of practical programs 
designed to achieve the objectives con- 
tained in that Declaration. 

"The increasing membership of the 
ILO," Mr. Brown said, "while widening 
and strengthening the foundations of our 
work, has inevitably brought in its train 
certain problems, particularly relating to 
the representation of employers and 
workers." 

There had been considerable discussion 
on these problems during the past few 
years, he said, both at the conference and 
in the Governing Body, and the Govern- 
ing Body had suggested that there might 
be an exchange of views among delegates 
at the present session. 

The purpose of this, he pointed out, 
would not be in order to record formal 
conclusions but that the Governing Body 
might have some information on the 
general views of the delegates on the 
matter. 

And, secondly, that the ILO should "get 
on with the job and so continue, whatever 
disagreements there may be on questions 
of a political character which reflect the 
present tensions and difficulties of the 
world, to make a solid and substantial 
contribution to the accomplishment of the 
purposes" set forth in the constitution and 
in the Declaration of Philadelphia. 

He said the conference had frequently 
been called upon to discuss certain ques- 
tions relating to fundamental freedoms and 
this year it had before it the question of 
forced labour. 

He hoped the conference would "deal with 
this important question in an appropriate 
and effective manner". 



839 




— J. G. Cadoux, Geneva 
A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister of Labour, 
is pictured (top row, with earphone) 
presiding at the opening of 39th Inter- 
national Labour Conference at Geneva. 
Speaking (bottom row, right) is H. 
Hauck, French Government Delegate. 

Mr. Brown also outlined the other tech- 
nical items on the agenda — the living and 
working conditions of indigenous peoples, 
weekly rest in commerce and offices, voca- 
tional training in agriculture and the 
welfare facilities for workers, as well as the 
Director-General's Report. 

Claude Jodoin 

Claude Jodoin, President of the Canadian 
Labour Congress, Canadian Worker Dele- 
gate to the conference, pointed out in his 
address that one of the first objectives of 
Canada's new labour congress would be the 
attainment of a comprehensive program of 
health care. 

He referred also to labour legislation in 
Canada and expressed belief in the need 
for a larger measure of uniformity across 
the country; the CLC, working with the 
various provincial federations, he said, 
hoped eventually to assist in bringing abour 
a national labour code. 

With reference to compulsory arbitration 
Mr. Jodoin said: 

There is one aspect of labour legislation 
on which our position is very clear and will 
remain clear. There has recently been 
speculation on the possibility of compulsory 



arbitration being imposed on one group of 
our brothers and sisters. Freedom to 
bargain collectively in a normal manner is 
essential to the democracy of which we are 
so justifiably proud. Those who face the 
threat of losing this right may be assured 
that the Canadian Labour Congress stands 
solidly behind them. This is a matter of 
principle. We are completely opposed to 
compulsory arbitration and we will use every 
effort in our command to prevent anyone 
being deprived of the right to strike. 

Noting the Director-General's report on 
social problems of adjustment to techno- 
logical change, Mr. Jodoin said although 
production was at record levels in Canada 
there was serious unemployment in certain 
areas and certain industries. "Although 
there were some improvements in that field 
in comparison with last year, the effects 
of automation are just beginning to be 
felt," he declared. 

"We feel confident," he said, "that auto- 
mation can make a very great contribution 
towards an increased standard of living; 
but it can also bring suffering and disaster 
to some individuals. Our organization must 
remain alert to this danger and be prepared 
to work co-operatively with management 
and government to avert such unfortunate 
results." 



Eight Resolutions 

In addition to the items on the agenda, 
eight resolutions were submitted to the 
conference. They were: — 

A resolution concerning automation, sub- 
mitted by the worker delegates of Cuba, 
Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany; 
Israel, Mexico, Switzerland, the United 
Kingdom and the United States. 

Two resolutions concerning the reduction 
of hours of work, submitted respectively 
by the worker delegates of the Soviet Union 
and of Czechoslovakia. 

A resolution concerning measures to 
widen the exchange among countries of 
experience in the field of work and rest 
of the workers and to contribute to mutual 
acquaintance with the conditions of life, 
work and rest of the workers, submitted 
by the worker delegate of the Soviet Union. 

A resolution concerning the abolition of 
discrimination based on sex in the field of 
remuneration, submitted by the govern- 
ment delegates of the Ukraine. 

A resolution concerning the review of 
ILO activities, submitted by the employer 
delegates of the United States, Ireland and 
Sweden. 

A resolution concerning the stopping of 
the armaments race, reduction of military 
expenditure and reversion of the resources 
thus released to the needs of developing 



840 



peaceful industry and improving the living 
conditions of the population, submitted by 
the government delegates of the Soviet 
Union. 

A resolution concerning the application 
of international conventions to non- 
metropolitan territories, submitted by the 
government delegates of Poland. 

Seating of Soviet Employers 

The conference decided to permit 
employer delegates of the Soviet Union 
and its satellites to sit in the technical 
committees of the conference as deputy 
members. The majority of the employers' 
group had not nominated to the com- 
mittees the employer representatives of 
Byelorussia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, 
Rumania, Czechoslovakia and the Ukraine, 
as well as the USSR. 

The vote was 120 for, 45 against, with 
36 abstentions. The Canadian Government 
Delegates voted for, the Employer Delegate 
against, and the Worker Delegate abstained. 
The conference took this decision on the 
recommendation of its selection (steering) 
committee following protests from the 
Eastern European employers at their 
exclusion. 

Henri Hauck, of France, Chairman of the 
steering committee, told the conference that 
the decision proposed was a provisional 
one in accordance with precedents estab- 
lished during the last two years and also 
at the European regional conference of 
the ILO. 

Canadian Employer Delegate W. A. 
Campbell took part in the discussion. Mr. 
Campbell recalled that he had spoken on 
the matter at last year's conference (L.G., 
Aug. 1955, p. 942). He endorsed the state- 
ments made then and said: 

On the very point now under discussion, 
a year ago the free employers charged that 
the Russian employers were not free from 
government domination. This claim is 
supported further since then by the fact 
that at that time there were four govern- 
ment speakers and only one employers' 
speaker from those countries. Of these the 
chief delegate of the Iron Curtain group . . . 
referred to the employers' freedom to run a 
plant. Neither the employers' delegates nor 
anyone else in the group dared to make any 
statement on this. We are not surprised at 
this; we expect it. It is, however, another 
fact supporting the position of the free 
employers, and the statements made so far 
from this rostrum this afternoon by the Iron 
Curtain employers have not altered this 
statement in any way. 

We free employers recognize that each 
country must choose its own way in which 
to operate, and this point was emphasized 
many times last year, but we say that the 
way chosen by the "stainless steel" curtain 
countries — and for that term all you need 



do is to refer to No. 6 of the Provisional 
Record of last year, page 30; they are the 
words of one of the Russian representatives 
— is not within the scope or spirit of the 
operations of the ILO. 

The objections taken by the free employers 
must be revised, as Mr. Bergenstrom 
(Employer Delegate, Sweden) has stated, 
and this problem placed squarely before the 
conference until it is properly solved. 

There can be no compromise on this 
matter, for the many reasons you have 
already heard stated by the free employers, 
and I hope that they will be duly considered 
by all those taking part in the vote today. 

The conference also approved the selec- 
tion committee's recommendation that the 
Yugoslav employer delegate be allowed to 
sit on one of the technical committees as 
a technical expert without power to vote. 
The voting, by show of hands, was 100 to 
37, with 20 abstentions. 

The conference earlier had turned down 
a Polish government amendment asking 
that Eastern European employers be 
seated on the technical committees as full 
members. The voting on this was 41 for, 
113 against, with 51 abstentions. The 
Canadian Government and Employer Dele- 
gates voted against the amendment; the 
Worker Delegate abstained. 

Employers', Workers' Freedom 

Despite a heavy schedule of important 
technical items, the conference took two 
days for an "exchange of views" on the 
question of the freedom of employers' and 
workers' organizations from government 
domination and control. 

Government, worker and employer dele- 
gates took the rostrum to discuss a report 
prepared by a three-man independent 
committee appointed by Director-General 
David A. Morse at the request of the 
Governing Body and headed by Lord 
McNair, former President of the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice. 

The committee had submitted its 
thousand-page report to the Governing 
Body last March. The Governing Body 
decided it needed time to consider the 
voluminous document and postponed con- 
sideration until November. In the mean- 
time, it asked for an "exchange of views" 
on the question on the floor of the con- 
ference (L.G., May, p. 535). 

A. H. Brown 

Opening the discussion, Arthur H. Brown, 
Canadian Government Delegate and Chair- 
man of the ILO Governing Body, hoped 
the "time of the conference would not be 
taken up by speakers in traversing the 
ground which has been covered and fought 
over in preceding sessions of the confer- 
ence, but rather in giving us the benefit 



841 



Prisons behind the Iron Curtain must 
be emptied of men and women con- 
fined for activities on behalf of workers' 
rights if forced labour is to be effec- 
tively eliminated, the Labor Committee 
to Release Imprisoned Trade Unionists 
and Democratic Socialists has declared 
in a resolution passed last month and 
forwarded to the International Labour 
Office. 

The resolution pointed out th&t "vast 
numbers of trade unionists and other 
spokesmen for workers' rights have been 
condemned to penal servitude for civic 
activities which can be construed as 
crimes under the loose administrative 
codes of certain states". 

It concluded that these people must 
be freed as "a necessary first step 
towards implementation of any Forced 
Labour Convention". 

The Labor Committee to Release 
Imprisoned Trade Unionists and 
Democratic Socialists is comprised of 
prominent trade union and political 
figures from all over the world. 



of your thinking as to the principles" in- 
volved and in making constructive sugges- 
tions for the satisfactory solution of the 
difficulties. 

The McNair Committee, Mr. Brown said, 
had received a remarkable measure of 
co-operation from governments; and no 
fewer than 65 governments had co-operated 
in the inquiry. 

Mr. Brown stated there were two points 
he wished to emphasize. 

The first is that until the present con- 
troversy arose, no question was raised in any 
quarter concerning the principle of the 
university of the ILO — the principle was 
reaffirmed unanimously by both the confer- 
ence and the Governing Body on many 
occasions, as is indicated in the report. 

Secondly, the Governing Body, in the 
preamble to the resolution passed in March 
1955 providing for the establishment of the 
McNair Committee, unanimously agreed that 
the maintenance of the tripartite system of 
representation is essential to the effective 
functioning of the organization. 

The problem on which the Governing Body 
seeks your advice is the manner in which 
these two fundamental principles are to be 
reconciled. 



The McNair report, Mr. Brown pointed 
out, had served to bring out clearly the 
wide diversities existing between the 
economic systems at present in existence 
in member states of the ILO and the extent 
of government participation in the economic 
activities of their countries. 

"I think we must accept as an axiomatic 
fact that in all countries employers' and 
workers' organizations are subject to some 
measure of control under the general laws 
of the State," Mr. Brown declared. "But 
what is our concern in our efforts to 
promote effective implementation of the 
principles and objectives of this organiza- 
tion is that these measures should not be 
of the nature which withhold the right to 
organize or to carry on the legitimate 
activities inherent in the nature of man- 
agement and worker organizations, or the 
freedom to develop and express publicly 
at home or in the activities of this organ- 
ization their views on matters which are 
of interest or concern to them." 

The Canadian delegate added: 

It would be a relatively simple matter 
for this conference, if content to be guided 
solely by the views of some, to eliminate all 
employer and worker delegates who do not 
meet with the standards set by the ir- 
respective conference groups. But I do 
believe that governments of most member 
states would find such a course of action 
unacceptable, and I suggest to you that the 
ultimate result which might reasonably 
follow from such action would be the reduc- 
tion of the membership of this organization 
to a limited select group of countries. This 
would mean, of course, a reduced scope and 
area for the effective operation of the organ- 
ization, a result which all of us would regret. 

The alternative result flowing from such 
action might be the transformation of this 
organization into a purely intergovernmental 
organization. I do not believe that any of 
us would wish for a transformation of this 
nature because of the appreciation we have 
of the peculiar appropriateness and capacity 
of our tripartite structure. 

W. A. Campbell 

W. A. Campbell, Canadian Employer 
Delegate, recognized the right of the 
Eastern European countries to choose their 
own forms of government but, he said, now 
that they are back in the ILO, "they should 
accept what they find and give it a chance 
to work". 



The Canadian delegation to the 39th International Labour Conference at Geneva 

Seated (left to right): W. A. Campbell, employer delegate; Miss Edith Lorentsen, government adviser; 
Paul Goulet, government delegate; A. H. Brown, head of delegation and government delegate; 
Miss V. I. Milks, stenographer; and Claude Jodoin, worker delegate. Standing (left to right): 
A. H. Balch, worker adviser; M. G. Clark, government adviser; H. T. Pammett, secretary to the dele- 
gation; M. P. Fitzpatrick, worker adviser; W. M. Baker, employer adviser; H. L. Ladd, worker adviser; 
C. E. Shumaker and J. M. Soules, employer advisers; A. W. Crawford, government adviser; W. G. 
Scott, employer adviser; John Mainwaring, government adviser; Gerard Picard, worker adviser; H. W. 
Macdonnell, employer adviser; Richard Courtney, worker adviser; and Lt.-Col. Eric Acland, government adviser. 



842 




843 



He referred to a number of limitations 
which he felt the McNair Committee had 
had to work under in the preparation of its 
report. 

He said: 

If, however, the Committee had been free 
and had had the time to visit the various 
countries — and I refer specifically now to the 
countries in the Russian bloc — they might 
still not have got the full answer to the 
questions that they were asking because I 
am aware of the experience of some who 
have recently visited Russia, that there is still 
limited access to the cities and even when 
in the cities there is the feeling of being 
under constant surveillance. 

The report is, I think, as we expected; it 
only goes so far. ... It omits the aspect 
completely of the Communist Party control 
of government, employers and workers. That 
is a difficult problem but it has not been 
inserted and I know the Governing Body 
will bear it in mind in their considerations. 

There is another position taken by several 
workers whom I know. They will not visit 
Russia until the trade union movement in 
Russia is free. Now, you have heard many 
statements by the Iron Curtain representa- 
tives that they have complete freedom, so, 
being very conservative on the statement, I 
might say that even yet it cannot be denied 
that at least the question is open to doubt, 
and yet the barriers are closed for any real, 
substantial investigation. These are some of 
the subsidiary facts in the McNair report to 
be considered and we would caution the 
Governing Body that all the facts in the 
report that they review must be carefully 
considered and, where appropriate, weighed 
against the background I have just mentioned. 

There has been some discussion with 
respect to the doctrine of universality. I 
think perhaps it is open to some question. 
All it takes is one country either making 
application for membership in the ILO but 
not being willing to abide by the constitu- 
tion and therefore not continuing to press 
its application, or the situation where a 
country would not apply it because it did 
not agree to abide by the constitution of 
the ILO. In either case, the doctrine of 
universality is dealt a blow, and to the 
extent that the conference and the ILO 
might try to aim at that as an ideal, it 
gets hit fairly hard. 

So that leaves the other aspect that 
possibly comes into play, namely the 
tripartite structure. That obviously is more 
tangible and more obtainable. We have had 
it for 37 years, and one of the main bases 
of it, as we have heard many times, is that 
each party is free of the other; that the 
government does not nominate either of the 
other two; that each group, employers and 
workers, choose their own representatives. 
The report indicates that this is not so in 
the Russian sectors and, as we have said 
before, we can probably have no objection 
to this. They also have the right, and it 
is recognized, to choose their own form of 
government, their own method of operation, 
but when approaching the ILO they must 
work through the channels that have been 
provided and, as free employers have said 
many times, those channels are government 
channels. This may or may not involve a 
change in the voting system of the ILO. I 



think possibly not; this is not the time for 
that discussion but it might be considered 
later. All I say on this point is that I 
believe the Russian group, who took part in 
the conference as members of the ILO for 
a short time in the 30's, are now back and 
that they should accept what they find and 
give it a chance to work. 

We must make haste with due considera- 
tion of all the facts because they are not 
easy to unscramble. So we say that the 
sooner a solution is found the better, and 
that while the problem is not an easy one 
it must be worked on until properly solved. 

United States Government Delegate 

The United States Government Delegate, 
David W. Wainhouse, said: 

The original question remains: How can 
the participation of Communist employer 
and worker representatives be reconciled 
with the traditional practices of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization? 

The crucial issue is the extent to which 
employer and worker representatives are 
free of their own governments to determine 
their own policies and actions, as for 
example, in voting in the International 
Labour Organization. 

Mr. Wainhouse said that in the 
Communist countries the usual functions of 
employers' organizations "are in fact 
indistinguishable from the various functions 
of the Communist governments". 

As for workers' organizations, he declared, 
they "do not represent and defend the 
interests of the working class as trade 
unions do in non-Communist countries. A 
'mechanism of transmission' is far different 
from the vital, dynamic, self-generating and 
independently active force represented by 
non-Communist worker delegates to the 
International Labour Organization." 

United Kingdom Employer Delegate 

Sir Richard Snedden, United Kingdom 
Employer Delegate, said it was "the con- 
sidered views of British employers" that 
the McNair report must have convinced 
anyone who did not know it perfectly well 
already that the ILO is no longer a 
tripartite organization. There were several 
delegations at the conference, he said, 
whose employers and workers were com- 
pletely bound to their governments. 

In these countries, the tripartism, of which 
we used to be so proud, is now a mere 
optical illusion. 

This organization must at the Governing 
Body in November and in the conference 
make a clear choice between two quite 
incompatible doctrines. The first is the 
tripartite doctrine, which has in the past 
been the pride and strength of this organ- 
ization. The second doctrine is that of 
universality. 

The choice must be soon made, and so 
far as the British employers are concerned 
they will throw their whole weight in favour 



844 



of restoring the tripartite structure. We 
never have accepted, do not and never shall 
accept the doctrine of universality in its 
undiluted form. 

He felt there were five possible courses 
of action before the ILO. 

The first was to do nothing at all. The 
second was to change the constitution; 
this, in his view, must be done. The Con- 
stitution should be amended "so as to 
provide that in countries where employers' 
and workers' representatives cannot be 
appointed by organizations which were 
genuinely free from government domina- 
tion and control, then employers' and 
workers' representatives should not be 
appointed at all". 

The third course was to amend the 
standing orders of the conference. 

The fourth course was a "free" ILO. "It 
may well be that ultimately the only real 
solution is for the free countries to with- 
draw from the present set-up and establish 
an ILO of their own." He did not suggest 
that this course be taken immediately but 
if the ILO "will not face up to the facts 
now it is a course which may have to be 
taken very soon". 

The fifth course was "to abolish the ILO 
as we have known it for 37 years and to 
transform it into a purely intergovern- 
mental organization". So far as the "free 
employers" were concerned, he stated, they 
would reject such a proposal. 

Soviet Employer Delegate 

Georgii Surguchev, USSR Employer 
Delegate, said in any international organ- 
ization, including the ILO, it is possible 
to discuss the advantage and disadvantages 
of any given economic system "but it is 
necessary to base oneself on the unques- 
tionable fact that the system exists and 
functions". 

The experience of undertakings in the 
Soviet Union and the People's Democra- 
cies was "extremely valuable and can bring 
a very great contribution to the activity 
of the ILO". 

The directors of socialist undertakings 
were fully responsible for the production 
and running of the undertakings and 
every undertaking was endowed with a 
juridical personality. He explained in 
detail the fundamental duties of these 
directors. 

"An active participation by the leaders 
of industry in the socialist countries in the 
work of the employers' group would help 
to make use of this experience, just as 
the study of the experience obtained in 
other countries in the sphere of organizing 
production would help to improve economic 



development in other countries of the 
world," Mr. Surguchev declared. 

The tripartite structure, he said, was 
necessary and should be retained. 

United States Employer Delegate 

United States Employer Delegate 
Charles H. Smith said that while the 
McNair report revealed little that was not 
known before, it was valuable to the extent 
that it contained documented information 
which could be considered authoritative. 

Its most valuable contribution was to 
point up the dilemma of the ILO in 
dealing with the problems of today with an 
instrument formulated in 1919. This 
dilemma was reflected in the report itself. 

"To maintain the fiction of employers 
in Communistic countries, the majority of 
the McNair Committee hinged its report 
on two so-called basic principles," Mr. 
Smith declared. They were: (1) univer- 
sality, and (2) freedom and independence 
within the organization of the employers' 
and workers' representatives. 

The Committee implied, Mr. Smith said, 
that these two principles were inseparable, 
while, in fact, they are "absolutely incom- 
patible". The ILO would have to move 
in either one direction or the other, he 
said. 

Mr. Smith said: 

When the Governing Body takes up this 
problem in November, I urge that the in- 
compatibility of universality and the 
tripartite character of this organization be 
given full recognition. This is a matter of 
grave concern to all of the free employers 
of the ILO and, as I have said before, they 
will never accept willingly government 
officials forced into their ranks, ^ diluting 
their voting strength and eliminating 
equality from the ILO tripartite system. 

Indian Employer Delegate 

Naval H. Tata, Employer Delegate from 
India, said "it is a pity that the discus- 
sion of this issue has deteriorated into an 
attempt to outlaw certain member states 
rather than rectify the situation under 
which the annual masquerade of govern- 
mental nominees as employers and workers 
is perpetrated under the guise of inviol- 
able doctrine of universality. 

"Our decisions at this conference," he 
said, "emerge as a result of counting votes 
based on tripartite activity. As a result, 
the entire mechanics of this system become 
vitiated when certain member states, 
through governmental domination, not 
only vote on the governmental ticket but. 
also on the employers' and workers' tickets. 

"Any decision so reached is a contam- 
inated piece of legislation and is a mockery 
and travesty of tripartism which cannot 
be tolerated." 



845 



Mr. Tata proposed that the credentials 
committee be empowered to grant a 
challenged delegate status as an observer, 
without the right to vote. Such a dele- 
gate, he said, should be able to invite a 
fact-finding mission to his country from the 
International Organization of Employers 
or the International Confederation of Free 
Trade Unions, as the most representative 
international employers' and workers' 
organizations. 

Employer Delegate, The Netherlands 

A. G. Fennema, Employer Delegate from 
The Netherlands, agreed that it was 
impossible to reconcile the principles of 
universality and freedom of association. 
Universality, he said, is "a fairy tale". 

He thought one of the "basic mistakes" 
the ILO had made was to give the 
"admission right to the ILO to all coun- 
tries admitted to the United Nations". 

World Federation of Trade Unions 

In a document distributed to the dele- 
gates, the World Federation of Trade 
Unions said that the McNair report 
revealed serious infringements of trade 
union rights affecting a great number of 
workers. 

The WFTU called for the improvement 
of ILO conventions presently in force in 
the field of trade union rights and for 
more effective assistance to workers and 
trade union organizations suffering in- 
fringement of their rights. 

It urged consultation between interna- 
tional trade union organizations to con- 
sider an appeals and enforcement procedure 
to protect trade union rights that should 
be more rapid and effective than the 
procedure now in force. 

International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions 

J. H. Oldenbroek, General Secretary of 
the International Confederation of Free 
Trade Unions, said the free trade union 
movement was primarily responsible for 
setting up the ILO. 

We believed then and we believe today 
that the future of the ILO and of its work 
depends on its tripartite character. 

Therefore, all the new countries which 
come into the organization and the old ones 
which are already in it where freedom of 
association does not exist have got to 
introduce it. 

In the ILO, we Avant representatives of 
labour who are free, free to act against 
their own governments if necessary, and free 
to vote as the situation demands. 

Mr. Oldenbroek said freedom of asso- 
ciation should be made a condition of ILO 
membership. 



Soviet Government Delegate 

Soviet Government Delegate Amazasp 
Arutiunian said "it was no secret to any- 
body that when the ILO was set up its 
members were only the capitalist countries". 

The world has changed, he said, and the 
problem now was to find a harmonization 
between the principles of universality and 
the tripartite structure so as to ensure the 
successful working of the ILO. 

There should be freedom to disagree 
even within the groups. No one had a 
monopoly of thinking. Governments differed 
in their opinions and so might workers 
and employers. Co-operation between 
different systems within the ILO was both 
possible and desirable. 

Irish Employer Delegate 

Irish Employer Delegate John J. O'Brien, 
declaring that he was not proposing exclu- 
sion of certain countries, said: — ■ 

"We are discussing solely the question of 
accrediting people who are dominated and 
controlled by government, as free repre- 
sentatives of workers and employers. 

"Anybody who likes can come into the 
employers' group as an employer provided 
he can prove that he is non-government 
and that he is not subject to government 
domination and control." 

United Kingdom Government Delegate 

Sir Guildhaume Myrddin-Evans, United 
Kingdom Government Delegate, said the 
McNair report had made it completely 
clear that one could not amend the ILO 
constitution "to hit at some countries with- 
out hitting at other countries as well". 

He could not agree that the two prin- 
ciples of universality and tripartism were 
irreconcilable. 

"These doctrines or forms or structures 
are merely instruments, just like the con- 
stitution of the ILO, for forwarding the 
purposes of the International Labour 
Organization," Sir Guildhaume declared. 

If these forms or instruments — whether 
you are referring to the constitution or to 
the conception of tripartism as it existed for 
35 years, or to the conception of universality 
—are no longer appropriate to the changing 
circumstances of the day, then surely it is 
those instruments which have to be changed 
and re-fashioned and not the purposes of the 
organization itself. 

No one, he said, had tried to define 
universality or tripartism. 

There were at least three elements in 
tripartism. Firstly, that employers and 
workers had their own peculiar contribu- 
tion to make to the work of the ILO; 



846 



secondly, that they were entitled to vote 

individually; and thirdly, it was intended 

to have a nicely balanced strength as 

between representatives of employers and 

workers. 

1 Some of those things had changed, the 

United Kingdom delegate declared. 

We have moved from a world which was 
almost entirely a world of private enter- 
prise into a world which now consists of a 
substantial extent of state-owned, state- 
controlled and state-run enterprise. 

But surely, and this is said by the McNair 
Committee, the representatives of manage- 
ment can still make their contribution to 
the problems with which we have to deal 
even though the contribution of the repre- 
sentatives of those people coming from the 
states, or indeed from the industries, where 
the industry is owned or controlled by the 
state, differs from the contribution which 
would be made by the general body of 
employers coming from other countries. 

Sir Guildhaume said everybody was agreed 
that worker and employer delegates should 
vote freely, but added: 

I would like to ask the Conference this 
question. Is it not possible that 35 years 
of development of the group system in the 
ILO, with its rigid discipline and its insist- 
ance that, generally speaking, members of 
the groups should vote according to the 
general desire of the groups — that that 
development is also in conflict with this 
particular provision of the constitution? 



He felt it was indisputable that the 
balance between the employers' and 
workers' representatives as it existed in 
1919 in the ILO had been destroyed. 
Government, worker and employer dele- 
gates of certain countries now voted in a 
bloc and generally it was the government 
delegates who decided which way they 
should vote. 

With regards to universality, Sir Guild- 
haume said everyone was agreed that 
"people everywhere are entitled to the 
benefits of the objectives of the ILO, not 
only the people living in states which are 
mainly free enterprise states". 

New ILO Members 

The 39th session admitted three new 
members to the ILO : Tunisia, the Sudan 
and Morocco, bringing the ILO's total 
membership to 76. The admission of the 
three newly independent countries was by 
a unanimous vote of the conference. 

Membership in the ILO of countries 
previously admitted to the United Nations 
becomes effective when they accept the 
obligations of the ILO Constitution, and 
no vote is needed. 



Fifth Session of the ILO Building, Civil 

Engineering and Public Works Committee 

Resolutions are adopted on safety in the construction industry and on 
relationship between national housing programs and full employment 



Safety in the construction industry and 
the provision of technical assistance to 
promote it, especially in the under- 
developed countries, was one of the two 
main subjects considered at the fifth 
session of the Building, Civil Engineering 
and Public Works Committee* of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization held in 
Geneva from May 14 to 26, 1956. 

The second question deliberated on by 
the Committee was the social importance 
of the relationship between national hous- 
ing programs and full employment. 

*One of the ILO's Industrial Committees inaugu- 
rated in 1945 to deal with the particular problems 
of some of the most important international 
industries. 



Government, worker and employer dele- 
gates from 20 countries participated in the 
session. The countries attending were: 
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Canada, Chile, Denmark, Egypt, France, 
Federal Republic of Germany, India, Israel, 
Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, 
Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, 
United States. The Soviet Union was 
represented by a tripartite delegation of 
observers. 

Safety in Construction Industry 

Exposure to the weather, high turnover 
of labour, and the temporary nature from 
the construction point of view of the 
places where the work is carried on were 
mentioned in a report placed before the 
Committee as features which increased the 



847 




— Urs G. Ami, Geneva 

The Canadian delegation to the Fifth Session of the ILO Building, Civil Engineering 
and Public Works Committee (1. to r.) : Omer Chevalier, worker delegate; Raymond 
Brunet and J. M. Soules, employer delegates; Harry Colnett, worker delegate; and 
Gil Schonning and J. L. MacDougall, Department of Labour, Government delegates. 



risks, and the difficulty of applying safety 
measures, and which did not exist in most 
other industries. 

Certain means which might be taken to 
reduce risks in the industry were outlined 
in the report. Architects and designing 
engineers could contribute to a reduction 
of accidents by bearing in mind when 
drawing up plans not only the safety of 
construction workers, but also that of 
maintenance men. They could also help, 
the report said, by familiarizing themselves 
with safety rules and legislation and the 
practical details of safe working practices 
in construction operations, and by drawing 
these things to the attention of their 
clients. 

Designers and manufacturers of construc- 
tion machinery should bear in mind the 
safety of the operators. "With the progres- 
sive mechanization of industry, accidents 
may be expected to increase, particularly 
in under-developed countries where the 
scope for further mechanization is generally 
the greatest. While a large proportion of 
such accidents may be attributed to insuffi- 
cient training of construction workers, some 
of them have been due to faults in the 
equipment itself," the report pointed out. 

Training seemed to offer the most 
promising means of reducing the number 



of accidents, the report said. "The 
majority of fatal accidents on construction 
sites are due to lack of realization of the 
consequences of apparently harmless acts," 
it remarked. 

Undue hurry on the job was a common 
cause of accidents, the report declared. It 
also suggested that clauses should be 
included in collective agreements to protect 
workers from being penalized for refusing 
to work under unsafe conditions. 

Arising out of this report prepared by 
officials of the ILO, a lengthy resolution 
was unanimously passed by the Committee. 
It declared that : "All practicable steps with 
a view to ensuring the highest degree of 
safety for workers in the construction 
industry in all countries should be taken 
through all available and appropriate 
agencies." 

The steps suggested included the follow- 
ing:— 

Safety to be given due importance in all 
vocational training schemes. 

Safety officers with necessary powers to 
be appointed and joint safety committees 
to be established. Workers should be able 
to put forward safety suggestions without 
fear of jeopardising their employment. 

First aid equipment and staff to be 
provided. 



848 



Inquiries into causes of accidents to be 
conducted by competent and qualified 
persons. 

Accident statistics to be compiled and 
disseminated in the industry. 

Relevant legislation to be effectively 
enforced. 

Adequate safety rules and standards 
regarding the manufacture and operation 
of machinery and equipment to be pre- 
prescribed; such machinery and equipment 
should be regularly inspected and main- 
tained. 

Attention was drawn to fatigue arising 
from excessively long hours as a factor 
increasing the risk of accidents. 

The resolution asked the ILO Governing 
Body to request governments and workers' 
and employers' organizations to take steps 
to emphasize the need for safety con- 
sciousness and publicize the steps suggested 
in the resolution. 

It also recommended extension of the 
scope of the Safety Provisions (Building) 
Convention of 1937 to the whole construc- 
tion industry. 

The resolution then asked the Interna- 
tional Labour Office to expand and improve 
its collection and dissemination of accident 
statistics and to promote the encourage- 
ment of safe work methods. 

Another resolution unanimously adopted 
suggested that the Office broaden its activi- 
ties in training and education in safety in 
the industry. 

Housing Programs and Full Employment 

There is no country in the world today, 
not even the most favourably situated, 
which is not confronted with a workers' 
housing problem of national importance. 
And this is true for countries where the 
population is adequately fed and clothed 
and where productivity and national income 
are kept at a high level, according to a 
report, "National Housing and Full 
Employment," prepared by officials of the 
ILO for the Committee. 

Wars, large-scale population movements 
to cities, natural disasters and high rates 
of population growth were given as main 
causes of this situation. Another important 
cause was stated to be "the fact that the 
house-building industry has experienced less 
cost reduction as a result of the industrial 
revolution than perhaps has any other 
industry catering to the basic needs of 
workers". 

In some countries the production of 
building materials has not kept pace with 
the needs of the construction industry, the 
report stated. Other handicaps suffered by 



the industry were snortage 01 skilled man- 
power, technicians and supervisors, insta- 
bility of employment and seasonal unem- 
ployment, and sometimes credit restrictions. 

While hours of work in the construction 
industry has decreased in Canada, The 
Netherlands and the United States, they 
had increased in France, the Federal 
Republic of Germany, the Saar, Switzer- 
land and the United Kingdom, the report 
said. 

After a study of the report had been 
made, the Committee passed, with a fair 
degree of unanimity, in view of the acri- 
monious debate that occurred, a resolution 
that read m part as follows: 

1. The solution of housing problems is to 
be found in well-planned, continuing and 
regular building activity which takes into 
account — 

(a) the existing housing shortage, clearly 
and objectively determined, in order 
that each family may be accommodated 
in a decent dwelling as soon as 
possible; 

(b) current and future needs, based on 
predictable fluctuations in total popu- 
lation and in the composition of house- 
holds; 

(c) the number of dwellings which need 
to be replaced because they are sub- 
standard or because they can no 
longer be used owing to town planning 
needs or owing to conversion to non- 
residental use; 

(d) the need to preserve the mobility of 
labour and to combat unemployment 
by building dwellings near centres of 
production or in places easily acces- 
sible thereto. 

2. In order to increase housing construc- 
tion in the various countries, it is essential 
to avoid an atmosphere unfavourable to 
investment by private persons or by private 
institutions in the building of dwellings. 

3. The standard and amount of housing to 
be built vary according to the standard of 
living and resources in each country. The 
standard of accommodation and its cost to 
the occupant should be in accordance with 
his requirements and resources, without 
endangering general living standards and 
particularly the living standard of low- 
income groups. 

4. If the level of employment in general 
is such that the construction of a sufficient 
number of dwellings is threatened because 
manpower and building materials are used 
in increasing proportion in other sectors of 
the construction industry, building activity, 
other than housing, industrial building and 
projects of national or public importance, 
should be limited by postponing investment 
in less important types of construction. 

5. In order to maintain a high rate of 
housing construction and to ensure an 
adequate supply of dwellings at reasonable 
rentals in accordance with the general level 
of wages, the amount of financial aid for 
new dwellings should always be adjusted in 
line with changes in the rate of interest 
payable on the loans necessary to construct 
them. 



849 



6. Adequate town and country planning 
and a reasonable land policy are most 
desirable for the realization of housing 
programs and the ensuring of continuous full 
employment. 

7. In the less developed countries and in 
countries suffering from large-scale unem- 
ployment or underemployment, simultaneously 
with the construction of industrial and other 
installations provision should be made for 
workers' housing projects. . . . 

8. It would be desirable to create, in those 
countries where they do not as yet exist, 
housing bodies under the auspices of the 
competent public authorities in order to try 
to solve the problem of housing and _ to 
achieve full employment in the construction 
industry. 

Other Resolutions 

A number of other resolutions adopted 
by the Committee included one urging the 
Governing Body to place the question of 
shorter working hours on the agenda for 
the next session of the Committee, and one 
which invited the Governing Body to put 
on the agenda of the next session the 
question of the conditions of employment 
of workers employed by construction con- 
tractors who supply labour only, as distinct 
from other services normally provided by 
contractors in the industry. It was also 
suggested that the ILO should undertake 
studies of this matter on the spot in several 
of the less industrialized countries. 



Other subjects suggested to the Govern- 
ing Body for the agenda of the sixth 
session were: the effects of mechanization 
in the construction industry; welfare facili- 
ties; living and working conditions of 
young workers; and international labour 
mobility in the construction industry. With 
special reference to the less industrialized 
countries, vocational training and the living 
and working conditions of employees in 
the industry were also mentioned. 

Canadian Delegation 

The Canadian delegation to the session 
was made up as follows: — 

Government Delegates: J. L. MacDougall, 
Secretary, Canada Labour Relations Board, 
and Gil Schonning, Economics and Research 
Branch, both of the Department of Labour. 

Employer Delegates: Raymond Brunet, 
Director and Past-president of the Cana- 
dian Construction Association, Hull, Que., 
and J. M. Soules, Director, Canadian Con- 
struction Association, Toronto. 

Worker Delegates: Harry Colnett, Gen- 
eral Organizer, Brotherhood of Painters, 
Decorators and Paperhangers of America 
(CLC), Toronto, and Omer Chevalier, 
Treasurer, National Federation of Build- 
ing and Construction Materials Trades 
(CCCL), Quebec. 



6 th Session, Coal Mines Committee 



Attention called to desirability of establishing national fuel policy 
that takes into account part played by coal industry in the national 
economy. Resolutions passed on safety, manpower, vocational training 



The place of coal in the world economy 
was stressed by government, worker and 
employer delegates of 16 coal-producing 
countries at the sixth session of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization's Coal Mines 
Committee in Istanbul, Turkey. A Cana- 
dian delegation attended the meeting. 

In a resolution adopted unanimously, the 
meeting asked the ILO Governing Body to 
draw the attention of governments to : — 

(1) The social consequences arising from 
fuel and power consumption trends, and 

(2) The desirability of establishing 
national fuel and labour policies that take 
into account the part to be played by the 
coal industry in the national economy and 
that would ensure the most efficient utiliza- 
tion of solid fuels. 



The Committee said it was convinced of 
the desirability of promoting a stable level 
of employment in the industr}' in all the 
coal-producing countries, and called atten- 
tion to the social consequences which the 
substitution for coal of other forms of fuel 
and energy, including atomic energy, may 
have on the lives of the mine workers. 

The Committee adopted three other 
resolutions suggesting measures to improve 
industrial safety in coal mines, to retain 
manpower and facilitate recruitment, and to 
harmonize methods and programs for voca- 
tional training of workers and supervisors. 

The first resolution stated that improve- 
ment of safety was of primary importance 
because of the human suffering and also 
the material loss that accidents inflict on 
miners, the industry and the national 
economy. 



850 



Such an improvement requires the mobil- 
ization of the joint efforts of employers, 
workers and governments. 

An inspection service with sufficient and 
properly trained personnel should be set up 
by the public authorities to check on the 
strict application of safety measures by 
employers and workers. 

A special service composed of qualified 
representatives chosen by the management 
should be set up in each mine to supervise 
safety and health conditions permanently 
at workplaces. 

The resolution also underlined the 
importance of joint advisory safety com- 
mittees, good vocational training, creating 
of safety consciousness and the need to 
reduce fatigue. It says: 

As the risk of accidents is increased by 
the effects of fatigue it would be advisable 
to take into consideration every suitable 
measure to reduce the effort required by 
miners. 

It would be advisable, where justified, that 
the extension of mechanization and of the 
use of equipment designed to lighten work 
and to help increase production be encour- 
aged. 

The resolution also mentioned the 
importance of fixing tasks after consulta- 
tion with workers, so as not to cause 
exceptional fatigue, the need for trans- 
portation from pit bottom and workplace, 
decent housing, social services, and special 
measures to protect older workers from 
being exposed to risks through fatigue. 

The resolution on recruitment stated 
that the demand for coal can be expected 
to be maintained or to expand further 
despite the competition of other sources of 
energy. 



In addition, it recalled measures already 
suggested to retain manpower and facilitate 
the recruitment of new workers, to improve 
the standing of coal mines as an occupa- 
tion, and to insure wages at rates which 
will provide an income as attractive as 
income in industry generally. 

The Committee also recommended that 
young men be offered a career in coal 
mining that would have real opportunities 
of promotion. 

The resolution on vocational training 
stated that an effort should be made to 
develop and harmonize methods and pro- 
grams for vocational training of workers 
and supervisors. Methods of training 
could be improved, it states, by organizing 
courses abroad for vocational training in- 
structors. Also, training programs would be 
improved if they were sufficiently flexible 
in order to be easily adapted to the 
progress made in mechanization and 
modernization of mining techniques. Other 
provisions of the resolution concern wages 
of trainees and training of skilled workers. 

The Canadian delegation comprised: — 

Government Delegate: R. E. Anderson. 
Deputy Minister, Nova Scotia Department 
of Labour, Halifax. 

Employer Delegates: N. T. Avard, Presi- 
dent, Joggins Coal Company Limited, 
Amherst, N.S.; and David G. Burchell, 
General Manager, Bras d'Or Coal Company 
Ltd., Bras d'Or, N.S. 

Worker Delegates: Dan Radford, Regional 
Director, Canadian Congress of Labour, 
Vancouver; and Don Nicholson, General 
Representative, Canadian Congress of 
Labour, Stellarton, N.S. 



ILO Seminar Discusses Vocational Training 



Ways of developing vocational training 
in Europe to meet the demands of tech- 
nological advances as well as the needs of 
increasing numbers of young people enter- 
ing the employment market were discussed 
recently by representatives of 11 European 
countries at the International Labour 
Organization's headquarters in Geneva. 

The seminar was organized jointly by 
the Organization for European Economic 
Co-operation, the European Productivity 
Agency and the ILO. 

The conference agreed that the future 
needs of Europe would require improve- 



ment of vocational training facilities both 
as regards the numbers trained and types of 
training given. They also saw possibilities 
of fruitful collaboration between European 
countries in the solution of the problem. 

The conference outlined a number of 
items such as vocational guidance, psycho- 
logical testing, training methods, ways of 
attracting good teachers and instructors, 
etc., as needing further attention. 

The conference stressed the need for con- 
tinuing exchanges of information on voca- 
tional training at the international level. 



851 



TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Joint consultation helps to keep Canada's 
atomic energy program rolling in high gear 
at the large and complex atomic energy 
"community" at Chalk River, Ont. More 
than 2,000 scientific, technical, skilled and 
operational employees work together to pro- 
duce and develop products of the atomic age. 

Management (The Atomic Energy of 
Canada Ltd.) and labour (represented by 
the Atomic Energy Allied Council) have 
used joint consultation mainly as a two- 
way communication channel. The need 
for such a channel becomes apparent when 
it is realized that there are nine individual 
craft unions representing the employees. 

There are actually two co-operative 
committees at AECL. The larger com- 
mittee is made up of one labour member 
from each of the nine unions, plus one 
representing the Allied Council, and an 
equal number of management representa- 
tives. The second, The Management 
Association Committee, is made up of 
technical employees, represented by the 
American Federation of Technical Engi- 
neers, and management. 

The system of joint consultation at the 
project has been custom made to suit the 
particular needs and circumstances found 
there. It is hoped to gradually expand 
the committee's scope as needed. At 
present the work of the committee centres 
around the recognition "that co-operation 
between the company and the employees is 
indispensable to the accomplishment of the 
public purposes for which the committee 
has been established. This committee shall 
give consideration to matters such as the 
elimination of waste in construction and 
production; the conservation of materials; 
the promotion of education and training 
in the plant; safeguarding of health; the 
prevention of hazards to life and property; 
the betterment of employment conditions; 
and matters affecting employee welfare." 
* * * 

"Operation Safety Week", a joint 
labour-management-government promotion, 
designed to focus attention on the need 
for maximum safety in the British Columbia 
forest products industry, has been declared 
a success. During the week of May 7-11, 
various programs were carried out under 
the direction of the Joint Committee, 



Forest Products Safety Week. This com- 
mittee is a "voluntary labour-management- 
government organization united by mutual 
consent in a common effort to promote the 
elimination of accidents, to foster safer 
working conditions in the forest products 
industries in British Columbia." 
The committee has three specific aims: — 

1. To promote an industry-wide safety 
week. 

2. To demonstrate that accidents can be 
prevented by means of sincere interest and 
determined action. 

3. To permanently establish a higher 
standard of accident prevention performance 
in the industry. 

The Safety Week just completed has 
been called the most successful of the six 
held to date. Only 16 accidents were 
reported in the industry during the week, 
none fatal, and none considered to be 
dangerously serious. During the week, all 
accidents in the forest products industry 
were reduced by almost 80 per cent from 
the expected weekly rate. 

Sharing the Safety Week effort with 
the various industry groups were the 
International Woodworkers of America, 
the International Brotherhood of Pulp, 
Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers, and 
the Shingle Weavers' Union. Major con- 
tributions were made by the Workmen's 
Compensation Board, the Labour-Manage- 
ment Co-operation Service, Forest Indus- 
trial Relations Limited, the St. John's 
Ambulance Association and the British 
Columbia Industrial First Aid Attendants' 
Association. 

* * * 

Joint consultation and co-operation are 
proving effective at the Windsor, Ont., 
plant of the Rinshed-Mason Company of 
Canada Ltd. Speaking of the committee, 
Vice-President and General Manager 
Newell P. Beckwith said: "We feel that it 
has fostered teamwork, promoted a friendly 
spirit of co-operation and mutual under- 
standing, and greatly improved relations 
between labour and management. We are 
very happy to endorse and support this 
movement which in the past year has 
shown itself a very great asset to our 
organization." 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Production Committees (LMPCs) is 
encouraged and assisted by the Labour- 
Management Co-operation Service. In- 
dustrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field repre- 
sentatives located in key industrial 
centres, who are available to help both 
managements and trade unions set up 
LMPCs, the Service provides publicity 
aids in the form of booklets, films and 
posters. 



852 



Industrial Relations 
and Conciliation 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Board met for one day during May. 
It issued three certificates designating 
bargaining agents, and refused one request 
for review of an earlier decision. During 
the month, the Board allowed the with- 
drawal of two applications for certification 
and received ten applications for certifica- 
tion. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. International Union of United Brewery, 
Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink and Distillery 
Workers of America, Local Union No. 338, 
on behalf of a unit of employees of Brett- 
Young Seeds Ltd., employed in the com- 
pany's seed plant at Winnipeg, Man. 
(L.G., May, p. 540). 

2. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers employed by Branch 
Lines Limited, Sorel, Que., aboard the 
vessels Cedarbranch, Elmbranch, Firbranch, 
Sprucebranch, and Willowbranch (L.G., 
June, p. 683). 

3. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 509, on 
behalf of a unit of longshoremen employed 
by F. M. Yorke and Son Limited, Van- 
couver, at the barge slip, Great Northern 
Dock, Foot of Campbell Ave., Vancouver, 
in the loading and unloading of railway 
cars to and from barges (L.G., June, p. 683). 

Request for Review of Board's Decision Refused 

The Board refused the request of the 
Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, for review of 
the Board's decisions certifying the Cana- 
dian Brotherhood of Railway Employees 
and Other Transport Workers as the 
bargaining agent for a unit of unlicensed 
personnel employed by the Canadian 
National Railways aboard the MV Bluenose 
operated by the company in its ferry service 
between Yarmouth, N.S., and Bar Harbour, 
Maine, and rejecting the application of the 
Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, on behalf of 
the same unit of employees (L.G., June, 
p. 683). 



Applications for Certification Withdrawn 

1. National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians, applicant, and 
Western Ontario Broadcasting Company 
Limited (Station CKLW), Windsor, Ont., 
respondent (L.G., June, p. 683). 

2. Northern Freightways Employees' 
Association, applicant, and Northern 
Freightways Limited, Dawson Creek, B.C., 
respondent (see below). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. Northern Freightways Employees' 
Association, on behalf of a unit of employees 
employed by Northern Freightways Limited, 
Dawson Creek, B.C. (Investigating Officer: 
G. R. Currie). (The application was with- 
drawn later in the month.) 

2. International Association of Machinists, 
Local 876, on behalf of a unit of main- 
tenance and service employees employed by 
Pacific Western Airlines Limited, Van- 
couver, B.C. (Investigating Officer: G. R. 
Currie). 

3. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine and electrical engineer officers 
employed aboard vessels operated by The 
Algoma Central and Hudson Bay Railway 
Company, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. (Investi- 
gating Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

4. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine and electrical engineer officers 
employed aboard vessels operated by 
Algoma Steamships Limited, Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ont. (Investigating Officer: F. J. 
Ainsborough). 

5. Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of a unit of 
longshoremen employed at Hamilton by 
Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company 
Limited, Toronto, Ont. (Investigating 
Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



853 



6. Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of longshore- 
men employed at Hamilton by Hamilton 
Shipping Company Limited, Hamilton, Ont. 
(Investigating Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

7. Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of longshore- 
men employed at Hamilton by Cullen 
Stevedoring Company Limited, Toronto, 
Ont. (Investigating Officer: F. J. Ains- 
borough). 

8. Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of longshore- 
men employed at Hamilton by Caledon 



Forwarding Company Limited, Toronto, 
Ont. (Investigating Officer: F. J. Ains- 
borough). 

9. Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of longshore- 
men employed at Hamilton by Yorkwood 
Shipping Company Limited, Hamilton, 
Ont. (Investigating Officer: F. J. Ains- 
borough). 

10. International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America, Warehousemen and 
Miscellaneous Drivers Local 419, on behalf 
of a unit of employees of Hill the Mover 
(Canada) Limited, Toronto, Ont., operating 
out of Ottawa (Investigating Officer: H. 
Perkins) . 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During May, the Minister appointed 
conciliation officers to deal with the 
following disputes: — 

1. Newfoundland Employers' Association 
Limited (General Cargo Operators), St. 
John's, Nfld., and Longshoremen's Protec- 
tive Union (Conciliation Officer: W. L. 
Taylor). 

2. Saguenay Terminals Limited, Port 
Alfred, and National Syndicate of Long- 
shoremen of Ha! Ha! Bay, Inc. (Concilia- 
tion Officer: R. Trepanier). 

3. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
and National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians (TV Studio 
Watchmen) (Conciliation Officers: Bernard 
Wilson and G. R. Carroll). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Canada Steamship Lines Limited, 
Montreal (freight handlers, coopers, 
checkers, etc.), Montreal, and Brotherhood 
of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight 
Handlers, Express and Station Employees 
(Conciliation Officer: R. Trepanier) (L.G., 
June, p. 684). 

2. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
and National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians (TV Studio 
Watchmen) (Conciliation Officers: Bernard 
Wilson and G. R. Carroll) (see above). 

3. Newfoundland Employers' Association 
Limited (Newfoundland Coal Company 
Limited) and Longshoremen's Protective 
Union (Conciliation Officer: W. L. Taylor) 
(L.G., June, p. 684). 



4. Canadian National Railways (Port 
Mann and Okanagan Lake Barge and 
Ferry Service) and Canadian National 
Steamships and Canadian Merchant Service 
Guild, Inc. (Conciliation Officer: G. R. 
Currie) (L.G., June, p. 684). 

5. Trans-Canada Air Lines and Canadian 
Air Line Flight Attendants' Association 
(Conciliation Officer: R. Trepanier) (L.G., 
June, p. 684). 

Conciliation Board Appointed 

1. Canadian National Railways (Atlantic, 
Central and W T estern Regions, including 
the Newfoundland District) and Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Firemen and Engine- 
men. (This dispute was in the first instance 
referred to a Conciliation Board and not 
to a Conciliation Officer.) 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted / 

1. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in March to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company (dining, cafe, 
and buffet car employees) and the Brother- 
hood of Railroad Trainmen (L.G., May, 
p. 541) was fully constituted in May with 
the appointment of His Honour Judge J. C. 
Reynolds, Kingston, Ont., as Chairman. 
Judge Reynolds was appointed by the 
Minister to replace His Honour Judge 
Walter Little, whom he had previously 
appointed as Chairman. The other two 
members of the Board are H. B. Bell, QC, 
Toronto, and J. Allen Carr, Vancouver, who 
were previously appointed on the nomina- 
tion of the company and union respectively. 



854 



2. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in April to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company (Eastern, Prairie 
and Pacific Regions), including the Quebec 
Central Railway and the Dominion Atlantic 
Railway, and the Brotherhood of Locomo- 
tive Firemen and Enginemen (L.G., June, 
p. 684) was fully constituted in May with 
the appointment of His Honour Judge 
J. C. Anderson, Belleville, Ont., as Chair- 
man. Judge Anderson was appointed by 
the Minister in the absence of a joint 
recommendation from the other two mem- 
bers, Emmett M. Hall, QC, Saskatoon, and 
the Hon. Arthur W. Roebuck, QC, Ottawa, 
who were previously appointed on the 
nomination of the companies and union 
respectively. 



3. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in April to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Canadian 
National Railways and Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen ( (1) Yardmasters and 
assistant yardmasters, Atlantic, Central and 
Western Regions, except yardmasters on 
former Canadian Government Railways 
south of the St. Lawrence River; (2) Yard- 
masters, former Canadian Government 
Railways south of the St. Lawrence River, 
yard foremen, helpers and switchtenders, 
Atlantic and Central Regions combined 
yard service; (3) Conductors, assistant 
conductors, train baggagemen and train- 
men, Atlantic and Central Regions; (4) 
Express messengers on Newfoundland Divi- 
sion, Atlantic Region; (5) Conductors, 
Western Region; (6) Baggagemen, flagmen 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act are provided by the Minister 
of Labour through the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch. The branch also acts as 
the administrative arm of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, in matters under 
the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the War- 
time Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 
1003, which became effective in March, 
1944, and repealed the Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act, which had been 
in force from 1907 until superseded by 
the Wartime Regulations in 1944. Deci- 
sions, orders and certifications given 
under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime 
Labour Relations Board are continued in 
force and effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovincial railways, canals, 
telegraphs, interprovincial and interna- 
tional steamship lines and ferries, aero- 
dromes and air transportation, radio 
broadcasting stations and works declared 
by Parliament to be for the general 
advantage of Canada or two or more of 
its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if 
they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries 
within provincial jurisdiction and make 
mutually satisfactory arrangements with 
the federal Government for the admin- 
istration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is 
directly responsible for the appointment 
of conciliation officers, conciliation boards, 
and Industrial Inquiry Commissions con- 
cerning complaints that the Act has been 
violated or that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively, and for applications 
for consent to prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the cer- 
tification of bargaining agents, the writ- 
ing of provisions — for incorporation into 
collective agreements — fixing a procedure 
for the final settlement of disputes con- 
cerning the meaning or, violation of such 
agreements and the investigation of com- 
plaints referred to it by the minister that 
a party has failed to bargain collectively 
and to make every reasonable effort to 
conclude a collective agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regula- 
tions made under the Act, and the Rules 
of Procedure of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board are available upon 
request to the Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations 
Board, and (2) Conciliation and other 
Proceedings before the Minister of 
Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal, Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's, Newfoundland. The territory of 
two officers resident in Vancouver com- 
prises British Columbia, Alberta and the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories; two 
officers stationed in Winnipeg cover the 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
and Northwestern Ontario; three officers 
resident in Toronto confine their activi- 
ties to Ontario; three officers in Mont- 
real are assigned to the province of 
Quebec, and a total of three officers 
resident in Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. 
The headquarters of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch and the Director of 
Industrial Relations and staff are situated 
in Ottawa. 



855 



and trainmen, Western Region; (7) Freight 
Handlers, LCL Service, Western Region; 
(8) Yard foremen, helpers and switch- 
tenders, Western Region) (L.G., June, 
p. 684) was fully constituted in May with 
the appointment of His Honour Judge 
J. C. Anderson, Belleville, Ont., as Chair- 
man. Judge Anderson was appointed by 
the Minister in the absence of a joint 
recommendation from the other two mem- 
bers, J. Brendan O'Connor, Montreal, and 
the Hon. Arthur W. Roebuck, QC, Ottawa, 
who were previously appointed on the 
nomination of the company and union 
respectively. 

4. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in May to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company and Brotherhood 
of Railroad Trainmen ( (1) Yardmasters, 
Eastern, Prairie and Pacific Regions; (2) 
Yard foremen, helpers, switchtenders and 
car retarder operators, Eastern Region; 
(3) Conductors, baggagemen and brake- 
men, Eastern Region; (4) Conductors, 
baggagemen and trainmen, Prairie and 
Pacific Regions; (5) Yard foremen, helpers 
and switchtenders, Pacific and Prairie 
Regions) (L.G., June, p. 685) was fully 
constituted in May with the appointment 
of His Honour Judge J. C. Reynolds. 
Belleville, Ont., as Chairman. Judge 
Anderson was appointed by the Minister 
in the absence of a joint recommendation 
from the other two members, John Wm. 
Long, QC, Montreal, and the Hon. 
Arthur W. Roebuck, QC, Ottawa, who were 
previously appointed on the nomination of 
the company and union respectively. 

5. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in May to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Canadian 
National Railways (Atlantic, Central and 
Western Regions including the Newfound- 
land District) and Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Firemen and Enginemen (see above) 
was fully constituted in May with the 
appointment of His Honour Judge J. C. 
Anderson, Belleville, Ont., as Chairman. 
Judge Anderson was appointed by the 
Minister in the absence of a joint recom- 
mendation from the other two members, 
Phillip F. Vineberg, Montreal, and the 
Hon. Arthur W. Roebuck, QC, Ottawa, 
who were previously appointed on the 
nomination of the company and union 
respectively. 

Reports Received during Month 

1. Abitibi Power and Paper Company, 
Limited, Toronto, and Seafarers' Interna- 
tional Union of North America, Canadian 



District (L.G., Jan., p. 77). The text of 
the report is reproduced below. 

2. Holden Sand and Gravel, Limited, 
Toronto, and Seafarers' International Union 
of North America, Canadian District 
(L.G., June, p. 685). The text of the 
report is reproduced below. 

Settlements Following Board Procedure 

1. Abitibi Power and Paper Company, 
Limited, Toronto, and Seafarers' Interna- 
tional Union of North America, Canadian 
District (see above). 

2. Holden Sand and Gravel, Limited, 
Toronto, and Seafarers' International Union 
of North America, Canadian District 
(see above). 

3. Shipping Federation of British 
Columbia (industrial first aid attendants), 
Vancouver, B.C., and International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, 
Local 501 (L.G., June, p. 



4. Canadian National Railways; Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway Company; Toronto, 
Hamilton and Buffalo Railway Company; 
Ontario Northland Railway; and Algoma 
Central and Hudson Bay Railway (non- 
operating employees) and joint negotiating 
committee representing a number of inter- 
national and national railway labour 
organizations (L.G., June, p. 686). 

Settlements before Boards Dealt with Case 

1. Association of Lake Carriers, Port 
Colborne, Ont. (Canada Steamship Lines 
Limited; Upper Lakes and St. Lawrence 
Transportation Company Limited; N. M. 
Paterson & Sons Limited; Colonial Steam- 
ships Limited; Misener Holdings Limited; 
Hall Corporation of Canada Limited; 
Norris Transportation Company Limited; 
Mohawk Navigation Company; and 
Beaconsfield Steamships Limited) and 
National Association of Marine Engineers 
of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and Eastern 
District) (L.G., May, p. 542). 

2. Association of Lake Carriers, Port 
Colborne, Ont. (Canada Steamship Lines 
Limited, N. M. Paterson & Sons Limited; 
Colonial Steamships Limited and Hall 
Corporation of Canada Limited) and 
Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc. 
(L.G, May, p. 542). 

Settlement Following Appointment of 
Industrial Inquiry Commission 

1. Association of Lake Carriers (Canada 
Steamship Lines Limited; Colonial Steam- 
ships Limited; N. M. Paterson & Sons 



856 



Limited; Upper Lakes and St. Lawrence 
Transportation Company Limited; Hall 
Corporation of Canada Limited; Mohawk 
Navigation Company Limited ; and 



Beaconsfield Steamships Limited) and Sea- 
farers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (L.G., June, 
p. 686) 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Abitibi Power and Paper Company, Limited 

and 

Seafarers' International Union of North America 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, VC 
Minister of Labour of Canada 
Ottawa. Canada 

Sir: 

The Board of Conciliation appointed by 
you in the above matter begs to report 
that it was successful in its efforts to induce 
a direct settlement between the parties of 
the differences between them arising out of 
abortive negotiations (begun last year) for 
a first collective agreement. The terms of 
settlement, duly signed by the authorized 
representatives of the parties and by the 
undersigned on behalf of the Board, are 
annexed hereto. 

While the Board was fully constituted in 
December 1955, and held its first sitting on 
January 13, 1956, it adjourned the hearings 
for a protracted period to enable the parties 
to deal with each other directly because 
its exploratory consideration of the matters 
in dispute convinced it that this would be 
the most effective course to adopt. When 
hearings resumed in April 1956, the parties 
had made substantial progress towards a 
complete settlement. About that time, 
however, the Union had reached a settle- 
ment with another emploj^er and it 
appeared feasible to suggest this settlement 
for adoption in this case. The Company 
gave the proposal earnest consideration, 
and after explanatory talks before this 
Board, the terms of settlement already 
referred to were endorsed. 



During May, the Minister of Labour 
received the unanimous report of the 
Board of Conciliation and Investigation 
established to deal with a dispute between 
the Abitibi Power and Paper Company, 
Limited, Toronto, and the Seafarers' 
International Union of North America. 

The Board was under the chairman- 
ship of Prof. Bora Laskin, Toronto, who 
was appointed by the Minister in the 
absence of a joint recommendation from 
the other two members, J. E. Sedgwick, 
QC, Toronto, and Louis B. Daniels, 
Montreal, nominees of the company and 
union respectively. 

The text of the report is reproduced 
here. 



The Board wishes to express its appre- 
ciation of the courteous and frank 
presentations it heard from Messrs. L. J. 
McLaughlin and J. Scott, who appeared for 
the Union along with Messrs. R. Curd and 

F. Galway, and from Messrs. R. V. Hicks 
and W. J. Whittaker, counsel, and Messrs. 

G. C. Sharpe and R. C. Carter, who 
appeared for the Company along with 
Messrs. N. T. MacLaggan and E. E. 
Grainger. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 
(Sgd.) Bora Laskin, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) J. E. Sedgwick, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) Louis B. Daniels, 
Member. 
Dated at Toronto this 25th day of April, 
1956. 



Memorandum of Terms of Settlement between the Abitibi Power and 
Paper Company Limited, Ontario and the Seafarers' International 
Union of North America, Canadian District. 

April 16, 1956. 

It is agreed between the Company and 
the Union that the following shall be put 
into effect immediately, or as soon as 
possible. 

1 — The wages and working conditions as 
set forth in the Labour Contract between 
Canada Steamship Lines and the Sea- 



farers' International Union will be put into 
effect on the vessels of the Company and 
made retroactive for the entire 1955 
(Nineteen Hundred and Fifty-five) season 
from fit-out to and including lay-up. 

2 — Every week-end during the 1955 season 
as outlined above will be paid in accord- 
ance with Section 26 of the agreement. 

857 



75803—6 



This week-end overtime will compensate 
for all retroactive overtime. 

3 — The welfare payments as outlined in 
the agreement will be paid to the admin- 
istrator of the Canadian Lake Carriers and 
Seafarers' Welfare Plan as soon as possible. 
4 — For the 1956 season Clause 26c will 
be changed as follows: — 
Clause 26c to read — 
For the purpose of this agreement 
between the hours of 6:00 p.m. and 
6:00 a.m. all ratings shall perform only 
navigational duties. Navigational duties 
shall not include chipping, scaling, 
scraping, painting, scrubbing, or any 
other maintenance work. 
5 — The vacation clause in the existing 
Canada Steamship Lines Agreement shall 
be changed to read: — 

Every employee covered by this agree- 
ment shall receive two weeks vacation 
for each navigation season payable on 
a pro rata basis at the time an 
employee severs his employment with 
the Company. It is understood that 
for the 1955 season those employees 
that did not complete six months with 
the Company will not receive vacation 
money. 



6 — It is agreed between the Company and 
the Union that the Company will incor- 
porate the same improvements in wages 
and working conditions which result from 
the present negotiations between the Cana- 
dian Lake Carriers Association and the 
Seafarers' International Union. The effec- 
tive dates to be the same as those incor- 
porated in the agreement covering the Lake 
Carriers Association vessels for the 1956 
season. 

For the Company 
(Sgd.) C. B. Davis, 

Vice-President. 
(Sgd.) G. Sharpe, 

Personnel Representative. 

For the Union 

(Sgd.) Hal. C. Banks, 

International Vice-President 
and Canadian Director. 

(Sgd.) Leonard J. McLaughlin, 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

For the Board of Conciliation 
and Investigation 
(Sgd.) Bora Laskin, 

Chairman of the Board. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Holden Sand and Graved Limited 

and 

Seafarers' International Union of North America 



During May, the Minister of Labour 
received the majority and minority 
reports of the Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation established to deal with a 
dispute between the Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union of North America, Cana- 
dian District, and Holden Sand and 
Gravel, Limited, Toronto. 

The Board was under the Chairman- 
ship of Prof. C. H. Curtis, Kingston, 
Ont., who was appointed by the Minister 
in the absence of a joint recommenda- 
tion from the other two members, W. J. 
Whittaker, Toronto, and C. A. Gravenor, 
Montreal, nominees of the company and 
union respectively. 

The majority report, which under the 
provisions of the Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Investigation Act consti- 
tutes the report of the Board, was 
submitted by the Chairman and Mr. 
Whittaker. The minority report was 
submitted by Mr. Gravenor. 

The texts of the majority and minority 
reports are reproduced here. 



To the Hon. Milton F. Gregg, VC 
Minister of Labour 
Ottawa, Ontario 

Sir: 

The Board of Conciliation which you 
established to deal with the above dispute 
begs to report as follows: — 

The Board, consisting of Messrs. C. H. 
Curtis, W. J. Whittaker and C. A. Gravenor, 
chairman, company's nominee and union's 
nominee respectively, met the representa- 
tives of the parties in Toronto on April 23, 
1956, and heard their submissions and their 
arguments. At this hearing the union was 
represented by Mr. L. J. McLaughlin, 
secretary-treasurer, and the company was 
represented by Mr. D. W. Falconer, 
counsel, and Mr. J. N. D. Holden, president. 

The union is the certified bargaining 
agent of some eleven men who are the 
unlicensed personnel emplo3 r ed on the 
company's sandsucker dredge Niagara. 
This dispute arises while the parties are 
negotiating their first collective agreement. 



858 



In general, the union's position is that 
the company should accept the provisions 
of the collective agreement presently in 
effect between the Seafarers' International 
Union and Canadian Steamship Lines 
Limited, an agreement which presumably 
sets out the wages, hours and working 
conditions which are "standard" on ships 
sailing the Great Lakes. Furthermore, the 
union proposes that the company put the 
wages and working conditions set out in 
that agreement into effect retroactively "for 
the entire 1955 season from fit-out to and 
including lay-up"; that every week-end 
during the 1955 season be paid for as the 
agreement provides; that the welfare pay- 
ments provided in the agreement be paid 
for the year 1955 to the administrator of 
the Canadian Lake Carriers and Seafarers' 
Welfare plan. The union proposes, too, that 
Clause 26c of the agreement referred to be 
accepted in an amended form to read: 

For the purpose of this agreement between 
the hours of 6:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. all 
ratings shall perform only navigational 
duties. Navigational duties shall not _ in- 
clude chipping, scaling, scraping, painting, 
scrubbing, or any other maintenance work. 

And the union proposes that the provi- 
sions regarding vacations shall read: 

Every employee covered by this agreement 
shall receive two weeks vacation for each 
navigation season payable on a pro rata 
basis at the time an employee severs his 
employment with the Company. It is under- 
stood that for the 1955 season those 
employees that did not complete six months 
with the Company will not receive vacation 
money. 

Finally the union asks the company to 
agree to incorporate into its agreement with 
the union "the same improvements in 
wages and working conditions which result 
from the present negotiations between 
Canadian Lake Carriers' Association and 
the Seafarers' International Union". 

The union supports its demands in 
particular with the argument that this 
company should pay the same rates of 
wages and observe the same hours of work 
and conditions of employment as the 
company which competes with it. This 
latter company, the union contends, has 
been employing the unlicensed personnel 
on its sandsucker on the terms and under 
the conditions that prevail in general on 
the ships in the Great Lakes which are 
under contract with the Seafarers' Interna- 
tional Union. Furthermore, the union con- 
tends, the proposals which it outlines 
conform with this principle of meeting the 
going rate, for they set out the terms and 
conditions necessary to bring this com- 
pany's operations up to the standard and 
maintain it at that level throughout the 
1956 season. The union contends that some 



operators have already accepted its pro- 
posals and it submits the "Memorandum 
of Terms of Settlement between the St. 
Charles Transportation Company Limited, 
Quebec," as evidence of this fact. 

In general, the company's position is that 
the terms of the so-called "standard" 
agreement are not all acceptable to it, while 
the retroactive features and the modifica- 
tions of that agreement set out in the 
memorandum of agreement between the 
union and St. Charles Transportation Com- 
pany Limited are completely unacceptable. 

The company submits that it has been 
operating its sandsucker at a loss and that 
the prospects of a successful season in 1956 
are so unpromising that a large run of poor 
weather would completely drive it out of 
business. Under the circumstances, the 
company contends, its financial position 
makes it impossible to meet the costs which 
the union's proposals would create. 

The company maintains that its opera- 
tions are not comparable with shipping on 
the Great Lakes, that its unlicensed per- 
sonnel are not all really sailors and that 
there is no good reason why its employees 
should work under the same terms and 
conditions 4hat prevail on ships sailing the 
lakes. Furthermore, it insists that its 
undertaking is not really comparable with 
that of the other company operating a 
sandsucker, for the latter vessel is much 
larger and therefore more efficient than the 
Niagara. 

The Board finds that the principal 
matters in issue are wages, hours of work, 
vacation pay, union security, welfare plan 
and longshore work. The company takes 
exception, too, to the inclusion in an agree- 
ment of articles dealing with room and 
meal allowances, passenger vessels and 
duties of oilers, all of which, it contends, 
are not relevant. 

It seems to the Board that the agree- 
ment, dated September 29, 1953, between 
Canada Steamship Lines Limited and Sea- 
farers' International Union, with certain 
modifications that are described below, 
should be accepted by the parties as a fair 
and reasonable settlement of their differ- 
ences under the circumstances. The modifi- 
cations which the Board recommends are as 
follows: — 

1. The omission of Article 3 entitled 
Maintenance of Membership. 

2. The inclusion of a notation in Article 
9 stating that section (a) will not apply in 
the 1956 season. 

3. The omission of the provisions dealing 
with room and meal allowances, passenger 
vessels, and duties of oilers (Articles 19, 25 
and 28). 



75803— 6£ 



859 



4. The deletion from the schedule of 
wages, Article 24, of all data except the 
basic wages of the particular classifications 
of unlicensed personnel actually employed 
on the Niagara. And the addition to the 
schedule of the classification wheelsman- 
deckhand with a rate appropriate in rela- 
tion to the rate for deckhand. 

5. The amendment of Article 26, Hours 
of Work, to provide that its provisions be 
effective from January 1, 1956. 

6. The amendment of Article 30, Long- 
shore Work by the Crew, by the addition 
of a definition of Longshore work. 

7. The deletion of sections (c) and (d) 
of Article 31 as inapplicable. 

8. The amendment of Article 35, Welfare 
Plan, giving the company the option, if it 
sees fit, of providing benefits costing 20 
cents per man per day through some agency 
other than the Canadian Lake Carriers and 
Seafarers' Welfare Plan, a plan in whose 
administration the company, unlike the 
Lake Carriers, does not participate. 

The Board recommends that the parties 
adopt these modified provisions and the 
remaining provisions of the above-noted 
agreement without amendment for the 
period which they have defined in their 
own draft proposals, Article 3*6, namely, 
January 1, 1956, to December 31, 1956. 

Mr. Whittaker concurs in all these 
recommendations except the one regarding 
union security. He would recommend the 
omission of Article 4 as well as Article 3, 
for it involves either compulsory member- 
ship in the union or compulsory payment 
of dues to the union. 

All of which is respectfully submitted 
this 14th day of May, 1956. 

(Sgd.) C. H. Curtis, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) W. J. Whittaker, 
Member. 

MINORITY REPORT 

As a member of the Conciliation Board 
appointed to hear the above dispute, having 
now concluded its investigations, I have 
the honour to submit the following 
report: — 

Recommendations 

In considering the case of the Company 
vs. the Union, the statements of the 
parties have been taken as fact without 
verification. Evidence considered included 
"Exhibit 1," being the form of agreement 
submitted by the Union and contained 
thereon the previous basis of agreement 
unofficially agreed to by the company, all 
as forwarded from the Department of 
Labour; "Exhibit 2," being a financial 
statement tendered by the company as 



representing the financial condition of its 
operation; "Exhibit 3," being a statement 
presented by the legal counsel for the 
company setting forth the revised company 
attitude as compared to its previous tenta- 
tive agreement, plus two forms of contracts 
submitted by the Union and titled "The 
St. Charles agreement", and the "Lake 
Carriers Agreement". 

Verbal statements were heard from the 
attorney representing the Company, ques- 
tions were answered briefly by Mr. Holden, 
and verbal submissions were made to some 
length, and extensive questions were 
answered in some detail by L. McLaughlin, 
representing the Union. 

Study and examination has been given 
this information and exhibits by the under- 
signed, and further reference made to the 
federal labour code and the agreement with 
Lake Carriers. 

Points of Agreement 

The points of agreement covered included 
Articles 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 
20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 29, 32, 33, 34 and 35. It 
appeared that an agreement could be 
readily reached, including some expressed 
concessions from the union, on Articles 4, 
9, 13, 17, 31, 19, 25 and 28. 

However, Article 4 under Employment, 
specifically paragraphs 2 and 3 under "a" 
were specifically withdrawn from the agree- 
ment altered the points of agreement in 
the Exhibit one. 

No Agreement and Rejection 
The company made its position apparent 
by complete rejection of Articles 3, 30 and 
35, along with no agreement on Articles 10, 
24 and 26. 

Area of Difference 

Therefore the area of difference would 
appear to concern Employment, Wages, 
Vacation pay, Hours of work, maintenance 
of membership, and longshore work by the 
crew and also participation in the welfare 
plan. 

Welfare Plan 

The company expressed willingness to 
contribute to Blue Cross provided there was 
no wage increase, but indicated its lack of 
willingness to contribute to the Blue Cross 
if there was a wage increase of any amount, 
and declined to contribute to the Lake 
Carriers-SIU Welfare Fund under any 
circumstances. Investigation indicates that 
the Lake Carriers-SIU Welfare Fund is 
designed to give more benefits to the 
seafaring man and cost relatively less than 
Blue Cross, and that the fund is founded 
on a substantial basis and is designed for 
the peculiar requirements of the seafaring 



860 



man; therefore, it was concluded that the 
decision of the company to reject the SIU 
Lake Carriers Welfare plan benefits for its 
employees was not in the interests of either 
company or employees. Therefore, the 
proposal of the company would be recom- 
mended against, and that of the union 
sustained. 

Longshore Work by Crew 
The Union clarified this point and mutual 
agreement seemed to be indicated. 

Maintenance of Membership 

After agreeing as outlined in the com- 
pany section of Exhibit "1" and arriving 
at a previous understanding to accept the 
hiring hall and National Selective Service 
as source of employees, the company 
"changed its mind" and decided that it 
would reserve the right to hire its own men 
either union or non-union. This was a 
move away from previously agreed ground. 

The company put forward that the men 
required aboard the Sandsucker Niagara 
must be of superior ability to operate the 
sandsucker and the drills, to determine the 
quality and quantity of the sand, and other 
duties of a specialized nature, and at the 
same time claiming that seafaring men of 
this superior type would be required to 
accept lower wages. It would appear that 
combined with the argument of lower wages 
than the prevailing union wage the demand 
to seek specialized or higher calibre sea- 
faring men for these specialized jobs was 
an argument that defeated itself and was 
unrealistic. 

It would appear to be a contrived argu- 
ment to alter the "bargaining position" and 
as the "change of mind" was away from 
the basis of agreement, while any changes 
by the union were closer to agreement this 
point was felt to be of clear indication. 

The company representatives indicated 
that they were adamant in their opposition 
to maintenance of membership. 

The representative of the union when ques- 
tioned in detail stated that maintenance of 
membership was justified because : — 

(a) The ship is certified by the Federal 
Government as SIU. 

(b) All sandsuckers now operating in 
Eastern Canada have been and are still 
certified by the SIU. 

(c) The sandsucker operating in and 
around the City of Toronto and area has 
during the entire existence of the SIU been 
continuously and still is certified as SIU. 

(d) Over 35 of the crew members serving 
on the crew of the Niagara during the 1955 
season were members of the SIU. In view 
of the fact that the crew of non-licensed 
personnel is 11 this fact speaks for itself. 



(e) Agreements of an identical nature 
have been concluded with other similar 
companies rendering similar service. 

(f) The SIU hiring hall has available the 
largest number of trained and competent 
seafaring men. 

(g) The Lake Carriers and other ships 
operating on the Great Lakes to the extent 
of over 90 per cent of a size comparable 
to the Niagara under Canadian registry 
have SIU membership and certification. 

In view of these facts the attitude of 
the company in rejecting recognition of 
membership was rejected, and the union 
claim requiring maintenance of membership 
and recognition was upheld. 

Wages, Vacation Pay, Hours of Work 

Under the disagreement of wages, vaca- 
tion pay and hours of work, the Union 
showed willingness to conciliate and reduce 
their wage claims so that the differential 
between the present wage scale and the 
proposed scale worked out to about $16 
per month for each deckhand, and varying 
amounts for other non-licensed personnel 
depending on their prevailing rate of wages. 

On retroactive payments the Union esti- 
mated that on welfare payments about $100 
would be due by the company, and on 
retroactive vacation claims, in view of the 
turnover of personnel, and certain sums 
paid in vacation allowances, the sum due 
would be about $100 for the year 1955. 

These sums did not seem to be large 
and should not be a basis of disagreement. 

However, the company stated in Exhibit 
"3" bluntly, it must be stated that the wage 
scale as submitted by the Union is com- 
pletely impossible and unrealistic and 
would drive the company out of business. 
The company submits that no increase in 
wages as presently paid can be made or 
considered. 

As this is a definite, emphatic statement 
the reasons for it have been sought. 

The Company has submitted to the study 
of the board, without perusal by the union 
representatives, of what is represented as 
the "financial secrets of the company". 

Because this financial statement is the 
entire defence of the company for its 
unwillingness to agree to any revision of 
the wage scales it requires full and com- 
plete study. 

The company represents itself to be an 
independent company incorporated "for the 
sole purpose of owning and operating the 
dredge". This statement would apparently 
be true because the company is technically, 
legally and corporately a separate entity, 
and no statement was made by the com- 
pany in its brief other than owning and 
operating, and no reference made to selling 



861 



of the sand or the product thereof which 
is apparently not done by the company but 
by some other company. 

Although the company represents itself 
as being "independent" the financial state- 
ment contains an item of $139 for rent, 
has no provisions for the normal functions 
of a company such as the salaries of 
secretaries, commissions to salesmen, bills 
for postage, stationery, transportation and 
similar normal expenses of operating an 
"independent" company. 

Therefore, if there are no such expenses 
there is no independent operation, and if 
there is no independent operation not only 
are the expenses but of necessity the 
revenues are subject to the control of other 
interests. 

In questioning the company representa- 
tives they did not deny that they are 
"controlled" or "owned" by other interests. 
Therefore, from evidence apparent in the 
financial statement it would appear that 
the Holden Sand and Gravel Company is 
actually either a department of another 
company, or is a subsidiary of another 
company providing them with the office 
space, staff, expenses, and other facilities. 
The absence of any sales expenses would 
indicate that payments were not made for 
selling, and therefore the company could 
not claim to be conducting sales efforts in 
the normal sense of business functions. 

A further study of the financial state- 
ment indicated that depreciation at the 
rate of about 13 per cent was being charged 
off, and that the depreciation for 1954 was 
approximately $29,000 and for 1955 $35,000 
and this would seem to be substantially 
excessive as the life of such a craft could 
be conservatively estimated to be on the 
Great Lakes for at least 30 years, and for 
that reason depreciation of 3 per cent would 
be more in order. 

Furthermore, based on the figures pro- 
vided by the company the "sales" of sand 
to the amount of $160,000 would not indi- 
cate what would be expected. 

Based on figures provided by the companj'- 
their effective working days during the year 
are 273 less an average of 45 off for bad 
weather, or a net of 228 working days. The 
Company states that they would gross 
$4,500 each four days, and in view of this 
the total payload in 228 days would be 
$4,500 x 57 or $256,500. 

Working from their own figures it would 
appear that with full allowances for 45 
days of bad weather (which was about 38 
in 1955 season, I am informed) their gross 
would be $256,000 while the actual gross 
reported on their financial statement was 
$160,000 in sales a difference of $96,000 
based on their own figures. 



Apparently it could not have been that 
there was no demand or sale for the addi- 
tional sand because apparently no sales 
efforts are charged to the company and 
therefore it is safe to assume that the 
company had no paid sales effort to obtain 
the full revenue possible from efficient 
operation and sales. 

Therefore summing up Exhibit 11 as 
evidence that the company is independent 
and cannot pay union wages, it would 
appear that the financial statement instead 
of maintaining this allegation actually indi- 
cates that the company is a subsidiary of 
a major company, no sales effort is being 
conducted by the company in the ordinary 
sales sense, and full revenue is not being 
obtained from operations. 

The financial statement reveals: — 

(a) The Company is not an operating 
company in the complete sense of the word 
but a subsidiary without regular opera- 
tional functions of office staff and other 
control. 

(b) The expenses of normal functions are 
either being paid or controlled by other 
interests, or both. 

(c) It is therefore reasonable to assume 
that if the expenses are being paid, con- 
trolled or both by other interests, then the 
revenue is subject to the same control of 
other interests. 

(d) Other facts in the statement are 
open to question either the efficiency, 
price, or production of the company as 
stated above, and including such factors as 
depreciation and other claims. 

(e) Despite questioning the company 
representatives did not claim that they were 
actually an independent company, and did 
not decline any presumption that they are 
actually a functioning unit of a larger and 
more profitable enterprise. 

Therefore, the plea that the company 
would "go out of business" if asked to pay 
the union wage scale is not supported by 
the financial statement, but rejected by 
some facts revealed, and only a study of 
the financial situation of the sponsoring 
company would provide the truth in con- 
nection with ability of the presumed 
subsidiary to pay. 

The financial statement as submitted is 
therefore rejected as evidence or justifica- 
tion of the financial position of the com- 
pany in regard to its ability to pay, but is 
rather interpretated as revealing an ability 
to increase revenue and therefore to pay 
a substantially higher rate if required. 

The Union in its claims concerning the 
wages, vacation pay, hours of work has not 
only made clear its willingness to con- 
ciliate but has made it apparent that other 
companies previously operating in the area 



862 



have always been able to pay the wage 
scale, and other substantiating evidence 
which would indicate that their claims are 
valid. 

Conclusion 

The recommendation of this officer is to 
recommend further conciliation on the 
matter of longshore work by the crew, and 
other minor points which it would appear 
can be adjusted by discussion. 

However, on the matter of employment, 
wages, vacation pay, hours of work, main- 



tenance of membership and participation 
in the welfare plan, this officer would 
recommend and support the claims of the 
union and reject wholly and entirely the 
claims of the company in connection with 
these points of disagreement. 

This officer therefore finds in favour of 
the Union on these points of disagreement 
or no agreement. 

Respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) Colin A. Gravenor, 
Member. 



Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment 

Releases Decisions in Eight Disputes 



The Canadian Railway Board of Adjust- 
ment No. 1 has released its decisions in 
eight cases, two heard December 13, 1955, 
three heard March 13, 1956, and three on 
May 8, 1956. 

One case concerned the claim of a loco- 
motive fireman for extra pay for a run in 
which an engine was tied up between 
terminals; a second, the action of the 
company in removing the baggagemen 
from a passenger train and requiring the 
conductor to handle baggage, mail, express 
and milk; a third, the claim of an engineer 
who was required to double over a portion 
of a train before being relieved in arriving 
at a terminal; the fourth, the claim of a 
locomotive engineer that he had been 
underpaid for inspection time; the fifth, 
the manner in which engineers were entitled 
to claim terminal time at Montreal; the 
sixth, a claim for pay for time a fireman 
was tied up at completion of work train 
service; the seventh, claims for pay for two 
conductors called to work twice in the 
same day, both of which calls were can- 
celled; and the eighth, the sending out of 
a yard crew on a wrecking detail when two 
main line crews were available. 

The contention of the employees was 
sustained in the first, fourth and seventh 
cases; partially sustained in the second, 
fifth and eighth; and not sustained in the 
sixth. In the third case, the dispute was 
disposed of on the basis of principles 
outlined by the Board in its decision. 

The eight disputes and decisions are 
summarized here. 



Case No. 661 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian National Railways (Central Region) 
and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Fire- 
men and Enginemen concerning a -fireman's 
claim for extra pay for a run in which an 
engine was tied up between terminals. 

On January 15, 1954, a fireman was 
ordered with an engineer in straightaway 
service with a light engine from Brockville 
to Montreal. The engineer's instructions 
were to proceed to Cornwall, turn over the 
engine to the switching crew, and after the 
switching crew had completed its work to 
take the engine to Turcot (Montreal). 
Both engineer and fireman were paid con- 
tinuous time from Brockville to Montreal. 

The fireman claimed that he was entitled 
to be paid for a minimum day from Brock- 
ville to Cornwall, time tied up between 
terminals at Cornwall, and a minimum day 
from Cornwall to Montreal. This claim 
was refused by the company. 

The fireman's claim was based on an 
article in the current agreement between 
the company and the union which the union 
contended would be meaningless if it did 
not govern in the present case. 

The company, in its contention, stated 
that the engine in question had been sent 
out solely to provide power for switching 
at Cornwall to replace a diesel road 
switcher which had failed; and that the 
engine crews' instructions had been clearly 
given before they left Brockville. 

The company stated that its understand- 
ing was that the words "tied up at any 
point between the initial terminal and the 
point for which called," contained in the 
article cited, must be interpreted to mean 
that the fireman was to receive definite 



863 



instructions to that effect before he could 
be considered as "tied up"; and further 
that the rule applied only when, due to 
unforeseen circumstances, an engine crew 
must be relieved from duty at a point 
short of the final terminal. 

The Board sustained the contention of 
the employees without comment. 

Case No. 662 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian National Railways (Central Region) 
and the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
concerning the action of the company in 
removing the baggageman from two Budd- 
car-operated passenger trains, and requir- 
ing the conductor to perform the duties 
formerly performed by the baggageman. 

The company and union jointly said that 
on February 12, 1955, the steam trains 
which had been used on these runs for 
many years were replaced by a single-unit 
Budd car and the train crew reduced to a 
conductor and a baggageman. 

On June 6, 1955, the baggageman was 
withdrawn, the conductor being left to do 
all the work. The union protested to the 
company, claiming that the conductor 
should be paid the baggageman's rate in 
addition to his earnings as a conductor. 

The union contended that handling 
baggage and mail was not part of a con- 
ductor's duties, whereas the Rates of Pay 
specified in the agreement did provide for 
such work being done by baggagemen. The 
employees quoted a rule covering the com- 
position of crews in passenger train service 
that states: 

(b) Manning of oil, electric and other 
motor coaches; 

(1) When no trailer is operated crew will 
consist of a conductor (and motorman) 
except where the volume of baggage and 
express to be handled warrants the addition 
of a baggageman. 

It was emphasized by the union that 
this rule referred to the volume of baggage 
and express to be handled, but did not 
mention mail, milk or LCL freight — 
commodities usually handled on the trains 
in question, besides express. 

The company in its contention empha- 
sized the word "warrants" in the above- 
quoted rule. It said the rule had always 
been interpreted to mean that in assigning 
a single-unit oil, electric or other motor 
coach, unless it had first been determined 
by the company that a baggageman was 
not warranted, a baggageman should be 
assigned. Later he could be withdrawn if 
it was established that his services were 
not needed. 

The company cited the fact that in this 
case, although the single-unit Budd car had 
been assigned on February 12, 1955, the 



baggageman was not withdrawn until June 
6, 1955, as evidence that full consideration 
had been given by the company to the 
question of whether a baggageman was 
needed or not. It was also stated by the 
company that after the trains had been 
changed a further survey of the amount of 
work done by conductors on the trains 
had been made, and copies of statements 
of the amount of work done were supplied 
to the Board. 

The Board sustained the contention of 
the employees to the extent of returning 
the baggageman to the run until negotia- 
tions, provided for by a note appended to 
the rule quoted, had been concluded. 

Case No. 663 — Dispute between the 
Canadian Pacific Railway (Pacific Region) 
and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi- 
neers over the case of an engineer who 
arrived at a terminal on an engine that 
was run through and was required to 
double over a portion of the train before 
being relieved. 

On May 5, 1954, an engineer arrived with 
his engine at the east switch, Kamloops, 
but the train crew was not off duty until 
35 minutes later because they had to double 
over the head end of train into another 
track. After this double over was made 
the new engine crew took over. The 
engineer made a claim for payment for 
time taken in making the double over, 
amounting to four miles. 

The company claimed that the article of 
the collective agreement between the com- 
pany and the union on which the union 
based its claim did not apply in the case 
of engines that ran through, as the engine 
had in this case. 

The union stated that in the case in 
question the engine could not be turned 
over to the outgoing engineer until the 
train had been doubled over into another 
track, and that therefore the change-off 
point had not been reached until this 
doubling over had been done. 

The Board found that the agreement 
provided for the payment of final terminal 
time beginning when the engine reached 
the designated outer switch, and continuing 
until 30 minutes after the engine reached 
the change-off point. The Board further 
found that an engine in freight service has 
reached the change-off point when: (a) the 
train is clear — unless otherwise instructed 
by the railway — and; (b) the engine has 
come to a stop in a recognized change-off 
area. 

The contention of the employees was 
disposed of by the Board in accordance 
with the above findings. 






864 



Case No. 664— Dispute between Cana- 
dian National Railways (Western Region) 
and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi- 
neers concerning the claim of an engineer 
that he had been paid for less inspection 
time than he ivas entitled to. 

During June 1954 the inspection time on 
14 trip tickets submitted by an engineer 
was reduced by the company from the 45 
minutes claimed to 30 minutes. Similar 
reductions were made on other engineers' 
trip tickets in cases where locomotives were 
run through the final terminal. 

The union contended that the company 
was not applying an amended article of 
the current agreement, which allowed 45 
minutes "after arrival on shop track or at 
change-off point on completion of trip". 

This constituted a breach of the agree- 
ment, the employees contended. 

The company stated that it was its 
understanding that a different rule, which 
became effective on September 1, 1948, 
governed the case of an engineer who oper- 
ated a road engine running through 
terminals where engine crews change off. 
Under this rule, such engineers had been 
paid a minimum of 30 minutes' inspection 
time. The company contended that the 
rule quoted by the union which became 
effective on May 15, 1954, did not apply to 
such cases. 

The Board found, however, that the 
latter rule governed, and the contention 
of the union was accordingly sustained. 

Case No. 665 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian National Railways (Central Region) 
and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi- 
neers concerning "final terminal time" as 
it affects engineers arriving in Montreal 
terminals. 

The dispute centred round the meaning 
of the highly detailed regulations set out 
in the Schedule of Rates of Pay and Rules 
governing service of locomotive engineers, 
effective September 1, 1929. These regula- 
tions had, it appeared, been the subject of 
dispute in the past, and, as a result, a 
Memorandum of Understanding had been 
signed on September 24, 1944, between the 
company and the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers and another union. The 
purpose of this memorandum was to define 
main track switches in Montreal terminals 
connecting with yard tracks. 

According to the company's statement, 
subsequent physical changes in Montreal 
terminals necessitated a revision of the 
examples given in this memorandum; this 
was done in a new memorandum signed 
on April 17, 1946. 

Notwithstanding these attempts to com- 
pose their differences, it appeared that the 



union and the company were still unable 
to agree on the meaning of certain regu- 
lations. The union claimed that a recent 
circular issued by the Superintendent of 
the St. Lawrence Division of the railway 
had had the effect of causing the time 
returns submitted by locomotive engineers 
to be reduced by amounts ranging from 
three to twenty-one miles. This circular, 
at the request of the union, was cancelled 
on or about November 10, 1955; but the 
company, the union contended, had refused 
to adjust time returns which had been 
altered after the issue of the circular and 
had continued to alter time returns in the 
same way after its cancellation. 

The company contended that the provi- 
sions of the article in the Schedule were 
being applied in the manner contemplated 
in the memoranda of understanding. 

The Board sustained the contention of 
the employees to the extent that final 
terminal time should be allowed when trains 
were held at Signal No. 71, Rouse's Point 
Subdivision, on account of yard congestion ; 
but not if detained on account of reason- 
able movements of other trains in and out 
of the terminal. 

The Board stated, however, that it had 
found that peculiar conditions existed at 
the entrance to Montreal terminal from 
the Rouse's Point Subdivision, and that 
its decision applied only to that entrance. 

Case No. 666 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway (Prairie Region) and 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen concerning claim of a road fire- 
man for pay for time during which he was 
tied up at completion of day in work train 
service. 

A fireman who was assigned to the 
freight pool on the Portal Sub-Division 
operating out of Moose Jaw, Sask., during 
October 1954 was ordered to Weyburn to 
perform work train service between 
Weyburn and Estevan. At the end of each 
day's work on October 14-15, 15-16, 27 and 
28, he was returned to Weyburn, where 
he was given sleeping accommodation in 
the enginemen's bunkhouse. 

The union contended that the fireman, 
being regularly assigned to the through 
freight pool operating out of Moose Jaw, 
was governed by the rules covering this 
assignment, which were different from 
those which applied to work train service. 
A fireman had a contractual right, the 
union said, to exercise a preference accord- 
ing to his seniority and to be governed by 
the rules covering his chosen assignment, 
and that this right could not be affected 
by merely issuing train orders. 



75803—7 



865 



The company in its contention quoted 
the following article of the current agree- 
ment with the union: "Road fireman held 
between terminals for work train service 
will be paid for time occupied in 
such service." (Emphasis added by the 
company.) 

The company contended that this clause 
applied only to road firemen when working 
as such, and that it provided that they 
should be paid for time occupied in work 
train service enroute in addition to the 
mileage of the trip. Other clauses of the 
article, the company stated, provided that 
firemen in work train service, whether 
assigned or unassigned, should be paid 
continuous time when laid up at other 
terminals if sleeping accommodation was 
not supplied. The right to tie up a work 
train crew as long as sleeping accommoda- 
tion was available had been accepted in 
the past, the company said, and it con- 
tended that the fireman had been properly 
compensated. 

The Board found that the company in 
ordering the fireman for work train service 
had followed the proper course under the 
agreement. When men were so called in 
unassigned service, the Board said, it 
necessarily followed that the men properly 
called should be paid under the rules 
applicable to the class of service for which 
they were called, whether work service or 
other. 

The contention of the employees was not 
sustained. 

Case No. 667 — Dispute between Algoma 
Central and Hudson Bay Railway Co. and 
the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen con- 
cerning a claim for pay for two conductors 
who were called for work twice in the same 
day, both of which calls were cancelled. 

On July 3, 1955, two conductors were 
called for 7:00 a.m. to work as pilots on 
Canadian National trains. At 6:40 a.m. 
both calls were cancelled. At 11:00 a.m. 
on the same day they were both called 
again. These calls were cancelled at 11:45 
a.m. The company had agreed to pay for 
only the first calls and cancellations. The 
union claimed that both sets of calls and 
cancellations should be paid for. 

The company stated that the calls had 
been cancelled before the men had left 
their houses to report, and that it had 
never been its practice to pay for calls 



which had been cancelled before the men 
had left their houses. It claimed that the 
practice in this respect was the same on 
other Canadian railways. 

The Board sustained the claim of the 
employees. 

Case No. 668 — Dispute between Algoma 
Central and Hudson Bay Railway Co. and 
the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen con- 
cerning the sending out of a yard crew 
from a closed yard on a main line trip of 
86 running miles when two main line road 
crews were available. 

On July 14, 1955, at 4:05 a.m., a north- 
bound freight train encountered a rock slide 
some 43 miles south of Hawk Junction, 
necessitating the movement of a hoist to 
the point to clear the main track. An 
assigned yard crew coming off duty at 5:00 
a.m. left Hawk Junction with a hoist at 
6:15 a.m. and returned to resume yard 
switching assignment at 2:45 p.m. Two 
road crews available were not called. 

The union contended that these road 
crews should have been used and that, 
since they had not been used, they were 
entitled to be paid for 50 miles, as pro- 
vided in the article of the Schedule 
governing run-arounds. 

The company contended that the crews 
held no rights on Soo Subdivision, and 
that the action taken was proper. The 
company quoted the following article of 
the Schedule: "When unassigned crews are 
available and run-around at terminals they 
will be paid 50 miles for each run-around 
and hold their turn out." (Emphasis 
apparently the company's.) 

The company claimed that the crews 
involved did not hold turns on the 
Michipicoten and Soo Subdivisions, and 
that there had been no contention until 
then that they were not assigned crews. 
The yard crew on duty when the accident 
occurred was the most convenient and 
logical crew to use in the emergency. The 
company said that it had always been its 
policy to meet the desires of the organiza- 
tions in arranging these assignments. 

A number of communications which had 
passed between company and union officials 
were submitted. 

The claim of the employees was sustained 
to the extent that the first road crew avail- 
able was to be paid 50 miles as run-around. 



Average income of Canadian non-farm families and unattached individuals living by 
themselves in 1954 is estimated at $3,654 by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. About 
one-fifth had incomes of $5,000 or more, more than half had $2,000 to $5,000, and slightly 
more than one-fourth had incomes below $3,000. 



866 



Collective Agreements 



Collective Bargaining in Hotel Industry 

Collective agreements cover an estimated 20 per cent of paid hotel 
workers, in contrast to 12 per cent in all service industries and 39 
per cent of all paid workers. File of 102 agreements analysed here 



The nature of the hotel industry pre- 
sents difficulties to the widespread union 
organization of its employees. Many 
hotels have few employees and many are 
situated in small towns some distance from 
urban centres where unions are usually 
concentrated. 

Nevertheless, an estimated 20 per cent 
of paid hotel workers are covered by 
collective agreements. This compares with 
12 per cent for paid workers in the service 
industries as a whole, which include, in 
addition to hotels, community or public, 
government, recreation and business ser- 
vices. For all industry, however, approxi- 
mately 39 per cent of all paid workers are 
covered by collective agreements. 

Hotels in which the workers are organized 
are mainly the larger establishments situ- 
ated in urban centres. For example, 
railway-owned hotels are, as a rule, union 
organized, as are large non-railway hotels 
in cities like Montreal, Toronto, and 
Vancouver. These non-railway hotels are 
often links in widespread hotel chains. 

The Economics and Research Branch of 
the Department of Labour has on file 102 
collective agreements covering 14,155 hotel 
workers. The distribution of bargaining 
units according to number of employees is 
as follows: 



Size of Bargaining Unit 


Collective 
Agreements 


Workers 
Covered 


Up to 10 employees 

11 to 50 employees 

51 to 100 employees 

101 to 500 employees 

More than 500 employees 


19 
34 
15 
26 
8 


107 
1,003 
1,065 
6,102 

5,878 


Totals 


102 


14,155 







Scope of Bargaining Units 

Sixty-five hotels have negotiated indi- 
vidual agreements affecting 9,685 workers. 
With one exception these agreements are 
signed by single unions. The exception is 
an agreement negotiated by four unions 
representing 12 workers engaged in engi- 
neering and maintenance. Thirty-seven 



agreements covering 4,470 workers are 
multi-hotel in scope. In all but five of 
these, with 491 workers, the Hotel and 
Restaurant Employees and Bartenders 
International Union is the employees' 
representative. Multi-hotel agreements are 
usually restricted in scope to a number of 
hotels in a particular city, town, or local 
district. Only two of the eight bargaining 
units with more than 500 employees and 
six of the 26 in the 101 to 500 employees' 
group are multi-hotel contracts. In most 
of these cases each individual employer 
has a comparatively small number of 
employees. 

Classifications of Workers 

The classifications of employees covered 
include kitchen, beverage room, service, 
laundry, engineering and maintenance 
workers. Beverage room employees, with 
few exceptions, are the only workers organ- 
ized in the small hotels, while in the 
larger establishments all or various com- 
binations of the occupations listed above 
are included. There are 32 agreements 
covering 7,856 workers engaged in all the 
listed occupations; 28 with 3,417 workers in 
beverage rooms only; 19 with 2,314 workers 
in kitchen, service and laundry occupations ; 
17 with 204 workers who are mainly oper- 
ating engineers or firemen; and six with 
364 workers in various other combinations. 

Unions 

The predominant union in this field is 
the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and 
Bartenders International Union, which is 
the bargaining agent for 8,703 workers in 
57 agreements. Beverage room employees, 
only, account for 25 (3,166 workers) of 
these contracts; another 15 (4,101 workers) 
include beverage room workers together 
with other hotel occupations. The other 
17 (1,436 workers) apply to workers in 
various classifications but exclude beverage 
room employees. Slightly more than 75 
per cent of the Canadian membership of 
this union is employed in the hotel industry. 

The Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees and Other Transport Workers, 
which organizes mainly employees engaged 



75803—7^ 



867 



in certain aspects of railway transporta- 
tion, is the union representative in 14 
contracts covering 3,981 workers. Each of 
the contracts bargained by this union is 
negotiated and signed with individual 
hotels, all but one being railway owned and 
operated. The hotel agreements held by 
this union cover workers in various com- 
binations of occupations with eight of the 
fourteen agreements including beverage 
room employees. 

Other unions represent 1,471 workers in 
31 bargaining units. The International 
Union of Operating Engineers holds 11 
contracts covering only 69 workers, as this 
union generally confines its organizing 
activities to stationary engineers and fire- 
men. In addition, this union negotiates 
one agreement jointly with the Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, 
International Brotherhood of Machinists 
and the United Association of Journeymen 
and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe 
Fitting Industry of the United States and 
Canada. 

The remaining unions with agreements in 
the industry are : International Brotherhood 
of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers; 
Building Service Employees' International 
Union; several directly chartered local 
unions; V Association Ouvriere Canadienne, 
Inc. (Canadian Workers' Association, Inc.) ; 
Laundry Workers' International Union; 
Retail, Wholesale and Department Store 
Union; National Council of Canadian 
Labour; International Union of Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers; and the 
National Union of Operating Engineers. 
The International Brotherhood of Pulp, 
Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers holds 
agreements with hotels which are owned 
and operated by pulp and paper producing 
companies, located in out-of-the-way places. 

Duration of Agreements 

The duration of more than one-half of 
the agreements analysed is for periods of 
two years or more. These agreements 
affected 82 per cent of the workers. Forty- 
seven contracts covering only 18 per cent 
of the workers are in effect for less than 
two years, as shown by the following: 



Collective Agreement 
Effective for 


Collective 
Agreements 


Workers 
Covered 


One year or less 


43 

4 

52 

3 


2,349 

142 

10,766 

898 


More than one year, less than 


Two years 


More than two years . . . 




Totals 


102 


14,155 





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Three agreements of three years' dura- 
tion were signed by one hotel with the 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and 
Bartenders International Union, Laundry 
Workers' International Union and the 
National Union of Operating Engineers, 



respectively. Agreements negotiated by 
the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees and Other Transport Workers 
are, with one exception, for two year 
periods, as are 29 contracts bargained by 
the Hotel and Restaurant Union. 



Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 



Under the Collective Agreement Act, 
Quebec, Orders in Council during April 
and May made obligatory a number of 
changes in wage rates, hours, statutory 
holidays, vacations and rest periods. 

In the construction industry in the 
Chicoutimi district, an amendment to the 
decree provides for increases of from 5 to 
15 cents per hour for most classes in 
Zone I; however, fewer classes received 
increases in Zone II, and no increase is 
reported for Zone IA. 

In the construction industry in Mont- 
real, a new section was added establishing 
special provisions for structural steel work. 
The rates for journeymen structural iron- 
workers and journej'men welders are set at 
$2 per hour. 

In the fine glove and working glove 
industries in the province, the hours have 
been reduced to 44 per week, with corre- 
sponding increases in wages to afford the 
same take-home pay. A further increase 
in wage rates of not less than 2h per cent 
is also stipulated, effective March 1. 1956. 



In the uncorrugated paper box industry 
in the region of Montreal, an amendment 
to the decree increases wage rates from 
4 to 5 cents per hour for all classes, and 
provides one additional holiday with pay. 
The vacation with pay clause has been 
amended to provide for an additional 2 per 
cent vacation pay for employees having 15 
years of service. Two 10-minute rest 
periods per day are now included. 

A new decree for the men's and boy's 
hat and cap industry in the province grants 
an additional holiday with pay and an 
additional week of vacation, but there were 
no increases in wage rates. 

In the paint manufacturing industry 
throughout the province, a new decree 
increases wage rates from 8 to 15 cents per 
hour, and there is an additional paid holi- 
day, making a total of seven paid holidays. 

A new decree for the sheet metal indus- 
try in Montreal provides for increases of 7 
or 8 cents per hour to all classifications 
and a third week of vacation to all 
employees with 20 or more years of service. 



Industrial Standards Act, Saskatchewan 



During April 1956, one new schedule 
was made binding under the Industrial 
Standards Act for the bakery industry in 
Moose Jaw, providing for an increase of 
$2.25 per week for all classifications. Work 



on holidays is paid at the overtime rate 
of time and one-half in addition to the 
regular holiday pay for the day. Hours 
remained unchanged at 40 per week. 



Industrial Fatalities 

(Continued from page 835) 

struck by tools, machinery, moving vehicles 
or other objects. W 7 ithin this group the 
largest number of deaths were caused by 
falling trees or limbs (15), trains or other 
railway vehicles (10), objects being hoisted 
or conveyed (9), objects falling or flying 
in mines and quarries (9) and materials 
falling from stockpiles or loads (8). In 
the classification "collisions, derailments, 
wrecks, etc.," 47 fatalities were recorded. 
These included 21 as a result of automobile 



or truck accidents and eight involving air- 
craft. "Falls and slips" accounted for 45 
of the fatalities during the period; all of 
these were caused by falls to different 
levels. 

By province of occurrence, the largest 
number of fatalities was in Ontario, where 
there were 75. In British Columbia there 
were 51 and in Quebec 46. 

During the quarter, there were 92 fatali- 
ties in January, 96 in February and 60 
in March. 



869 



Labour Law 



. . . . 



Labour Legislation in British Columbia, 1956 

Two weeks vacation with pay provided for by new Annual Holidays Act 
Discrimination in employment banned by Fair Employment Practices Act 
Minor amendments were made to Factories Act, Gas Act and mining Acts 



During the 1956 session of the British 
Columbia Legislature from January 17 to 
March 2, a new Annual Holidays Act was 
passed which, when it goes into effect on 
July 1, 1957, will require employers to 
grant their employees an annual holiday 
with pay of two weeks after completing a 
year of service. 

An Act to promote fair employment 
practices was also passed which makes 
discrimination against men and women in 
respect to their employment because of 
race, creed, colour, nationality, ancestry or 
place of origin contrary to the law of the 
province. 

The Factories Act, the Gas Act and the 
two mining Acts were also amended. 

Annual Holidays Act 

The new Annual Holidays Act will 
require an annual holiday with pay of 
two weeks to be granted to workers covered 
by the Act, instead of one week as at 
present, with a corresponding increase in 
the rate of vacation pay from 2 per cent 
to 4 per cent of annual earnings. 

(Saskatchewan is the only province which 
now provides for a vacation with pay of 
two weeks after one year's service, although 
Alberta provides for two weeks after two 
years' service and Manitoba after three 
years' service. The vacation with pay 
required to be given under the Annual 
Holidays Ordinance of the Yukon Territory 
is "at least 14 days" after each working 
year of employment.) 

The new Act provides for the introduc- 
tion of a vacation credit system. At the 
direction of the Minister of Labour, the 
Board of Industrial Relations is authorized 
to hold an inquiry and to make an order 
requiring the employers in a specified in- 
dustry to give their employees holiday 
credits at the end of each pay period. The 
order would prescribe the manner of ascer- 
taining the credits and the time at which 
and the manner in which employees may 
receive payment in cash. 

870 



(At the present time, a stamp system is 
being used in the construction industry in 
Alberta, Manitoba (Greater Winnipeg 
only), New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec 
(the Montreal and Hull Districts), and in 
the mining industry in New Brunswick. 
For some years it has been used in Ontario 
in any industry under the Act if employ- 
ment is terminated during a working year.) 

Like the Act now in effect, the Act will 
apply to all employers and employees in 
the province except those engaged in farm- 
ing and horticultural operations, domestic 
servants in private homes, persons engaged 
in the practice of specified professions, 
including students, and employers and 
employees covered by a collective agree- 
ment, if the employees' representatives have 
been authorized to bargain in accordance 
with the Labour Relations Act, and if the 
Minister has approved the vacation provi- 
sions of the agreement. 

"Employee" does not include a person 
who has not completed five days of actual 
work in a calendar year. The former 
wording was "does not include a person 
who is employed for a period of less than 
one week". 

A working year is defined, as previously, 
as not less than 225 days of actual work. 
If the employee's employment is termi- 
nated during a working year and before he 
has earned an annual holiday, the employer 
must pay him holiday pay for the time he 
has been employed. Payment is to be 
made at the rate of 4 per cent of his total 
wages and salary during the period of his 
employment. Should an employee leave 
his employment at a time when he has 
already earned an annual holiday but has 
not taken it, he must be given pay in lieu 
of the holiday. An employee who has 
worked throughout a year but for less than 
225 days and continues to be employed by 



This section, prepared by the Legisla- 
tion Branch, reviews labour laws as they 
are enacted by Parliament and the 
provincial legislatures, regulations under 
these laws, and selected court decisions 
affecting labour. 






the same employer must be given his holi- 
day pay within 30 days after the end of 
the calendar year. 

The new Act protects the employee's 
entitlement to his annual holiday or pay 
in lieu of holiday when the business in 
which he is employed is sold, leased or 
transferred, by stipulating that the employ- 
ment of the employee is deemed to be 
continuous and uninterrupted by the sale, 
lease or transfer. There is a similar pro- 
vision in the Alberta Labour Act and in 
the Manitoba Vacation with Pay Act. 

The Act provides for the making of an 
agreement with any other province "for 
the purpose of dealing with annual holi- 
days on an interprovincial basis". Such 
an agreement may supersede the provisions 
of the Act to such extent as is necessary 
for the purpose of giving it effect. 

The annual holiday may be taken in an 
unbroken period of two weeks or in two 
periods of one week each. It is exclusive 
of statutory holidays to which the employee 
is entitled and must be given within 10 
months after the date on which the 
employee becomes entitled to it. 

Holiday pay must be given in one pay- 
ment at least one day before the beginning 
of the annual holiday. Holidays due, or 
their equivalent in moneys, are deemed to 
be wages, but, it is now stated, are not 
subject to the Semi-monthly Payment of 
Wages Act. 

More particulars are required with respect 
to the records which an employer must 
keep. These include the date of com- 
mencement of the present term of employ- 
ment and its anniversary date, the dates 
of commencement and completion of each 
annual holiday granted, the period of 
employment covered by the annual holi- 
day, the amount of holiday pay and the 
amount of money paid in lieu of an annual 
holiday upon termination of employment. 
Records with respect to an employee whose 
employment is terminated must be kept for 
six months. 

An employer convicted of failure to pay 
holiday pay due under the Act or an order 
of the Board may be ordered to pay such 
money to the employee, in addition to the 
fine imposed. 

The Act will apply to every employee 
who becomes entitled to an annual holi- 
day or pay in lieu of holiday after July 1, 
1957, whether or not the holiday or pay was 
earned wholly or in part before and after 
that date. Where an employee has been 
given an annual holiday longer than two 
weeks, the extra time granted is not to 
negate in whole or in part any other annual 



holiday or pay in lieu of holiday to which 
an employee may be entitled under the Act. 

Fair Employment Practices 

The Fair Employment Practices Act 
forbids employers to refuse to employ, to 
discharge or to discriminate against any 
person because of his race, religion, colour, 
nationality, ancestry or place of origin. 
Trade unions are prohibited from exclud- 
ing from membership, from expelling or 
suspending, or from discriminating against, 
any member or person for any of these 
reasons. Expressions of discrimination in 
employment application forms, in advertise- 
ments or in written or oral enquiries in 
connection with prospective employment 
are also banned. 

The Act does not apply to employers of 
fewer than five persons nor to domestic 
servants in private homes, Non-profit 
charitable, philanthropic, educational, fra- 
ternal, religious or social organizations or 
those operated primarily to foster the 
welfare of a religious or racial group are 
also excluded. However, by an amend- 
ment made in passage, it was. made clear 
that institutions under the Public Schools 
Act are covered by the legislation. 

The Act is to be administered by the 
Department of Labour through a Director, 
who will be an officer of the Department 
designated by the Minister to receive and 
deal with complaints. 

A complaint that a person has been 
discriminated against must be made in 
writing. On receipt of a complaint, the 
Director will designate an officer of the 
Department to inquire into the matter and, 
if possible, to effect a settlement. If he 
reports that he has been unable to settle 
the matter, the Director may refer it to 
the Board of Industrial Relations, which 
shall have for its investigations the powers 
of a Commissioner under the Public 
Inquiries Act. The Act declares that the 
appointment of the Board may not be 
questioned nor its proceedings restricted or 
reviewed in any Court by way of injunc- 
tion, declaratory judgment, certiorari, 
mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto or 
otherwise. 

After hearing the parties, the Board is 
required to recommend to the Director the 
course which should be taken, which may 
include reinstatement with or without com- 
pensation for loss of earnings and other 
benefits. The Minister, on the recom- 
mendation of the Director, will then issue 
whatever order he deems necessary, and 
the order will be final and must be com- 
plied with. 



S71 



A fine of up to $100 may be imposed, 
on summary conviction, for failure to 
comply with any provision of the Act or 
any order made under it. A prosecution 
under the Act, for which the written 
consent of the Minister is required, may 
be instituted against a trade union or 
employers' organization in the name of the 
union or organization. 

Mines 

Amendments were made to the provi- 
sions of the two mining Acts. 

The provision in the Metalliferous 
Mines Regulation Act requiring workmen 
employed in a metal mine or in ore- or 
rock-crushing processes to have a medical 
certificate of fitness was amended to 
require a certificate in all cases unless 
permission to the contrary is granted by 
the Workmen's Compensation Board. 
Formerly, a certificate was not required for 
employment for two months or less in any 
12-month period. 

The Act provides that the Canadian 
Electrical Code, Part V, is applicable to 
electrical installations in mines except 
where otherwise provided by the Act. A 
change in this provision enables an in- 
spector to determine that the Code is not 
suitable and does not apply. Another 
change permits the Chief Inspector to 
authorize the use of voltages up to 600 
volts in main access haulageways under 
conditions prescribed by him. The Act 
limits voltage to 300 volts in other circum- 
stances. Electric street cars used to trans- 
port men require the higher voltage. 

The certifying authority for permissible 
equipment with respect to electrical instal- 
lations in coal mines under the Coal Mines 
Regulation Act is now the federal Depart- 
ment of Mines and Technical Surveys, 
which has established a service of this kind 
in place of the Canadian Standards 
Association. 

Hours of Work in Laundries 

The special sections in the Factories Act 
respecting the hours during which persons 
might be employed in laundries, cleaning, 
dyeing, pressing or dressmaking establish- 
ments were deleted. Under these provi- 
sions no person could operate or be 
employed in a laundry or other establish- 
ment covered by the sections except 
between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. unless special 
permission in writing was obtained from 
the factory inspector. Employees of public 
service laundries were permitted to work 
up until 11 p.m. without special permission. 



Employees in laundries and dry cleaning 
establishments are subject to the 8-hour 
daily and 44-hour weekly limits imposed by 
the Hours of Work Act. Opening and 
closing hours of laundries are no longer 
regulated unless they are covered by a 
municipal by-law. 

Inspection of Gas Equipment 

Amendments were made to the Gas Act 
passed in 1954 to protect the public from 
hazards arising out of the use of gas to 
produce light, heat or power. Only licensed 
gasfitters may instal or repair house piping 
or appliances. 

As a result of an amendment this year, 
no person may be appointed an inspector 
under the Act unless he holds a certificate 
of competencj\ To obtain a certificate an 
applicant must pass examinations and tests 
as the Minister of Public Works may 
require. The nature of the examination 
and the standards of qualifications for a 
certificate will be prescribed by regulations. 

Gas inspection services within the 
boundaries of a municipality are to be 
provided and maintained by the municipal 
council, except where arrangements are 
made with the Minister for the Chief 
Inspector to furnish inspection services. If 
the Chief Inspector is of the opinion that 
an efficient municipal gas inspection service 
by a fully qualified and competent person 
is not being maintained, he may, by agree- 
ment with the municipality, take over the 
inspection service in the municipality. 
Where he does so, the Chief Inspector may 
charge and collect the inspection fees fixed 
by the regulations. 

The Advisory Board appointed under the 
Act is authorized to report to and advise 
the Chief Inspector with regard to exam- 
inations for certificates issued under the 
Act and to review the evidence with respect 
to the cancellation or suspension of a 
certificate of competency or licence. The 
Board is also to assist and advise the Chief 
Inspector at his request in any case where 
an appeal is made from an inspector's ruling 
or decision. 

Bills Not Passed 

Four private members' Bills seeking to 
amend labour laws were introduced but 
failed to get beyond first reading. 

One of these sought to amend the Hours 
of Work Act by reducing the maximum 
hours which may be worked in a week 
from 44 to 40 and the hours within which 
a split shift may be worked from 12 to 10. 

A second Bill would have amended the 
Trade-unions Act with respect to interim 



872 



injunctions in industrial disputes. It would 
have required one day's notice of the 
application to be given to the party against 
whom the injunction is sought before an 
injunction could be issued. 

Two other Bills proposed amendments to 
the Labour Relations Act. The first of 
these sought to bring civil servants and 
employees of provincial boards, commissions 
and other government authorities under the 
Act. The second proposed more wide- 
spread amendments. Several would have 
diminished the powers of the Labour 
Relations Board. A change in the certifi- 
cation sections sought to remove from the 
Board the responsibility of determining 
whether or not a member of a trade union 
applying for certification is a member in 
good standing of the union. The Bill 
would have added a section stipulating that 
the Board had no authority to interpret a 
union constitution or to rule on the juris- 
diction of trade unions. An amendment 
with respect to the taking of representa- 
tion votes would have authorized the 
Board to certify a union if more than 50 
per cent of those voting vote in favour 
of the union rather than 50 per cent of all 
those eligible to vote, as at present 

Other changes contemplated by the Bill 
were that a "collective agreement" as used 
in the Act would refer only to an agree- 
ment signed by a certified trade union and 
an employer or employers' organization; 
that the definition of "trade union" should 
be replaced by one making it clear that 
to conform to the Act a union must have 
as its primary purpose the regulation of 
relations between employers and employees 
through collective bargaining; and that a 
"unit" may be comprised of only one 
employee. 

The Bill would also have added new 
sections to the Act as a consequence of 
the merger of the TLC and the CCL 
authorizing the Board to vary certifications 
already granted to indicate a change in a 
union's name and making it clear that the 
change of name would not affect the 
validity of the collective agreement to 
which the union was a party. The new 
sections provided that where a trade union 
had changed its name as a result of a 
merger or affiliation with another trade 
union it might apply to the Board to have 
its certification amended to show the 
correct designation of the new union. As 
evidence, the new union would have been 
required to produce a certificate of the 
president or secretary-treasurer of its inter- 
national or head office certifying to the 



change of name, merger or affiliation, along 
with a copy of a resolution certified by 
the secretary of the local union authorizing 
the change of name, merger or affiliation. 

Where the Board varied a certification 
in this manner, a collective agreement 
entered into with an employer by the 
previously certified union would be deemed 
to have been entered into on behalf of 
the employees b^y the trade union named 
in the amended certificate and would apply 
as if the agreement had been previously 
entered into with the trade union shown in 
the amended certificate. 

Another proposed amendment deals with 
the certification of craft unions. The Act 
permits certification of such unions subject 
to the requirement that the group of 
employees concerned must exercise tech- 
nical skills which distinguish them from 
the employees as a whole and that a 
majority of the group must belong to one 
union representative of their craft or skill. 
The proposed amendment states that where 
a unit has been designated by the Board 
as appropriate for collective bargaining no 
part of it may be designated as a separate 
unit. 

A further amendment would have author- 
ized the Board by regulation to fix the 
daily amount which an arbitrator or chair- 
man of an arbitration board dealing with 
a dispute arising out of a collective agree- 
ment may charge for his service, subject 
to a maximum of $50 a day. 

Other proposed amendments concerned 
strikes and lockouts. The Act prohibits 
strikes while an application for certification 
is pending. An amendment would limit 
the prohibition to the applicant union. At 
present, strikes and lockouts may legally 
take place in certain circumstances but 
only after a majority of all the employees 
in the unit affected have voted in favour 
of strike action and then only during the 
three months immediately after the vote 
has been taken. The amendment, would 
limit those eligible to vote to trade union 
members and remove the three-months 
limitation. The amendment would also 
provide for industry-wide strike votes 
where industry-wide bargaining is involved. 

The Bill would also have repealed the 
sections of the Act which authorize the 
Minister of Labour to refer a strike or 
lockout to a Judge of the Supreme Court 
for an adjudication as to its legality and 
which give the Court authority to cancel 
the certification, collective agreement and 
check-off arrangement of a union involved 
in a strike declared to be illegal. 



873 



Labour Legislation in New Brunswick, 1956 

Fair Employment Practices Act enacted at this year's session of the 
Legislature. Labour Relations Act and Plumbing Trade Act are amended 



The New Brunswick Legislature at its 
1956 session, held from February 9 to March 
29, enacted a Fair Employment Practices 
Act, to be administered by the Depart- 
ment of Labour. Applying to employers 
and to trade unions, it prohibits discrimina- 
tion in regard to hiring and employment 
and in regard to trade union membership 
by reason of race, national origin, colour 
or religion. 

The Labour Relations Act was amended 
to provide that policemen may be deemed 
employees within the meaning of the Act. 

Minor amendments were made to the 
Plumbing Trade Act and the Mothers' 
Allowances Act. 

Fair Employment Practices 

New Brunswick passed a law forbidding 
discrimination by employers with regard to 
employment and by trade unions with 
regard to membership on grounds of race, 
national origin, colour or religion, becoming 
one of the six provinces with this type 
of legislation. A federal Act applying to 
all undertakings within the jurisdiction of 
Parliament with five or more employees 
was passed in 1953. 

The Fair Employment Practices Act, 
which goes into effect on June 1, 1956, like 
the other provincial Acts, applies to all 
employers with five or more employees. 
It also binds the Crown in right of the 
Province. Excluded are domestic servants 
in private homes and exclusively chari- 
table, philanthropic, educational, fraternal, 
religious or social organizations or corpora- 
tions and other non-profit organizations 
operated primarily to foster the welfare of 
a religious or racial group. 

The Act forbids certain positive acts of 
discrimination. An employer may not 
refuse to employ, or to continue to employ, 
or discriminate against any person in 
regard to employment or any term or con- 
dition of employment because of his race, 
national origin, colour or religion. Employ- 
ment agencies are also forbidden to dis- 
criminate against any person on such 
grounds. On the basis of race, national 
origin, colour or religion, a trade union is 
forbidden to exclude any person from 
membership, to expel, suspend or other- 
wise discriminate against one of its mem- 
bers, or to discriminate against any person 
in regard to his employment by an 
employer. 



No person (including an employment 
agency, employers' agency or trade union) 
may use an application form or publish an 
advertisement or make a written or oral 
inquiry in connection with employment 
that expresses either directly or indirectly 
"any limitation, specification or preference 
as to race, national origin, colour or religion 
unless the limitation, specification or pref- 
erence is based upon a bona fide occupa- 
tional qualification". It is likewise unlawful 
for an employer or trade union to discharge, 
expel or discriminate against a person who 
files a complaint under the Act or gives 
evidence or otherwise assists in the initia- 
tion or prosecution of a complaint. 

The Act is administered by the Minister 
of Labour. A person who feels that he 
has been discriminated against may make 
a complaint in writing to the Minister, who 
will assign a conciliation officer to inquire 
into the complaint and to try to settle the 
matter. If he is unsuccessful, the Min- 
ister may set up a commission of one or 
more persons with the powers of a concilia- 
tion board under the Labour Relations Act. 
If the commission, after investigating the 
complaint and hearing all the parties, finds 
that the complaint is supported by the 
evidence, it must recommend to the Min- 
ister the course which should be taken, 
which may include reinstatement, with or 
without compensation for loss of employ- 
ment. The Minister is required to furnish 
a copy of the commission's recommendations 
to each of the persons affected and he may 
publish them if he sees fit. He may then 
issue whatever order he thinks necessary 
to carry them into effect. 

Fines up to $100 for an individual and 
up to $500 for a corporation, trade union, 
employers' organization or employment 
agency may be imposed, on summary con- 
viction for a contravention of the Act or 
failure to comply with an order made under 
it. In addition, an employer convicted of 
having discriminated against an employee 
contrary to the Act may be required by 
the court to reinstate him and pay him the 
equivalent of the wages he would have 
earned had he not been discriminated 
against. A prosecution for an offence under 
the Act may be instituted only with the 
written consent of the Minister. 

A prosecution under the Act may be 
instituted against an employers' organiza- 
tion or a trade union in the name of the 



874 



organization or union. Any act done or 
omitted by an officer or agent of such an 
organization or union while acting in his 
official capacity will be deemed to be an 
act done or omitted by the organization 
or union. 

Labour Relations 

By an amendment to the Labour Rela- 
tions Act it was provided that police officers 
in a city, town, incorporated village or 
county may be brought within the scope 
of the Act. The amendment resulted from 
a recent decision of the New Brunswick 
Supreme Court in which it was held that 
members of the Fredericton police force 
were not employees as defined in the Act 
and which therefore quashed an order of 
the Labour Relations Board certifying a 
union as bargaining agent for the police 
force and a second order requiring the City 
of Fredericton to bargain with the union 
(L.G., Jan., p. 86). 

The Act provides that a city or town 
council may by resolution declare itself or 
any of its boards or commissions to be an 
employer within the meaning of the Act. 
The amendment provides that in such a 
case, if the city council or board or com- 
mission is empowered to prescribe condi- 
tions of employment for police officers, the 
police officers will then be deemed to be 
employees within the meaning of the Act. 

Mothers' Allowances 

The Mothers' Allowances Act was 
amended to provide for the payment of an 



allowance until a child reaches the age of 
17 or, if he is attending school, to the end 
of the school year in which his 17th birth- 
day occurs. The amendment, which will be 
proclaimed in force, will permit payment 
for a year longer than before. 

Plumbing Trade 

The Plumbing Trade Act passed last 
year authorized regulations which are, in 
effect, a plumbing code for the province. 
In any area where the regulations are 
declared in effect, no person may engage 
in the work of the plumbing trade unless 
he holds a certificate of qualification. The 
Act was declared in force on October 15, 
1955, and a chief plumbing inspector 
appointed who is responsible for the 
enforcement of the regulations in all 
designated areas; but a municipality may, 
by by-law, provide for the licensing of 
workmen in the trade and appoint a local 
plumbing inspector. 

An amendment provides that when any 
matter within the scope of the regulations 
is not provided for, the municipality, with 
the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council, may provide for its regulations and 
control through a plumbing trade by-law. 
Provision is now made for a penalty of 
$50 on summary conviction for an offence 
under a plumbing trade by-law, payable to 
the secretary of the municipality for the 
use of the municipality. Previously penal- 
ties were established only for a violation 
of the Act or regulations. 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 

Orders of Quebec and Saskatchewan Labour Relations Boards quashed. 
Decisions of arbitration boards held not subject to review by courts. 
Quebec minimum wage legislation held not to prohibit payment in kind 



The Saskatchewan Court of Appeal held 
that the Labour Relations Board's failure 
to consider certain legal principles in esti- 
mating the compensation to be paid to a 
discharged employee invalidated its rein- 
statement order. 

The Ontario High Court ruled that the 
award of an arbitration board established 
under a collective agreement was not 
reviewable by the Court. 

An order of the Quebec Labour Relations 
Board certifying a union as bargaining 
agent for the employees of a logging com- 
pany was cancelled by the Quebec Superior 
Court on the ground that Indian employees 



had been wrongfully excluded from the 
bargaining unit. In a second decision, the 
Court found that payment in kind was not 
prohibited by Quebec minimum wage 
legislation. 

Saskatchewan Court of Appeal... 

. . . quashes reinstatement order because dismissed 
worker's monetary loss was incorrectly assessed 

On April 27, 1956, the Saskatchewan 
Appeal Court, on the application of a retail 
company, quashed with costs an order of 
the Saskatchewan Labour Relations Board 
ordering the company to reinstate and 
reimburse an employee who had been 



875 



dismissed for alleged union activity. The 
Court ruled that the Board's error in esti- 
mating the monetary loss suffered by the 
employee invalidated the order. 

The judgment of the Court was given 
by Chief Justice Martin. 

In April 1955, an employee of Simpsons- 
Sears Limited, Regina, applied for and was 
granted two weeks' leave of absence to 
help his father with the spring planting. 
He returned to work, however, after three 
days' absence, as weather conditions did 
not permit seeding operations at that time. 

He continued working until May 13, 
when he again left for the farm, telling 
another employee that he was going to 
finish his leave but, as the Judge pointed 
out, without speaking to any of the officers 
of management whom he had previously 
consulted about leave of absence. On 
May 18, the organizer of the union of which 
he was a member advised him that it was 
rumoured that he had been dismissed. On 
his return to the city he found a letter 
from the company dismissing him on 
May 16. He was given a week's pay in 
lieu of notice. 

The dismissed employee did not com- 
plain to the management of the company 
or present his case to the Labour Relations 
Board. Instead, he took his letter of dis- 
missal to the union, which, alleging that the 
company had engaged in an unfair labour 
practice, applied to the Board on August 
25 for an order requiring the company to 
reinstate him and to pay him for his 
monetary loss. In the meantime, the man 
worked on his father's farm, receiving only 
his room and board for his work, and was 
still there when the hearings were held in 
September and October 1955. He testified, 
however, that he had approached two firms 
and registered with an employment agency. 
He received two letters from the agency 
offering him work but when he arrived in 
the city the jobs had been filled. He did 
not say how long a period had elapsed 
before he reported to the agency or 
whether he had made other attempts to 
secure employment. 

On October 28, 1955, the Board, with 
three dissenting members favouring dis- 
missal of the application, concluded that 
the employee had been dismissed because 
of union activity and ordered his rein- 
statement. The Board also ordered that he 
should be paid $485 for his monetary loss. 
This represented 15 weeks' wages at $40 a 
week, his wages at Simpsons-Sears, with a 
reduction of $115 for the unemployment 
insurance he had received during the 
period. 



Chief Justice Martin, following the 
precedent laid down in a similar case, 
John East Iron Works v. Labour Relations 
Board of Saskatchewan (L.G., 1950, p. 704), 
concluded that the Board had not calcu- 
lated the employee's monetary loss accord- 
ing to legal principles. He quoted the 
statement of the Judge in that case. Before 
directing that orders of the Board requiring 
the John East Iron Works to reinstate and 
reimburse five employees who had been 
discharged for union activity should be 
quashed without the actual issue of a writ 
of certiorari, that Judge had said: 

Thus the Board held that what wages he 
would have received from the company 
between the relevant dates was his monetary 
loss irrespective of every other considera- 
tion. This is my opinion clearly ignores the 
principles of law applicable in such cases. 
It is the duty of the employee to minimize 
the loss; for all that appears in the reasons 
for judgment or in the formal order the 
employee may have been otherwise employed 
during the period in question or might have 
been so employed if he reasonably looked for 
employment. The Board assumed that the 
only question for its determination of the 
monetary loss was the amount of the wages 
he would have earned had he continued in 
the company's employ. 

In this case, the only matters considered 
by the Board when assessing his loss were 
the wages he was paid at the time of 
dismissal and the amount of unemploy- 
ment insurance he received. Chief Justice 
Martin stated that the value of his board 
and lodging should also have been taken 
into consideration. 

He considered also that it was the man's 
duty to minimize his loss, a factor which 
had also not been taken into account by 
the Board. He could have procured work 
on some other farm during the harvest 
season, when help is generally in short 
supply and wages are high. The company 
should not be called upon to pay him while 
he chose to work on his father's farm for 
only his board and lodging. 

The order of the Board was not sever- 
able, as counsel for the union contended, 
and there was no authority which would 
permit the Court to quash the part relating 
to the compensation for the monetary loss 
and to allow the part ordering reinstate- 
ment to remain in force. The Court, there- 
fore, quashed the order of the Board 
requiring the company to reinstate Solomon. 
Simpsons-Sears Limited v. the Department 
Store Organizing Committee, Local 1004 
(CCL), Saskatchewan Court of Appeal, 
April 27, 1956. 



876 



Ontario High Court... 

. . . rules decisions of an arbitration board set up 
by collective agreement not reviewable by courts 

On January 20, 1956, in the Ontario High 
Court, Mr. Justice Judson dismissed the 
application of a mining company for a 
writ of certiorari to quash the decision of 
an arbitration board established under a 
collective bargaining agreement. He held 
that as the board was not a statutory body 
its decision could not be reviewed by the 
Court. 

The proceedings began when the Inter- 
national Nickel Company of Canada 
refused to reinstate an employee after he 
had been absent more than 14 days while 
serving a short term of imprisonment. The 
company, which had previously refused the 
employee's request for leave of absence to 
serve his sentence, contended that the 
absence without leave constituted a break 
in service as denned in the collective agree- 
ment in effect between the company and 
the International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, which, in part, provides: 

A break in service shall be deemed to have 
occurred if an individual employed by the 
Company 

"(a) quits (absence without leave for a 
period of over fourteen (14) days shall con- 
stitute a quit)." 

The matter was then referred to an 
arbitration board, which decided the 
employee had not quit. The company then 
applied for a writ of certiorari on the 
ground that the board had exceeded its 
jurisdiction in interpreting "absence with- 
out leave" as "wilful absence without leave". 

In the Judge's opinion, the board had 
not exceeded its jurisdiction. It was 
entitled to interpret the meaning of "break 
in service", and "quits" in the context 
quoted and with reference to the facts of 
the case and to decide as it had done. The 
board did not purport to alter the agree- 
ment. What it had done was to interpret 
it, in accordance with its authority to 
determine "any difference arising from the 
interpretation, application, administration 
or alleged violation" of the agreement. 
The terms quoted were contained in the 
agreement by virtue of Section 32 of the 
Ontario Labour Relations Act, which 
requires every collective agreement to pro- 
vide for final and binding settlement of 
differences by arbitration. 

Following the principle set out in R. v. 
National Joint Council for the Craft of 
Dental Technicians (Disputes Committee) 
(1953) 1 QB 704, from which he quoted: 

There is no instance of which I know in 
the books where certiorari or prohibition 



had gone to any arbritrator except a 
statutory arbitrator and a statutory arbi- 
trator is a person to whom by statute the 
parties must resort. 

Mr. Justice Judson decided that, since the 
board had not been set up by the Legis- 
lature but under a collective agreement, its 
decision was not reviewable by the Court. 
He, therefore, dismissed the application. 
Re International Nickel Co. of Canada Ltd. 
and Rivando (1956) 1 DLR 775. 

Quebec Superior Court... 

. . . finds that Canadian Indians are entitled to 
protection of province's Labour Relations Act 

On October 31, 1955, the Quebec Superior 
Court in prohibition proceedings quashed 
an order of the Quebec Labour Relations 
Board certifying a union as bargaining 
agent for the employees of a Quebec 
logging company on the ground that the 
Indian employees who formed a part of the 
group should not have been excluded from 
the bargaining unit. The Court held that 
the Board had no legal basis under the 
Quebec Labour Relations Act or by-law 
No. 1 for considering Indian employees of 
the company as different from other 
employees under the Act. 

The Company, John Murdock Limited, 
was engaged in logging operations at Monet 
in Abitibi County. The union, Local 2817 
of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America, applied for certifi- 
cation as bargaining agent for the com- 
pany's employees contending, however, that 
the Indians in the employ of the company 
(of which there were, in November 1953, 
92 out of a total of some 290 employees) 
should not be counted as part of the 
bargaining unit. The union maintained 
that the Indians should be excluded on 
the grounds that they were separate from 
other Canadians as a racial entity, that the 
labour laws of the province were not 
applicable to them, that they did not live 
under the same conditions as the other 
workers and were generally opposed to 
union membership. Not at first accepting 
the viewpoint of the union, the Board 
counted the Indians along with the com- 
pany's other employees and on November 
16, 1953, rejected the application on the 
ground that the union did not represent 
a majority of the workers. Later, however, 
in response to the union's request to recon- 
sider its decision, the Board reversed its 
judgment and, excluding the Indians, certi- 
fied the union as bargaining agent on 
March 18, 1954. 



877 



The company, maintaining that the 
Indians were employees like the other 
workers, that they worked under the same 
conditions and with the same tools and 
received the same wages as its other 
employees even though their social customs 
were different, contested the certification. 
Its request that the Board reconsider its 
second decision was refused on June 3, 
1954. 

On July 16, 1954, the company obtained 
a writ of prohibition ordering the Labour 
Relations Board to suspend all proceedings 
resulting from its decision to certify Local 
2817 as bargaining agent of the employees 
of the company, and appealed against the 
decision of the Board. 

In giving his reasons for decision, Mr. 
Justice Boulanger considered whether Sec- 
tion 41a of the Labour Relations Act barred 
the company from appealing against the 
decision of the Board. This section is in 
part as follows: 

No writ of quo warranto, of mandamus, of 
certiorari, of prohibition or injunction may 
be issued against the Board or against any 
of its members acting in their official 
capacity. 

His Lordship stated that in order to 
determine this question it must be decided 
whether or not the action of the Board 
in not counting the Indian employees was 
a valid exercise of the Board's functions. 

Outlining those functions, as set out in 
the Labour Relations Act and the Public 
Inquiry Commission Act, he concluded that 
the Board's principal function was to grant 
union recognition within the framework of 
and according to the conditions set down 
in the law. 

His Lordship noted that "employee" is 
defined in the Act as meaning any 
apprentice, unskilled labourer or workman, 
skilled workman or journeyman, artisan, 
clerk or employee working individually or 
in a crew or in partnership but not includ- 
ing supervisory employees, specified profes- 
sional employees, domestic servants and 
agricultural workers. 

Examining By-law No. 1, which sets out 
the conditions under which a person may 
be deemed a member in good standing of 
a union, Mr. Justice Boulanger found 
nothing in these conditions dealing with 
ethnic or racial origin, colour, beliefs, way 
of life, customs or conduct outside working 
hours of any worker. The same was true 
of the Act itself. 

As with every other judicial body, His 
Lordship continued, the Board must take 
the law as it stands; it cannot remake it 
or amend it; it cannot change definitions; 
it cannot make distinctions where the law 



does not make them and it cannot make 
exceptions where the law makes none. 
Employees of the Indian race who do the 
same work as employees of the white race, 
with the same tools, the same methods, 
for the same wages and under the same 
conditions, are included in the definition of 
employees under the Labour Relations Act 
and the regulation of the Board. The 
Board cannot arbitrarily set them aside in 
deciding if an association represents the 
absolute majority of the workers of which 
they form a part. 

His Lordship further emphasized that this 
attempt at racial segregation could not be 
supported on any legal grounds. It was 
an attack against the freedom to work and 
the right of every worker to join an asso- 
ciation and benefit from labour laws. If 
the Board were allowed to exclude Indian 
lumbermen from the definition of 
employees, it would not be long before 
some little village tyrant, and there are 
many who would like to be such, would 
try, under the pretext that Indians are 
unwilling to accept trade unionism, to 
prevent them from working by means of 
a closed shop or other union security 
clause. 

Mr. Justice Boulanger concluded that the 
Board did not exercise its functions within 
the limits of the law when it performed 
an unauthorized act or, what was worse, an 
illegal act. Since Section 41a only pro- 
tected the Board from an action by way 
of writ of prohibition when it acted within 
its powers, he found no bar to the action 
by the company against the Board. 

The Court therefore confirmed the writ 
of prohibition and quashed the certifica- 
tion order. John Murdoch Limitee v. La 
Commission de Relations Ouvrieres de la 
Province de Quebec et Autres et La Frater- 
nite Unie des Charpentiers Menuisiers 
d'Amerique (1956) Rapports Judiciaires CS 
Montreal 30. 

Quebec Superior Court... 

. . . holds that province's Minimum Wage Act does 
not prohibit employer from making payment in kind 

In a judgment given on October 25, 1955, 
the Quebec Superior Court dismissed an 
action of the Minimum Wage Commission 
against an employer for wages owing to one 
of his employees on the ground that the 
employee had already been paid a sufficient 
amount in kind. 

The reasons for decision were given by 
Mr. Justice Morin. The employee in ques- 
tion was employed as a watchman and 
janitor in a real estate undertaking owned 



878 



by the defendant. His occupation was 
covered by General Minimum Wage Order 
4, Section 109 of which fixed a minimum 
rate of 41 cents an hour with a daily 
guarantee of three hours for such an 
employee working in Zone II of the prov- 
ince. The employer, however, instead of 
paying the employee a wage in cash had 
given him as compensation for his services 
a six-roomed dwelling, with heat and light, 
continuous hot water, refrigeration and 
other services, the value of which was 
estimated by the defendant at $65 per 
month. 

His Lordship stated that neither the 
Minimum Wage Act nor Minimum Wage 
Order 4 prohibited an employer from 
making an agreement with his employee to 
pay him in kind following the wage scale 
fixed by law. Further, he found that the 
value of the dwelling furnished was in 
excess of the minimum wage fixed by law. 



In determining whether or not payment 
in kind was prohibited by law, His Lord- 
ship stated that Section 109 had to be read 
in conjunction with Section 1 (h) and 
Section 14 of the Act. Section 1 (h) 
defines "wage" as "the remuneration in 
currency and the compensation or benefit 
of a pecuniary value due for the labour 
or services of an employee". Section 14 
reads in part: 

_ The rate of minimum wage may be estab- 
lished on a basis of remuneration by the 
hour, day, week, month or year, or by 
the job, for piece work, on commission or on 
any other remuneration basis; it may also 
be established on several of these bases 
combined. 

He found that the agreement made 
between the janitor and his employer was 
in no way contrary to the Act or Order 4. 
The action was therefore dismissed. La 
Commission de Salaire Minimum v. 
Lamontagne (1956) Rapports Judiciaires CS 
Montreal 19. 



Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 

New safety regulations for oil and gas wells are issued by British 
Columbia Workmen's Compensation Board; and more'generous overtime 
provisions for federal prevailing rate employees have been approved 



In British Columbia, new accident- 
prevention regulations respecting oil and 
natural gas wells, issued by the Workmen's 
Compensation Board, set out minimum 
safety standards for drilling equipment and 
practices. The Board of Industrial Rela- 
tions has again exempted the fresh fruit 
and vegetable industry from the Hours of 
Work Act during the busy season. 

Federal prevailing rate employees whose 
standard work week is 40 hours or less 
will now get time and one-half for over- 
time after 40 hours in a week. Supervisory 
differentials were also approved for these 
employees. 

In Saskatchewan, it was provided that 
in three trades under the Apprenticeship 
and Tradesmen's Qualification Act — the 
electrical, plumbing and motor vehicle 
mechanics repair trades — the number of 
registered apprentices may not exceed one- 
third of the number of journeymen engaged 
in the trade in the province. Provision was 
also made for indenturing persons working 
at these trades to the Director of Appren- 
ticeship. Apprentices in a number of 
designated trades must now receive at least 
the current minimum wage during their 
first 1,000 hours of training. 



Provision was made for extending the 
system of mine rescue stations now estab- 
lished in five districts of Quebec to the 
entire province. 

In Alberta, regulations respecting 
standards of qualification and examination 
of pressure welders were re-issued under the 
new Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act. 

FEDERAL 

Financial Administration Act 

The Prevailing Rate Employees General 
Regulations made by Treasury Board by 
T.B. 478800 of November 10, 1954, were 
amended by T.B. 496371 and T.B. 496371-1 
of January 27, 1956, with respect to over- 
time and vacation leave. Supervisory 
differentials were also provided for. The 
main change was the provision for the 
payment of overtime at the rate of time 
and one-half after 40 hours in a week. 

Prevailing rate employees may not be 
paid at a special rate for overtime unless 
a standard work week has been fixed by 
Treasury Board. For those on a standard 
work week, overtime will now be recorded 
each day in units of 15 minutes and a 
weekly aggregate determined. (Fractions 



879 



of the 15-minute unit are not to be 
counted.) Payment will be made on the 
basis of every full hour of overtime 
recorded in the weekly total. 

If the standard work week is 40 hours 
or more, time and one-half the rates of 
normal pay and extra pay, if any, payable 
for the work if it had been performed 
during normal working hours, is payable 
for each completed hour of overtime. 
Where the standard work week is less than 
40 hours, the overtime rate will not apply 
until after 40 hours have been worked. 
Under previous regulations, time and one- 
half the regular rate was payable after 44 
hours in both cases. 

Vacation leave credits accrue at the rate 
of one-twelfth of the number of hours in 
the standard work week during each of the 
first 12 months of continuous employment, 
one-eighth during the next 12 months, and 
one-sixth after 24 months' service. Now, 
however, vacation leave credits begin to 
accumulate at the rate of one-quarter of 
the number of hours in the standard work 
week after 15 years' service instead of after 
25 years' service, as formerly. 

The gratuity in lieu of vacation leave 
credits which may be paid an employee 
whose services are terminated before he 
has completed six months of service is now 
payable if he has worked four consecutive 
standard work weeks. Formerly, the 
gratuity was payable after one month of 
continuous service. 

Effective April 1, 1956, supervisory differ- 
entials may be paid to prevailing rate 
supervisory employees, subject to the 
approval of the Civil Service Commission 
as to numbers, responsibilities and levels 
of supervisors to be provided on depart- 
mental establishments. The rates paid must 
be multiples of five in all cases, with a 
maximum differential of 15 cents an hour 
when approved by the deputy head con- 
cerned. A differential of more than 15 
cents an hour but not in excess of 30 cents 
may be paid, however, if Treasury Board 
approves. 

PROVINCIAL 

Alberta Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act 

Regulations as to the standards of qualifi- 
cation and examination of pressure welders, 
approved by O.C. 442-56 and effective 
April 1, were gazetted April 30, rescinding 
those established last year by O.C. 449-55 
(L.G., July 1955, p. 838). Re-issued under 
the new Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act, 
which went into force on July 1, 1955, the 
regulations make reference to the new Act 
and contain certain other minor changes. 



The standards adopted for pressure vessel 
welders under the Act are those set out in 
Section IX, Welding Qualifications, of the 
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 
Any changes, published interpretations or 
rulings by the ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code Committee to ASME Welding 
Qualifications become governing standards, 
if approved by the Chief Inspector of 
Boilers. 

Only a person holding a certificate under 
the Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act may 
w T eld a pressure vessel or pressure piping. 
However, in a remote area where a qualified 
welder is unavailable, an authorized in- 
spector may, as before, permit welding to 
be done under his supervision by an 
unlicensed person whose competency he has 
tested, provided certain requirements are 
met. 

Certificates are classed as Grade A, 
Grade B and provisional. All three permit 
the holder to do welding under the Boilers 
and Pressure Vessels Act provided material 
groupings and performance requalifications 
outlined in paragraph Q-25 of Section IX 
of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code are complied with. As before, the 
holder of a Grade A certificate may also 
engage in Fusion Welded Boiler repairs as 
outlined in the National Board Inspection 
Code. In the case of Grade B certificates, 
the P & F No. material and electrode 
groupings will be noted on the certificate 
and registration card, as under the previous 
regulations. 

A new provision states that the holder 
of a Grade A or Grade B electric welding 
certificate may engage in oxy-acetylene 
pressure welding provided he has passed a 
practical oxy-acetylene test conducted by 
an inspector, in accordance with Section IX 
of the ASME Code. The test must be 
taken immediately prior to commencing 
operations, which must be limited to one 
class of welding. 

There are some minor changes in the 
examination requirements due to the pass- 
ing of the new Act and the recent grading 
of journeymen's certificates issued under 
the Welding Act. Under that Act, a 
journeyman's certificate is either first class 
or second class, depending upon the experi- 
ence and skill of the applicant. The 
regulations now stipulate that the Journey- 
man Certificate under the Welding Act 
which is required as a qualification for 
either a Grade A or Grade B certificate is 
a First Class Journeyman Certificate. The 
examination for a Grade A certificate may 
be taken only by a candidate who has held 
a Grade B certificate under the Boilers and 
Pressure v OCC pi s Art, or a First Class 



880 



Journeyman Certificate under the Welding 
Act for at least a year. To be eligible to 
take the Grade B examination a candidate 
must be qualified as a first class journey- 
man electric welder under the Welding Act. 
The number and date of issue of the First 
Class Journeyman Certificate issued under 
the Welding Act must be given by an 
applicant applying for an examination. 

The regulations set out the subjects 
which the written examinations will cover 
and specify that the practical tests shall 
be given and graded according to Section 
IX of the ASME Code. In the written 
examination, a candidate must obtain 60 
per cent of the marks allotted to qualify 
for a Grade A certificate and 50 per cent 
for a Grade B certificate. 

Provisional certificates valid for a period 
of 12 months may still be issued at the 
discretion of the Chief Inspector when 
qualified welders are not available. They 
may not be issued, however, to welders with 
First Class Journeymen's Certificates in 
electric welding who have had time to 
qualify for examination for a Grade B 
certificate. 

British Columbia Hours of Work Act 

By Regulation No. 21 (1956), gazetted 
May 17, the Board of Industrial Relations 
has again exempted the fresh fruit and 
vegetable industry from the operation of 
the Hours of Work Act from June 1 to 
November 30, 1956, inclusive. This means 
that persons employed in operations in or 
incidental to the canning, preserving, 
drying, or packing of any kind of fresh 
fruit or vegetable may work longer than 
eight hours a day and 44 hours a week 
during this period. Punitive overtime 
rates apply, however, during the period 
of exemption under a complementary 
minimum wage order. For some years the 
Board has required the payment between 
June 1 and November 30 of time and one- 
half the regular rate for the first two hours 
after nine in a day, double time after 11 
hours, and time and one-half after 54 hours 
in a week, provided overtime is not calcu- 
lated on a daily basis. 

British Columbia Workmen's Compensation Act 

Oil and Gas Wells 

The first accident-prevention regulations 
to be issued by the British Columbia 
Workmen's Compensation Board especially 
for oil and gas well-drilling and servicing 
operations were gazetted on April 26. The 
regulations were adopted after a public 
hearing last November and took effect on 
April 1. 



. They apply to all employers and work- 
men concerned with the search for petroleum 
or natural gas, including well-drilling, and 
the moving, erection, operation and main- 
tenance of derricks, and of all equipment 
and processes concerned with the servicing 
and treatment of wells. 

The regulations are in two parts. Part I 
contains general rules which, except for a 
few minor changes, are the same as those 
in the General Accident Prevention Regu- 
lations of the Workmen's Compensation 
Board. Part II sets out special rules 
respecting drilling equipment and practices, 
some of which are included among the 
safety provisions of the regulations under 
the British Columbia Petroleum and 
Natural Gas Act, 1954. Others are similar 
to regulations respecting oil and gas wells 
issued under the Alberta Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act (L.G., 1953, p. 588) and the 
Saskatchewan Oil and Gas Conservation 
Act (L.G., 1953, p. 591). The regulations 
become part of the complete Accident 
Prevention Regulations of the Board, for a 
contravention of which a penalty of not 
more than $300 may be imposed. 

Summarized below are some of the 
provisions respecting responsibilities and 
duties, personal protective equipment, 
lighting, safety requirements for equipment 
in general use, drilling equipment, blow-out 
prevention and fire-prevention. 

Responsibilities and Duties 

Employers, in addition to ensuring by 
means of regular inspections by competent 
persons that all buildings, structures, 
machinery, and equipment meet the 
requirements of the regulations, share with 
supervisors the responsibility of seeing that 
every workman has received sufficient 
training to perform the work assigned to 
him without undue risk to himself or others 
under all normal conditions. As in other 
industries under the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Act, a safety committee must be 
maintained in every operation where more 
than 20 men are employed. If fewer than 
20 men are employed, the management 
must arrange for weekly meetings at which 
supervisors will lead discussions on safety 
matters. As many of the crew as possible 
are to attend these meetings. 

Employers must provide the first-aid 
supplies and equipment specified in the 
Minimum First Aid Service Requirements 
issued by the Board. They must also 
supply the personal protective equipment 
necessary for the safety of their workmen. 
A drilling report book for recording reports 
of inspections and other required informa- 
tion must be kept at every drilling rig. 



881 



The regulations state that, in general, 
and without in any way relieving the 
employer of his responsibility, tool-pushers 
and drillers will be held responsible for 
the safety of the workmen under their 
supervision. Some specific duties are also 
assigned to them. The driller is required 
to test the brakes on the draw works of 
the drilling rig when he comes on shift. 
He must not leave the controls while the 
hoisting drum is in motion. Brakes and 
hoisting-lines are to be examined weekly 
by the tool-pusher, who is also responsible 
for keeping safety belts, lines and fittings 
in good repair. 

Workmen, however, have certain respon- 
sibilities for their own safety, and must 
comply with all regulations which affect 
or concern their conduct. They must wear 
clothing suitable for the weather condi- 
tions and the work being performed, 
avoiding loose-fitting or torn clothes that 
might get caught in moving equipment. 
Clothing soaked with inflammable matter 
is to be replaced by clean apparel. Shoes 
are to be made of substantial material with 
non-skid soles and heels. 

Workmen are also required to wear or 
use the personal protective equipment 
provided by the employer. A workman 
whose careless work habits endanger the 
lives of others is liable to the penalties 
provided under the regulations. 

Personal Protective Equipment 

Personal protective equipment such as 
safety hats, goggles and face-shields are to 
be worn whenever needed. Workmen 
exposed to substances injurious to the skin 
are to use protective clothing or other 
devices. Employers are also to supply 
suitable masks, helmets and respirators 
whenever ventilation is inadequate and 
employees are exposed to injurious gases, 
fumes or dust. In places where injurious 
gases are likely to accumulate, two units 
of suitable respiratory protective devices 
must be kept in an accessible spot outside 
the contamination area. 

A workman may not enter a storage tank 
or other confined space before injurious 
gases have been removed, unless he is 
equipped with approved breathing appa- 
ratus and a strong rope, one end of which 
is tied around his body and the other 
fastened to a substantial support outside 
the tank. Another workman is to be 
stationed outside the tank ready to effect 
a rescue, if necessary. 

Safety-belts are to be provided for 
workmen to wear when working above the 
derrick floor and in certain other dangerous 
places, such as bins, hoppers or vessels 



where the air may be contaminated. 
Particulars as to fittings of safety-belts and 
length and strength of the rope are given in 
both sections of the regulations. 

Lighting 

In addition to the general requirement 
that adequate illumination must be pro- 
vided in all working areas, the regulations 
specify that all electrical installations at or 
near any drilling rig, well, separator, crude- 
petroleum storage tank or other unpro- 
tected source of ignitable vapours must be 
in accordance with the standards prescribed 
by the Canadian Electrical Code except 
where these do not conform with the 
regulations. Another provision requires 
metallic parts of containers and conductors 
of inflammable liquids to be grounded so 
as to prevent development of static electric 
sparks. 

Equipment in General Use 

Safety standards for vehicles used to 
transport workmen, for powered mobile 
equipment, and for the guarding of 
machinery are set out in Part I. Powered 
mobile equipment must be equipped with 
an overhead guard whenever the operator 
is in danger from falling objects. A shelter 
must also be provided to protect him from 
inclement weather. Where power-driven 
machinery is used, a stopping device must 
be provided at each machine within easy 
reach of the operator. Guards are to be 
installed to protect workmen from revolving 
or protruding parts, from abrasive wheels 
and from belts, ropes or chains used for 
the transmission of power. 

Scaffolds, stages, walkways, stairways and 
ladders are to be constructed in accordance 
with the General Accident Prevention 
Regulations. Specifications are set out for 
ladders installed on derricks. One provi- 
sion requires all ladders to be caged or 
provided with platforms not more than 21 
feet apart or with other approved derrick- 
ladder safety equipment. Ladders on 
sheathed derricks are to be installed in the 
manner prescribed. 

Drilling Equipment 

As in the Alberta regulations, there is 
a general requirement that derricks, build- 
ings, draw-works, links, elevators, tongs, 
machinery, tools or other equipment must 
be constructed, protected, placed and oper- 
ated so as to afford reasonable safety to 
persons employed in or around wells. 
Spudding-in or drilling operations at any 
petroleum or natural gas well are also 
prohibited until all moving parts of 
machinery are completely guarded and 



882 



until all stairways, handrails and escape- 
lines with escape-buggy are adequately 
installed and securely fastened in position. 

No tools, machine parts or material of 
any kind may be kept in a derrick above 
the derrick floor, except when in immediate 
use and then only if care is taken to pre- 
vent them falling on workmen below. No 
machine is to be cleaned, oiled, adjusted 
or repaired while in motion. 

Safety requirements are set out in detail 
for cellars, floors, derrick platforms, 
stabbing-boards, gin-poles, crown blocks, 
fingers and auxiliary escapes. Other pro- 
visions deal with guards, counter-weights, 
hoisting lines, blocks, riding lines and 
catheads. 

Every hoisting line used for well-drilling, 
well-servicing or well-abandoning operations 
must have, when new, a rated factor of 
safetj' of not less than five based on the 
manufacturer's specifications of ultimate 
strength. No line with a factor of safety 
of less than three may be used. If the 
weekly examination by the tool-pusher 
reveals a defect, the hoisting-line is to be 
replaced immediately. 

Workmen are not to ride the hoisting 
line, travelling block, the travelling-block 
hook, the elevator or any attached equip- 
ment in order to get up or down derricks. 
Riding on catlines is also prohibited except 
in emergencies and then only if certain 
precautions are taken. Workmen climbing 
a ladder, derrick, mast or any structure, 
except by way of a stairway or ramp, may 
not carry on their persons tools, equipment 
or material weighing more than 25 pounds. 

Requirements for pipe and equipment 
storage-racks and platforms are also laid 
down. Workmen are not to be allowed on 
pipe loaded on a vehicle, or on the ground 
adjacent to a vehicle being loaded unless 
certain precautions have been taken to 
prevent the pipe or other material from 
rolling off. 

A wet-box that will prevent liquid being 
sprayed on workmen must be provided and 
a hose or pipe should be connected to the 
bottom to convey the liquid to a place of 
disposal off the derrick floor. 

Blowout Prevention 

In proved areas the use of blowout- 
preventers is obligatory. In unproved 
areas, all drilling wells are to be equipped 
with specified blowout control equipment. 
Controls for the blowout-preventers are to 
be located at least two feet outside the 
substructure. 

Fire Prevention 

As in Alberta and Saskatchewan, strict 
rules are laid down respecting safeguards 



against fires. Smoking is prohibited within 
100 feet of any receptacle used for storage, 
measurement or separation of petroleum or 
natural gas products and of any petroleum 
or natural gas wells. Fires may not be 
located less than 150 feet from any well 
or any petroleum storage tank. They are 
also to be safeguarded by mechanical or 
other means so as not to create a hazard 
to surrounding property. All waste material 
must be burned or disposed of in a safe 
manner at a distance of at least 150 feet 
from any well, tank or installation. The 
use of heating or lighting apparatus with a 
flame or exposed electrical element is 
prohibited in the drilling-rig dog-house, and 
within 75 feet of any well or oil storage 
tank. 

Boilers and steam-generating equipment 
are to be located at least 150 feet from 
any well, separator or crude petroleum 
storage tank. Boilers must also be 
approved by the Chief Boiler Inspector. 
Any engine, motor or electric switch within 
150 feet of a well or storage tank is to 
be constructed or enclosed so that it is 
externally sparkproof. 

Except for the fuel tanks actually con- 
nected to the operating equipment, storage 
of gasoline or liquid fuel is prohibited 
within 75 feet of a well. Drainage from 
the location of a fuel tank must be directed 
away from the well. Explosives are to be 
stored in properly constructed magazines 
at least 500 feet from any place where 
any drilling or production operation is 
carried on. 

Every drilling rig is to have at least two 
20-pound dry powder fire-extinguishers and 
every boiler house at least two five-gallon 
non-freeze type fire-extinguishers or two 
20-pound dry powder extinguishers, all of 
which are to be kept in good condition. 
When a steam pressure of 100 pounds or 
more is used on or about any rig, a steam 
hose of specified diameter and length must 
be placed in the derrick room and securely 
connected close to the exit. 

Quebec Mining Act 

Regulations under the Mining Act pro- 
vide for the establishment of mine rescue 
stations throughout the province. The 
previous regulations (O.C. 1719 of October 
23, 1947) provided for the establishment 
of rescue stations in only five areas, the 
electoral districts of Abitibi East, Abitibi 
West, Rouyn-Noranda, Temiskaming and 
Pontiac. The new regulations were made 
following representations by the Quebec 
Metal Mines Accident Prevention Associa- 
tion and the Quebec Asbestos Mining 
Association on behalf of the mine operators 



883 



who stated that they were prepared to pay 
the costs of organization and maintenance. 

The Minister of Mines is authorized to 
organize rescue stations for the mines of 
the province and to provide equipment and 
personnel for their operation and mainte- 
nance. The person in charge of a rescue 
station, who is to be appointed under the 
Civil Service Act, is to instruct and train 
rescue crews chosen by the mine operator. 
The Chief Inspector of Mines will deter- 
mine the number of employees in each 
mine who are to receive instruction in mine 
rescue and in the maintenance of rescue 
equipment. 

The regulations which were authorized 
by O.C. 404 were gazetted on May 12. 

Saskatchewan Apprenticeship and 
Tradesmen's Qualification Act 

Regulations under the Apprenticeship 
and Tradesmen's Qualification Act were 
amended by O.C. 1055/56, effective June 1, 
and gazetted May 25. The new regula- 
tions set a province-wide ratio of appren- 
tices to journeymen in the motor vehicle 
mechanics repair trade, the plumbing trade 
and the electrical trade, and also provide 
for indenturing apprentices in these trades 
to the Director of Apprenticeship. Minor 
amendments were also made to the general 
apprenticeship regulations. 

In the plumbing and motor vehicle 
mechanics repair trade, the ratio of appren- 
tices to journeymen is still one to three, 
with one apprentice being allowed where 
fewer than three journeymen are employed. 
In the electrical trade, where only one 
apprentice may be engaged for every 
journeyman employed, an employer whose 
business is located outside a city or a five- 
mile radius is permitted one apprentice 
even though no journeymen are employed. 

Under authority of a 1954 amendment to 
the Act which allows the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council to set a province-wide 
ratio in any designated trade, the regula- 
tions provide that in the motor vehicle 
mechanics repair trade, the plumbing trade 
and the electrical trade the number of 
registered apprentices must not exceed 
one-third of the total number of journey- 
men engaged in these trades in the province. 

Another amendment made in 1954 was 
designed to foster apprenticeship training 
by permitting persons working at a trade, 
particularly in small establishments in rural 
areas, to be indentured to the Director of 
Apprenticeship. One person in any estab- 
lishment who is not a journeyman and is 
regularly engaged in the motor vehicle 
mechanics repair trade or the plumbing 
trade may now enter into a contract of 



apprenticeship with the Director. This rule 
also applies in the electrical trade except 
in a city and a five-mile radius of a city. 
An amendment to the general regulations 
raises wages for apprentices during the first 
1,000 hours of apprenticeship to the level of 
the current minimum wage in the area of 
employment. During this period, appren- 
tices in any designated trade except the 
electrical trade, the barbering trade and 
the beauty culture trade must not receive 
less than the current minimum wage set 
by the Minimum Wage Board (at present 
$26 per week in the cities and nine larger 
towns, $24.50 elsewhere) or 40 per cent of 
the prevailing journeymen's hourly rate or 
40 per cent of the average hourly rate paid 
by the employer to journeymen in the 
same trade, whichever is the greater. The 
former rate was 50 cents an hour or one 
of the percentage rates mentioned above. 
Wages of apprentices in the beauty culture 
trade have for some time been subject to 
the current minimum wage and apprentices 
in barbering must receive not less than the 
minimum wage or 60 per cent of their 
gross earnings, whichever is greater. 

An apprentice or tradesman wishing to 
qualify for higher status must still wait 
until he is within six months of having the 
minimum experience required for journey- 
man status before he applies for examina- 
tion. However, if he is examined during 
this period and his examination results are 
such as to entitle him to a higher status 
if he had the necessary time credits, he 
will now be granted the certificate to which 
he is entitled according to the time credits 
allowed him at the time of examination. 
When he has acquired the necessary credits 
to obtain the higher status, he may then 
apply for the certificate for which he quali- 
fied, paying a $1 fee, and the certificate 
will be valid for the same period as the 
certificate previously issued. When upon 
attainment of the necessary time credits, 
his former certificate is not valid, he must 
pay a fee of $4 and the certificate of higher 
status will be valid for the same period as 
a certificate being renewed. 

Some changes were also made in the 
provisions respecting employers' annual 
registration fees. In 11 of the designated 
trades under the Act, an employer must 
during the month of January in each year 
pay registration fees of $2 in respect of 
each establishment in which the work of 
the trade is carried on and $2 for each of 
the average number of tradesmen employed 
by him during the preceding calendar year. 
Where the employer himself works at the 
trade, one tradesman may be excluded in 



884 



determining the average number. The sec- 
tion requiring the payment of registration 
fees when an emploj^er ceases to employ 
tradesmen after employing them less than 
a year was replaced by one providing that 
fees are payable on or before September 30 
for a year in which an employer first begins 
to employ tradesmen or engage in a trade, 
provided he commences before September 1. 



In such case, the average number of trades- 
men employed is to be determined accord- 
ing to the number on the payroll during 
the week in which September 15 occurs. 

The regulations amend provisions in the 
general and trade regulations authorized by 
O.C. 2120/53 (L.G., 1953, p. 1816) and in 
the trade regulations authorized by O.C. 
2814/54 (L.G., March 1955, p. 331). 



N.Y. State Adopts New Safety Code 

Dealing with Radiation Protection 



Recognizing the need to safeguard 
workers from the growing radiation hazards 
due to the increasing use of radioactive 
materials and radiation-producing equip- 
ment, the State of New York, last 
December 15, adopted a new safety code 
dealing with radiation protection, Industrial 
Code Rule 38. 

The Labor Law of the State sets forth 
safety standards in general terms and 
authorizes an administrative board, the 
Board of Standards and Appeals, to make 
rules dealing with particular hazards. These 
rules have the full force of law and are 
enforced by the Division of Industrial 
Safety Service of the Department of Labor. 

As with other such code rules, Rule 38 
was prepared after consultation with 
employers and employees and after public 
hearings. An advisory committee, on which 
employers and employees and scientific and 
medical specialists were represented, worked 
for two years drafting the code. 

The Chairman of the Board of Standards 
and Appeals, in announcing the adoption 
of the code, said that it was the first 
comprehensive state safety code in the 
field, and the first which is in complete 
conformity with recent Atomic Energy 
Commission safety regulations. It com- 
plements the Sanitary Code recently 
adopted by the New York Health Depart- 
ment to protect personnel in hospitals, 
medical and dental offices, veterinary clinics, 
and educational and research establish- 
ments with the result that the two codes 
cover most peacetime uses of radiation. 

He said that approximately 150,000 
workers in the State are employed in 
industries where exposure to the effects of 
industrial radiation is possible. 

The most significant requirements of the 
new code relate to registration of radio- 
active sources, control of exposure, radia- 
tion dose limits, record keeping, installation 
surveys, personnel monitoring equipment, 
caution labels and signs. 



The Code applies to every place and 
every operation where an employee in the 
course of his work may be exposed to 
radiation in excess of one-tenth the 
permissible weekly dose, except those 
places and installations subject to the 
provisions of the Sanitary Code or a federal 
code. Certain types of equipment and 
specified quantities of listed radioactive 
materials are also exempt from all but the 
labelling requirements. 

All installations and mobile services 
where X-rays or radioactive substances are 
used must be registered with the Indus- 
trial Commissioner. This will enable the 
Labor Department to know the location, 
type, degree of hazard and ownership of 
every radiation source in the State. Exist- 
ing sources were required to be registered 
by March 15. Any change that might 
substantially increase the potential hazard 
to any employee must also be reported. 

Certain steps must be taken to control 
exposure. The owner of a source creating a 
denned high radiation area or high airborne 
concentration area must appoint a radia- 
tion safety officer to maintain safety 
measures and conduct radiation protection 
surveys. All mobile sources are to be 
under the supervision of a radiation safety 
supervisor. Every employee is to be in- 
formed of the radiation hazards and care- 
fully instructed in safety measures. Minors 
under 18 years are not to be exposed to 
radiation in excess of 10 per cent of the 
permissible weekly dose limit. 

The employer may determine dose limits 
on a weekly or a quarter-year basis. The 
weekly dose limits in mrem (a measure of 
radiation amount and relative effect on 
living tissue) vary according to the degree 
of radiation and the extent of exposure. 
For an employee whose entire body is 
exposed to radiation from external sources, 
the limit is 300 mrem in the blood-forming 
organs and the lenses of the eyes, and 600 
mrem in the skin. An employee exposed 



885 



to radiation from both external sources and 
ingested or inhaled radioactive material 
must not receive an aggregate dose greater 
than the specified weekly dose. The dose 
limit for an employee exposed to radiation 
from ingested or inhaled radioactive 
material only is 300 mrem in any part of 
the body. A table setting out the maximum 
permissible average concentrations of in- 
haled or ingested radioactive materials is 
given and continuous inhalation or inges- 
tion of one of the materials listed during 
a 40-hour work week is deemed to produce 
a weekly dose limit equivalent to 300 mrem 
in some part of the body. 

Under certain conditions, an employer 
may permit an employee over 18 years to 
receive a weekly dose limit greater than 
the specified limit, provided the dose does 
not exceed three times the specified weekly 
limit. The total dose throughout the 
quarter-year period must not exceed ten 
times the specified weekly limit. If an 
employee is exposed to a dose greater than 
the specified limit, the employer must send 
a report to the Commissioner within seven 
days. 

Regular surveys are to be made by the 
radiation safety officer to see that the dose 



limits have not been exceeded. Instruments 
for detecting and measuring radiations or 
contamination are also to be provided 
when required and are to be maintained in 
proper calibration. 

Records of surveys, dosimeter readings 
and physical examinations must also be 
kept. Radiation records of a discontinued 
radiation installation are to be sent to the 
Commissioner. 

Appropriate personnel monitoring equip- 
ment must be provided whenever an 
employee in any week is likely to receive 
a radiation dose which is more than 25 per 
cent of the weekly limit. This equipment 
must also be provided and used whenever 
an employee enters a high radiation area 
where the dose rate may exceed 100 mrem 
in any hour. 

Standard radiation warning symbols and 
signs are to be used to indicate the 
presence of each source of radiation. If 
the radiation safety officer thinks that 
personnel monitoring or respiratory equip- 
ment is necessary for the safety of 
employees entering a high radiation area 
or a high airborne concentration area, 
signs indicating this requirement must be 
conspicuously posted. 



Recommended Practices for Safe Shoring of Excavations 



A handy, pocket-size booklet on shoring 
methods entitled "Recommended Practices 
for Safe Shoring of Excavations" has just 
been issued by the British Columbia Work- 
men's Compensation Board as a guide for 
workmen and supervisors. The booklet was 
published to promote safety in excavation 
work, where proportionally more fatal acci- 
dents occur than in any other branch of 
the construction industry. It supplements 
the rules contained in the General Accident 
Prevention Regulations of the Board. 

The booklet, in addition to outlining 
some of the dangers that may be encoun- 
tered in excavation work, tells workmen 
how to deal with particular hazards. To 



help them decide the quantities of material 
necessary to ensure safety, a table showing 
the earth pressure per cubic foot for the 
different types of soils has been included. 
Charts and black and white illustrations are 
used to explain the proper shoring methods 
to be used in hard compact soil, in soil 
likely to crack or crumble and in running 
material. Prefabricated shoring used in 
peat bogs and similar bad ground, box 
shoring, telescopic shoring and foundation 
shoring are also explained and illustrated. 
A number of general rules for safety 
around excavations, some of which are 
illustrated, are also included in the 34-page 
booklet. 



Henceforth, any local that violates a no-strike edict of the International Brotherhood 
of Teamsters within the New York State Council area will be liable to "an unlimited 
fine," it was decided by delegates attending a conference in Montreal last month. 

Toronto and Montreal are in the Council area. 

No local in the Council has authority to call a strike without first submitting the 
dispute to a joint committee. 

Now, once a union has been ordered to send workers back to their jobs, it must 
conform. Neglect to do so will call for severe sanctions against the local. 



886 



Unemployment Insurance 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Number of initial and renewal claims continued to decline in April, 
21 per cent from March and 12 per cent from April 1955. Statistics* 
show 292,063 claimants registered in "live" file at end of the month 



The decline in the number of initial and 
renewal claims recorded in the two previous 
months continued in April. 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics report 
on the operation of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act shows that 135,369 claims 
were received in local offices across Canada 
during April — a decline of 21 per cent from 
the 170,687 claims recorded during March 
and 12 per cent below the total of 154,260 
for April 1955. 

Claimants having an unemployment 
register in the "live file" on April 30 
numbered 292,063 (228,257 males and 63,806 
females). These are claimants for regular 
benefit only, no unemployment registers for 
seasonal benefit claimants being considered 
active subsequent to the end of the week 
in which April 15 fell. On March 29, the 
active file totalled 511,073 (including 
149,258 seasonal benefit), of which 415,144 
were males and 95,929 were females. On 
April 29, 1955, regular claimants numbered 
353,928 (284,328 males and 69,600 females). 

During April, 157,040 initial and renewal 
claims were adjudicated, comprising 96,902 
"entitled to benefit" and 60,138 "not 
entitled"; the bulk of the latter (83 per 
cent) were in respect of initial claims on 
which the minimum contribution require- 
ments were not fulfilled. Disqualifications 
totalled 19,913 (including those arising 
from revised and seasonal benefit claims), 
the chief reasons being: "voluntarily left 
employment without just cause" 6,690 cases; 
"not capable of and not available for work" 
4,165 cases; and "refused offer of work and 
neglected opportunity to work 2,117 cases. 

New beneficiaries for regular and seasonal 
benefit during April numbered 126,654, com- 
pared with 154,458 in March and 149,259 
for April 1955. 

Total payments during April (in respect 
of regular and seasonal benefit) amounted 
to $33,201,609, in compensation for 1,743,909 

*See Tables E-l to E-4 at back of book. 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal indus- 
tries, increase in area population, influ- 
ence of weather conditions, and the 
general employment situation. 



weeks, in comparison with $38,167,352 and 
2,008,060 weeks during March. During 
April 1955, $33,775,066 was paid in com- 
pensation for 10,747,880 days. 

The number of complete weeks compen- 
sated was 1,628,025, constituting 93 per cent 
of the total weeks for which payment was 
made (1,743,909). Of the 115,884 weeks 
classified as "partial" 71,931 or 62 per cent 
were weeks during which the earnings 
reported by the claimant exceeded the level 
of allowable earnings for his particular 
benefit rate. 

The estimated weekly number of bene- 
ficiaries for regular and seasonal benefit 
during April was 415-2 thousand, compared 
with 451-5 thousand for March and 496-6 
thousand for April 1955. 

Seasonal Benefit 

Claims considered for seasonal benefit 
totalled 50,092 (46,321 initial and 3,771 
renewal). 

Claims adjudicated numbered 51,125, of 
which 40,709 (36,253 initial and 4,456 
renewal) were entitled to benefit. 

Insurance Registrations 

As the annual renewal of insurance books 
takes place during June, the usual statistics 
on the number of insurance books and 
contribution cards issued to employees are 
not available. The information will be 
available as from June 1, the first monthly 
report for 1956-57 being as at June 30, 1956. 

At April 30, employers registered num- 
bered 283,930, an increase of 1,298 during 
the month. 



887 



Enforcement Statistics 

During April, 4,602 investigations were 
conducted by district investigators across 
Canada. Of these, 3,491 were spot checks 
of postal and counter claims to verify 
fulfilment of statutory conditions. The 
remaining 1,111 were investigations in con- 
nection with claimants suspected of making 
false statements to obtain benefit. 

Prosecutions were commenced in 66 cases, 
two against employers and 64 against 
claimants.! Punitive disqualifications as a 



result of claimants making false statements 
or misrepresentations numbered 435.t 

Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue received in April totalled 
$20,572,071.77 compared with $18,932,239.72 
in March and $17,824,336.88 in April 1955. 
Benefit payments in April amounted to 
$33,183,680.49, compared with $38,151,462.93 
in March and $33,761,052.52 in April 1955. 
The balance in the fund at April 30 was 
$841,586,909.87; at March 31, $854,198,518.59; 
and at April 30, 1955, $870,434,398.12. 



tThese do not necessarily relate to the investigations conducted during this month. 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CUB-1238, May 11, 1956 

(Translation) 

Summary of the Facts: The claimant, 
an employee of Orient Hosiery, at Sher- 
brooke, Que., had been temporarily laid off 
and was in receipt of benefit when he fell 
sick on October 15, 1955. He was still ill 
and could not return to work on October 
17, 1955, when he was recalled by his 
employer. 

On November 4, 1955, the insurance 
officer informed him that he had been 
disqualified from receipt of benefit, as of 
October 16, 1955, pursuant to Section 66 of 
the Act, because, in his opinion, he had 
ceased to work by reason of illness; and 
that this disqualification would be effec- 
tive for the duration of his illness. 

From this decision of the insurance 
officer, the claimant appealed to a board of 
referees on November 15, 1955. 

The board of referees heard the claimant's 
case at Sherbrooke on December 1. The 
claimant and Evangeliste Moreau, business 
agent for the Central Council of National 
Syndicates, were present at the hearing. 
Having taken into account the fact that the 
claimant had resumed work on November 
7, the members of the board unanimously 
reversed the insurance officer's decision. 
They held the view that the claimant, 
being entitled to benefit from the onset of 
his illness, had, by this very fact, acquired 
the right to receive benefit during the 
whole period of his illness "while his 
entitlement would otherwise continue". 



From this decision of the board of 
referees, the chief claims officer appealed to 
the Umpire on February 10, 1956, for a 
decision as to whether or not the disqualifi- 
cation stipulated in the last part of Section 
66 was applicable to the claimant's case. 

In a letter to the local office, Mr. Moreau 
maintained on behalf of the claimant that 
the decision of the board of referees had 
been given pursuant to Section 29(3) of 
the old Act, and that, therefore, the 
provisions of Section 66 of the new Act did 
not apply. 

Conclusions: This case originated with 
the claimant's illness, on October 14, 1955. 
Consequently it had to be examined in the 
light of Section 66 of the new Act, effec- 
tive as of October 2, 1955. 

This section reads as follows: 

No person who has become entitled to 
receive benefit and subsequently, while he 
otherwise continues to be so entitled, becomes 
incapable of work by reason of illness, injury 
or quarantine, is disqualified from receiving 
benefit by reason only of such illness, injury 
or quarantine, but an insured person who has 
lost his employment or has ceased to work 
by reason of illness, injury or quarantine is 
disqualified from receiving benefit for the 
duration of the illness, injury or quarantine. 

The chief claims officer has contended 
that the last part of Section 66 which begins 
with the word "but" applies only to those 
persons already entitled to benefit and that 
consequently there might have been reason- 
able ground for applying to the claimant's 
case the disqualification referred to in this 
part. 



888 



Whether the above-mentioned part of 
Section 66 restricts the effect of the first 
part or whether it refers to another situa- 
tion, a point which I do not deem necessary 
to decide in the case at hand, the evidence 
shows that the claimant has neither lost his 
employment nor ceased to work "by 
reason of illness, injury or quarantine". 

However, the evidence shows that the 
claimant had become entitled to receive 
benefit and subsequently, while he other- 
wise continued to be so entitled, became 
"incapable of work by reason of illness". 

Therefore, pursuant to Section 66 of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act, he was not 
subject to disqualification by reason only 
of his illness and the appeal is dismissed. 

Decision CUB-1240, May 9, 1956 

Summary of the Facts: The claimant, 
a stevedore on the spare board in Van- 
couver, B.C., had been in receipt of benefit 
intermittently since May 1955. He was 
employed at his trade until 8:00 p.m. on 
Saturday, October 1, when the job on 
which he was employed was completed. 
On his way home that night he was in- 
volved in a traffic accident and was injured, 
with the result that he was temporarily 
/incapacitated for work. 

On the evidence before him, the insur- 
ance officer disqualified the claimant for an 
indefinite period, as from October 3, 
pursuant to Section 66 of the Act because, 
in his opinion, he had ceased to work due 
to an injury. 

From this decision, the claimant appealed 
to a board of referees on October 28, 1955, 
contending that his job had been com- 
pletely finished at 8:00 on October 1 and, 
therefore, was unemployed when he was 
injured. This statement was corroborated 
by L. C. Smith, chief dispatcher of the 
Shipping Federation of British Columbia. 
In reply to a request for further informa- 



tion, however, Mr. Smith stated that, 
although the job on which the claimant had 
been working was completed prior to his 
accident, there was "ample work for the 
Monday morning for a man in his category, 
and it (was) logical to expect that he 
would have started a new job on October 3". 

The board, after having heard the 
claimant in Vancouver on December 8, 
disallowed the appeal by a majority deci- 
sion on the ground that there had been 
immediate re-employment for him on 
Monday, October 3, but he had not been 
able to show up to accept it. 

The dissenting member expressed the 
opinion that what the chief dispatcher had 
meant was that the claimant could have 
reported for employment, which is the 
usual practice for a longshoreman in the 
extra gang, but there was no guarantee 
that he would have actually worked on 
that day. 

From the majority decision of the board 
of referees, the claimant appealed to the 
Umpire on January 18, 1956. 

Conclusions: I have given a great deal 
of thought to this case and I consider that 
the board of referees was right in deciding 
that the test to be applied was whether or 
not there would have been a gap in the 
claimant's employment as a stevedore, if 
he had not been injured. 

The issue narrows down, therefore, to 
one of facts and the emphatic statement 
of the chief dispatcher, that, in view of 
the prevailing circumstances, it was only 
logical to assume that the claimant would 
have started "a new job" on the Monday 
morning, cannot be ignored. 

For these reasons, I consider that the 
claimant was rightly held to have "ceased 
to work" by reason of injury within the 
meaning of Section 66 of the Act, and the 
appeal is dismissed. 



Rehabilitation Workshop 

(Continued from page 837) 

The sessions dealing with the medical 
aspects of rehabilitation were under the 
chairmanship of Dr. T. H. Coffey, professor 
of physical medicine at the University of 
Western Ontario, who also addressed a 
public meeting on "Medicine and Reha- 
bilitation". The general chairman of the 
Workshop was Noel Meilleur, Assistant 
National Co-ordinator of Rehabilitation, 
Ottawa. 



At the close of the Workshop the 
members unanimously adopted a resolu- 
tion calling for similar meetings as a 
regular event in the Maritimes. The 
Civilian Rehabilitation Branch of the 
Department of Labour is now exploring, 
with the provincial departments concerned, 
the possibility of holding rehabilitation 
workshops in other regions of Canada. 



75803—8 



889 



Labour Conditions 

in Federal Government Contracts 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during May 
Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During May the Department of Labour prepared 261 wage schedules for inclusion 
in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and its 
Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 164 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the 
contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under this heading 
provide that: — 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not 
exempted from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation 
of the work, wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by 
provincial legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect to 
alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in May for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were as 
follows: — 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation . . 1 $ 20,337 . 00 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 2 93,390.00 

Department of Defence Production (April).. 142 924.503.00 

R.C.M.P 9 76,609.90 

(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment provide that: — 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen; and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those 
established by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district 
or, if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour wage schedules are thereupon included 

legislation of the federal Government has with other relevant labour conditions as 

the purpose of insuring that all Govern- terms of such contracts to be observed 

ment contracts for works of construction by the contractors. 

and for the manufacture of supplies and Wage schedules are not included in 

equipment contain provisions to secure contracts for the manufacture of supplies 

the payment of wages generally accepted and equipment because it is not possible 

as fair and reasonable in each trade or to determine in advance the classifica- 

classification employed in the district tions to be employed in the execution 

where the work is being performed. of a contract. A statement of the labour 

The practice of Government depart- conditions which must be observed in 

ments and those Crown corporations to every such contract is, however, included 

which the legislation applies, before therein and is of the same nature and 

entering into contracts for any work of effect as those which apply in works of 

construction, remodelling, repair or demo- construction. 

lition, is to obtain wage schedules from Copies of the federal Government's 

the Department of Labour, showing the Fair Wages and Hours of Labour legis- 

applicable wage rate for each classifica- lation may be had upon request to the 

tion of workmen deemed to be required Industrial Relations Branch of the 

in the execution of the work. These Department of Labour, Ottawa. 



890 



(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect to 
alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during May 

During May the sum of $33,538.07 was collected from eleven employers who had 
failed to pay the wages required by the labour conditions attached to their contracts. 
This amount has been or will be distributed to the 828 workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during May 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 

Belcher Street Marsh N S: RK Chappell, construction of dyke and/or drainage work. 
Elderkin Marsh N S: Chas W Thompson, construction of dyke and/or drainage work. 
Mantua Poplar Grove Marsh N S: Hennessy & Spicer Ltd, construction of dyke and/or 
drainage work. Masstown Marsh N S: Beale & Inch Construction Ltd, construction of 
dyke and/or drainage work. Noel Shore Marsh N S: J G Webster Ltd, construction of 
dyke and/or drainage work. College Bridge N B : Eric Stiles, construction of dyke and/or 
drainage work. 

Canadian Arsenals Limited 

Valcartier Que: Frs. Jobin Inc, construction of oil sewage treatment bldg, Val Rose 
Plant. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Gander Nfld: Chisholm Construction Co, installation of sewer & water laterals. 
Cornwallis N S: Eastern Landscape Co Ltd, site improvement & planting. Chatham N B: 
Modern Construction Ltd, construction of school extension. Pembroke Ont: James 
Landscaping, site improvement & planting. Petawawa Ont: Bedard-Girard Ltd, instal- 
lation of electrical distribution system. Prescott Ont: James Landscaping, site improve- 
ment & planting. St Thomas Ont: A N Martin, *exterior painting. Windsor Ont: 
National Painting & Decorating Ltd, exterior painting; Oldcastle Nurseries, eradication 
of weeds on lawns of 1,000 units. Winnipeg Man: Oswald Decorating Co, exterior 
painting; Oswald Decorating Co, exterior painting. Edmonton Alta: P Janiten, site 
improvement & planting. Penhold Alta: Terminal Construction Co Ltd, site improve- 
ment & planting. Wainwright Alta: P Janiten, site improvement & planting. 
Trail B C: Cameron Decorators Ltd, *exterior preventive painting. Victoria B C: 
Robbie & Fell, *exterior painting. Whitehorse Y T: Dawson & Hall Ltd, construction 
of housing units. 

Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Abitibi Indian Agency Que: Paquin Construction Co Ltd, construction of Obedjiwan 
2-classroom day school, Obedjiwan Reserve. St Regis Indian Agency Ont: Sullivan Bros 
Construction (Chesterville) Ltd, construction of Chenail 2-classroom day school. 
Clandeboye Indian Agency Man: Bird Construction Co Ltd, construction of Broken- 
head one-classroom day school, Brokenhead Reserve. Clandeboye Indian Agency Man: 
Bird Construction Co Ltd, construction of Fort Alexander 2-classroom day school, Fort 
Alexander #3 Reserve. Portage la Prairie Indian Agency Man: R E Turner, construc- 
tion of Waywayseecappo 2-classroom day school, Lizard Point Reserve. Duck Lake 
Indian Agency Sask: E S Michels Lumber Co, construction of Beardy's 2-classroom day 
school, Beardy's No 97 Reserve. File Hills Qu'Appelle Indian Agency Sask: E S Michels 
Lumber Co, construction of File Hills Colon}' 2-classroom day school; Gall's Lumber 
Yard, construction of Muscowpetung one-classroom day school, Muscowpetung #2 Reserve. 
Touchwood Indian Agency Sask: E S Michels Lumber Co, construction of Poorman 
2-classroom day school, Poorman #2 Reserve. Battleford Indian Agency Sask: Winslow 
Bros, construction of Red Pheasant one-classroom day school, Red Pheasant Reserve. 
Kamloops Indian Agency B C: Western Builders & Contractors, construction of Adams 
Lake one-classroom day school. 

891 

75803— 8£ 



Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

Debert N S: Central Construction Co, construction of fire hall & outside services, 
RCAF Station. Chatham N B: Canadian National Railways, ^construction of railway 
spur line. McGivney N B: Hazen Bennett, construction of isolation magazine bldg. 
Bagotville Que: International Water Supply Ltd, *exploratory well drilling, RCAF 
Station. Grosse lie Que: Creaghan & Archibald Ltd, repairs to walls, bldg #7, CARDE. 
Barrie field Ont: Canadian Comstock Co Ltd, construction of electrical distribution system. 
Downsview Ont: Dupont Construction Ltd, construction of gatehouse, RCAF Station. 
North Bay Ont: Keller Nurseries Ltd, grading, seeding & sodding, RCAF Station. 
Uplands Ont: Western Waterproofing Co of Canada Ltd, *cleaning & application of 
Resto-crete to heating plant, National Aeronautical Establishment. Fort Churchill Man: 
Carter Construction Co Ltd, construction of additional classrooms to school. Winnipeg 
Man: Swason Construction Co Ltd, construction of physical training bldg, Fort Osborne 
Barracks. Edmonton Alta: Borger Bros Ltd, construction of storm sewer extension, 
Griesbach Barracks; Everall Engineering Ltd, construction of parade square, Prince of 
Wales Armoury; Burns & Dutton Concrete & Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
administration bldg & outside services, Griesbach Barracks. Penhold Alta: Keller 
Nurseries Ltd, grading & seeding, RCAF Station. Comox B C: Harrison & Longland, 
construction of fire hall extension, RCAF Station. Massett B C: Orion Builders Ltd, 
construction of barrack block, married quarters & removal & relocation of power & 
telephone cables. 

Building and Maintenance 

Summerside P E I: Curran & Briggs Ltd, repairs to roads & parking areas, con- 
struction of sidewalks & drainage, RCAF Station. Longueuil Que : The Steel Co of Canada 
Ltd, erection of fence, RCN Armament Depot. Kingston Ont: Will-Mac Construction 
Ltd, construction of parking area, Normandy Hall, Fort Frontenac. North Bay Ont: H J 
Kedrosky, provision of power to GCA hardstands, RCAF Station. Toronto Ont: A Stroud 
Ltd, installation of heating system, RCSC, Tape Relay Centre. Winnipeg Man: Malcom 
Construction Co Ltd, addition to Air Navigation School Bldg, RCAF Station; J Klein- 
felder Construction Co Ltd, replacement & standardization of sidewalks, RCAF Station; 
Banfield Lee Co Ltd, construction of hangar bldg (St Charles). Calgary Alta: Standard 
Gravel & Surfacing of Canada Ltd, repairs to parade square, Currie Barracks. 

Department of Defence Production 

(April Report) 

Greenwood N S: C F Cox Ltd, replacement of roof on hangar #8, RCAF Station. 
Montreal Que: James Ogilvy's Ltd, laying of linoleum & asphalt tile at Armoury, 
772 Sherbrooke St. Centralia Ont: Ellis-Don Ltd, construction of workshop, RCAF 
Station. Clinton Ont: Weatherproofing Ltd, repairs to underground steam distribution 
system, RCAF Station. North Bay Ont: Stradwick-Brown Ltd, repairs to shower rooms, 
RCAF Station. Toronto Ont: Dupont Construction Ltd, construction of gatehouse, 
RCAF Station. Trenton Ont: Ontario Electrical Construction Co Ltd, exterior lighting 
of Breadner School & Junior School, Middleton Park. Claresholm Alta: Demers & 
Chisholm Sheet Metal Ltd, installation of canopy in R Mess, RCAF Station. Namao 
Alta: Walter Kidde & Co of Canada Ltd, installation of automatic flood system, #7 Supply 
Depot. Mission B C: Bert E Olund, construction of parking area & retaining wall at 
Armouries. Vancouver B C : Floormart Ltd, laying of flooring, RCE, Jericho Beach. 

National Harbours Board 

Montreal Que: United Dredging Ltd, construction of wharf extension at sections 104 
& 110. Prescott Ont: Harry L Smith, construction of track shed road at elevator. 

Department of Public Works 

Bonavista Nfld: Cyril Babb, wharf construction. Channel Nfld: Cabot Construction 
& Supplies Ltd, alterations & additions to post office bldg. Long Pond (Manuels) Nfld: 
McNamara Construction Co Ltd, *dredging; Cameron Contracting Ltd, harbour develop- 
ment (wharf & breakwater). Milltown Nfld: Gulf Maritime Construction Ltd, wharf 
construction. St John's Nfld: Grant-Mills Ltd, repairs to jetties Twillingate Nfld: E J 
Clarke, harbour improvements (breakwater). Charlottetown P E I: M F Schurman Co 
Ltd, construction of RCMP administration bldg & garage. South River P E I: J W & J 
Anderson Ltd, breakwater repairs. Victoria P E I: J W & J Anderson Ltd, repairs to 
wharf. Cheticamp N S: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Clark's Harbour N S: T C 

892 



Gorman (Nova Scotia) Ltd, harbour improvements (wharf, breakwater & dredging). 
Forbes Point N S: Colin R Macdonald Ltd, reconstruction of ice pier. Fourchu N S: 
MacDonald & MacDonald, wharf repairs. Inverness N S: Campbell & Maclsaac, *dredg- 
ing. Little Judique Harbour N S: F W Digdon & Sons Ltd, pier improvements. Locke- 
port N S: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Mabou Harbour N S: Campbell & Maclsaac, 
wharf repairs. Port Medway N S: Colin R MacDonald Ltd, wharf repairs. Trout Cove 
N S: Thimot & Comeau, breakwater improvements. Campbellton N B: Andre F Richard, 
♦dredging. Chockfish N B: J W & J Anderson Ltd, training wall repairs. Eel River 
Bridge N B: J W & J Anderson Ltd, wharf extension. Hartland N B: Edwin S Green, 
alterations to public bldg. Point Sapin N B: Yvon Leger, *dredging. Richibucto Cape 
N B: Roger Leblanc, *dredging. Belceil Station Que: Tracy Construction Inc, partial 
reconstruction of training pier. Blackpool Que: J J Shea Ltd, installation of freight 
elevator in bus terminal & customs examining warehouse. Blanc Sablon Que: La Con- 
struction du Nord Enr, wharf extension. Bonaventure Que: Fortunat Bernard, wharf 
repairs & improvements. Farnham Que: Methe Freres Ltee, addition & alterations to 
federal bldg. Gascons (Anse a Mercier) Que: Geo K Steele, *dredging. Gaspe (Sandy 
Beach) Que: Massicotte & Fils Ltee, roadway & wharf improvements. Gros Cap Que: 
Adrien Arseneau, construction of slipway & hauling plant. Hull Que: Universal Electric, 
installation of outlets for cleaning machines, National Printing Bureau. La Malbaie Que: 
Sylvio Asselin, construction of breakwater. La Tabatiere Que: Gulf Maritime Construction 
Ltd, construction of landing pier. Mechins Que: Gaspe Construction Inc, wharf reconstruc- 
tion. Montmagny Que: Gaspe Construction Inc, wharf extension & improvements. Quebec 
Que: Tracy Construction Inc, reconstruction & extension, Queen's Wharf; Wilfrid Legare 
Inc, construction of combined Customs & Immigration Bldg (phase 1), Wolfe's Cove; 
Jinchereau & Tardif Reg'd, alterations to Uppertown Post Office. Riviere-au-Tonnerre 
Que: Dionne & Canuel, wharf reconstruction. Riviere-du-Loup Que: Geo Rouleau, slip- 
way accommodation; J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. St Augustin Que: Alphonse Mont- 
miny, wharf extension. Sept-Iles Que: Jean-Charles Gauthier & J Pronovost, wharf 
improvements. Burlington Channel Out: R A Blyth, repairs to north pier. Dresden Ont: 
Clark's Fuel & Supply, alterations to public bldg. Exeter Ont: C A McDowell & Co, 
addition & alterations, post office. Fort William Ont: Consolidated Dredging Ltd, 
*dredging. Hamilton Ont: W H Cooper Construction Co Ltd, alterations & additions 
to Cornell Bldg. Hearst Ont: Denis Charbonneau, construction of post office bldg. 
Ottawa Ont: A Bruce Benson Ltd, alterations to RCMP Seminary Bldg; Edge Ltd, 
supply & installation of boilers & equipment, Central Heating Plant; Ottawa Iron Works 
Ltd, installation of new doors, Senate entrance, Parliament Bldg; Leopold Beaudoin 
Construction Ltd, alterations to National Gallery. Parry Sound Ont: Quinney Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, alterations & addition to public bldg. Port Colborne Ont: The Cementation 
Co (Canada) Ltd, breakwater repairs. Rockport Ont: Simpson-Viner Marine, wharf con- 
struction. Toronto Ont: Penny & Casson Ltd, improvements to plastering, federal bldg. 
Winnipeg Man: Mathews Conveyer Co Ltd, installation of mail handling equipment, 
Post Office. Estevan Sask: P W Graham & Sons Ltd, construction of federal bldg. Banff 
National Park Alta: Standard Gravel & Surfacing of Canada Ltd, grading, culverts & base 
course, mile 43.3 to 51.1, Trans-Canada Highway; Square M Construction Ltd, grading, 
culverts & base course, mile 21-31, Trans-Canada Highway. Claresholm Alta.- Four Square 
(Alberta) Lumber Ltd, construction of federal bldg. Hanna Alta: Greene Construction 
Co, construction of federal bldg. Comox B C: McKenzie Barge & Derrick Co Ltd, 
harbour improvements (dredging, construction of floats & gangway). Deep Bay B C: 
Harbour Pile Driving Co, construction of boat harbour. Near Hope B C : Scufner Dredge 
Co Ltd, ^dredging in the Fraser River; Fraser River Dredging Co Ltd, *dredging in the 
Fraser River. Lund B C: Greenless Piledriving Co Ltd, construction of breakwater: New 
Westminster B C: Star Shipyard (Mercer's) Ltd, ^construction of workshop on scow, 
Dredge PWD No 322. Port Alberni B C: Harbour Pile Driving Co, firewall construc- 
tion, Assembly Wharf. Port Clements B C: Victoria Pile Driving Co Ltd, construction 
of approach & floats. Vancouver B C: Allan & Viner Construction Ltd, alterations to 
Customs Examining Warehouse. Yoho National Park B C : Standard Gravel & Surfacing 
of Canada Ltd, construction of Leanchoil overpass & completion of grading, Trans-Canada 
Highway, mile 0-4. Zeballos B C: West Coast Ventures Ltd, float improvements. Mills 
Lake N W T: Western Construction & Lumber Co Ltd, construction of highway. 
Whitehorse Y T: Dawson & Hall Ltd, construction of hospital & ancillary bldgs. 

(Continued on page 911) 

893 



W ages, Hours antT 
Working Conditions 



Shift Work in Canadian Manufacturing 

Shift work regularly in effect in 28 per cent of establishments in 
survey, occasionally in another 17 per cent. Regular shift work most 
common in rubber products industry. Shift differentials increasing 

In April 1955, 28 per cent of the manu- 
facturing establishments reporting to the 
survey of working conditions stated that 
regular shift work was in effect. These 
establishments accounted for 62 per cent 
of the non-office employees in manufac- 
turing. 

Another 17 per cent of the establish- 
ments (15 per cent of employees) reported 
that shifts were worked occasionally. 

This article deals with the survey results 
in two parts: (1) the extent of shift work, 
and (2) the size and type of differentials 
in those plants that reported regular shift 
work. Table 1 gives, by 17 subdivisions of 
manufacturing, the extent of shift work, 
both regular and occasional, in establish- 
ments participating in the survey. Table 2 
shows a distribution of establishments 
reporting regular shift work (and employees 
in those establishments), according to the 
differentials paid for afternoon and night 
shifts. A further subdivision is given in 
Table 2 between two-shift and three-shift 
operations. 



The annual survey of working condi- 
tions conducted by the Department in 
April of each year covers about 6,500 
manufacturing establishments, most of 
which have 15 or more employees. In 
1955, replies were received from 6,393 
establishments, in which the non-office 
employees numbered 765,500. This article 
is based on replies received to a ques- 
tion dealing with shift work included in 
the 1955 survey questionnaire. 



Extent of Shift Work 

By far the majority of establishments 
which reported shift work indicated that 
it was on a regular basis. In only two 
industries, tobacco and wood products, more 
establishments reported occasional shift 
work than regular, and in these two indus- 
tries seasonal operations may have con- 
siderable bearing on their work schedules. 

The highest incidence of regular shift 
work in any group was in the rubber 
products industry, where it was reported 
by 22 of the 32 establishments. These 22 
establishments employed 91 per cent of the 
workers in the industry. The incidence 
was also high in products of petroleum and 
coal (71 per cent), paper products (57 
per cent), and textiles (51 per cent). 

Size and Types of Shift Differentials 

In plants where three-shift operations are 
common, differentials for the second shift 
were usually smaller than those for the 



third. In 1955, more than 28 per cent 
of the establishments giving information 
for the second (or afternoon) shift reported 
premium pay of more than 5 cents per 
hour. The equivalent figure for the third 
(or night) shift was almost 60 per cent. 

As shown in Table 2, differentials of 3, 
5, 6 or 7 cents were common for the after- 
noon shift, while for the night shift, 5, 7, 
8 and 10 were typical. 

In plants working a two-shift operation, 
44 per cent reported second-shift differ- 
entials of more than 5 cents per hour. The 
second shift in this case could mean either 
an afternoon shift, beginning at the close 
of the day operations, or a night shift 
beginning in the evening and ending in 
the early morning. 

Some establishments reported the prac- 
tice of paying differentials as a percentage 
of wages instead of in cents per hour. This 
practice was more common in two-shift than 
in three-shift operations. 

Since the date of the last previous survey 
of shift work (April 1953), little change 
was evident in the incidence of shift work. 
About the same proportion of establish- 
ments as before reported regular shift work; 
a somewhat larger proportion than before 
reported occasional shift work. 

The size of differentials tended to in- 
crease slightly between the two surveys. 
Payments higher than 5 cents were reported 
a little more frequently in 1955 than in 
1953. (See L.G., Dec. 1954, pp. 1761-4.) 



894 



TABLE 1.— EXTENT OF SHIFT WORK IN MANUFACTURING, APRIL 1, 1955 





Survey Coverage 




Proportion Reporting Shift Work 
(percentages of total coverage) 




Industrial Groups 


Regular 
Shift Work 


Occasional 
Shift Work 


Total 




Estab- 
lishments 


Plant 
Em- 
ployees 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Plant 
Em- 
ployees 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Plant 
Em- 
ployees 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Plant 
Em- 
ployees 




No. 

1,053 
23 

32 
214 
280 
649 
769 
295 
454 
783 
680 
182 
186 
217 

59 
328 
189 


No. 

89,800 

8,072 

14,450 

18,665 

47,652 

54,658 

57,570 

64,333 

28,189 

114,938 

116,837 

38,103 

41,458 

18.644 

9,515 

29,355 

13,312 


% 

27-9 
4-3 
68-7 
4-7 
50-7 
12-2 
17-4 
57-3 
32-8 
28-8 
23-5 
28-6 
29-0 
41-5 
71-2 
39-0 
18-5 


% 

57-4 
8-7 
91-3 
12-9 
81-1 
18-9 
42-2 
91-1 
62-0 
67-4 
70-2 
79-9 
60-1 
75-9 
94-7 
66-1 
35-8 


% 

20-3 
26-1 
15-6 

4-7 
13-9 

5-7 
20-4 
10-5 
18-1 
26-8 
13-5 
20-9 
28-5 
11-5 

5-1 
13-1 
10-5 


% 

21-8 

27-4 

7-8 

5-7 

7-9 

9-2 

18-2 

3-3 

18-5 

22-6 

14-4 

9-5 

30-2 

8-2 

1-9 

15-0 

15-2 


% 

48-2 
30-4 
84-3 
9-4 
64-6 
17-9 
37-8 
67-8 
50-9 
55-6 
37-0 
49-5 
57-5 
53-0 
76-3 
52-1 
29-0 


% 
79-2 




36-1 




99-1 




18-6 




89-0 


Clothing (Textile and Fur) 


28-1 




60-4 




94-4 


Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries. . 


80-5 
90-0 




84-6 




89-4 




90-3 




84-1 




96-6 




81-1 




51-0 








6,393 


765,551 


28-0 


62-6 


16-7 


15-4 


44-7 


78-0 







TABLE 2.— SIZE AND TYPE OF SHIFT DIFFERENTIALS IN MANUFACTURING 

Distribution of establishments (and employees in those establishments) according to differentials for specified 
shifts, April 1, 1955. 





Three-Shift Operation 


Two-Shift Operation 


Differentials 


Second (or Afternoon 
Shift) 


Third (or 


light Shift) 


Second of Two Shifts 




Establish- 
ments 


Employees* 


Establish- 
ments 


Employees* 


Establish- 
ments 


Employees 


Reporting Cents-per-Hour Differentials. . 


% 
93-1 

18-8 

6-1 

29-9 

12-7 

14-6 

1-5 

2-1 

50 

2-4 

6-9 


% 
92-1 

18-9 
3-3 

34-6 
9-7 

13-0 

■9 

1-9 

4-9 

4-9 

7-9 


% 
92-1 

1-6 
2-2 

28-5 
9-3 

14-3 
9-5 
6-5 

13-0 
7-2 

7-8 

•1 


% 
89-2 

1-2 

•6 

26-8 

7-2 
18-1 

7-5 

6-9 
12-1 

8-8 

10-8 


% 

82-4 

5-3 
3-7 
29-0 
10-9 
13-2 
2-1 
2-0 
10-5 
5-7 

17-1 

•5 


% 
84-5 
5-7 




2-5 




35-3 




8-9 




14-9 


8 cents 


1-7 




2-3 


10 cents 


7-3 




5-9 


Reporting Percentage Differentials 

Reporting Other Types of Differentials. . 


15-2 
•3 


Total Number Reporting 

Differentials 


740 


309,534 


740 


319,298 


810 


254,819 







* Figures and percentages shown in these columns apply to employees in establishments reporting differentials and 
not to those receiving such differentials. The difference in employees under second and third shift columns is due to the 
fact that some establishments gave information on differentials for one shift but not the other. The fact that the number 
of establishments is the same in both columns is coincidental. 



895 



Profit-Sharing Plans in Canadian Manufacturing 

One out of every 25 establishments surveyed reported profit-sharing 
plan. Firms with plans employed almost five per cent of the plant 
workers covered in survey. Of 266 plants with a plan, 181 in Ontario 



Establishments numbering 266, or one out 
of every 25, in Canadian manufacturing 
reported that they had a profit-sharing 
plan, according to the April 1954 survey of 
working conditions. These establishments 
employed almost 5 per cent of the more 
than 800,000 plant workers covered by the 
survey. 

The survey of working conditions from 
which these statistics were gathered is con- 
ducted annually by the Economics and 
Research Branch of the Department of 
Labour. It includes most of the estab- 
lishments in Canada employing 15 or more 
employees. In the 1954 survey, employers 
were asked: "Do you have a formal 
profit-sharing plan covering the majority of 
your employees?" 

A supplementary question was asked: 
"Does the plan stipulate the proportion 
of profits to be shared?" The replies to 
this question indicated that more than half 
the plans follow this practice (see Table 1). 

The returns to these two questions showed 
that office workers as well as plant workers 
are almost invariably included in the profit- 
sharing plans. 

While replies to the 1954 survey did not 
provide details as to the operation of profit- 
sharing plans, it is known that a wide 
variety of arrangements have been devised. 
Most of these can be classified in four 
general groups: (1) cash plans calling for 
a periodical distribution of a specified per- 
centage of profits; (2) wage-dividend plans 
providing for distribution of a certain 
proportion of declared dividends; (3) stock- 
ownership plans in which employees are 
given shares of company stock; and (4) 
deferred plans in which a percentage of 
profits is accumulated in a trust fund, to 
be distributed to employees under certain 
specified circumstances such as retirement 
or other contingency. 

A fifth type of plan having some of the 
elements of profit sharing is a production- 
sharing and cost-savings plan. This plan 
provides for a division of savings resulting 
from reduced labour costs or other produc- 
tion costs controllable by employees. It 
is sometimes called indirect profit sharing. 
This type of plan is frequently identified 
with the name of Joseph Scanlon in the 



United States and has usually been 
introduced through union-management 
co-operation. 

All these types of plans, however, 
answer to two requirements which are 
important for legitimate profit sharing: 
(1) an advance announcement that the 
plan is in effect, and (2) an actual and 
apparent relationship to profits. In addi- 
tion, although profit-sharing plans in these 
five categories differ widely in mechanics 
and formulae, they are all essentially 
alike in (1) their goals; (2) the elements 
required for a sound plan; (3) the possi- 
bilities of failure; (4) the process of draw- 
ing up the plan and (5) the means of 
presenting the plan to employees. 

Analysis of the results by industry did 
not show any particular concentration of 
profit-sharing plans in any one industry. 
Most of the 266 reported plans were found 
in food and beverages, iron and steel 
products, transportation equipment and 
wood products (see Table 2). The 
remainder were spread over the rest of the 
17 major industries, except tobacco and 
tobacco products, where no plan was 
reported. In addition, in no industry were 
the plans reported in more than 10 per 
cent of the establishments. The proportion 
of their occurrence in each industry 
(excepting tobacco and tobacco products) 
varied from 1-4 per cent in clothing, to 
almost 10 per cent in electrical apparatus 
and supplies. Most of the industries fell 
in the range between just less than 3 per 
cent to just more than 6 per cent. 

From the point of view of the number 
of employees, the spread pattern of profit- 
sharing plans differed a little from their 
spread pattern by plants. More than one- 
half of the 37,861 employees employed in 
establishments with profit-sharing plans 
were in food and beverages, iron and steel 
products, non-ferrous metal products and 
electrical apparatus and supplies. Of the 
total employees covered by the survey in 
each industry (excepting tobacco and 
tobacco products), the proportion employed 
in plants having a profit-sharing plan varied 
from as low as -8 per cent in paper 
products to as high as 17 per cent in non- 
ferrous metal products. 



896 



An analysis by provinces showed that by 
far the largest number of plans occurred 
in Ontario. Of the 266 plants in Canadian 
manufacturing having profit-sharing plans 
(and employing 37,861 employees), 181, 
employing 28,981, were in Ontario. This 
accounted for 6-1 per cent of the plants 
and 7-2 per cent of the manufacturing 
plant employees in Ontario. Among the 
remaining seven provinces (Newfoundland 
and Quebec excepted), profit-sharing plans 
occurred in at least 2 per cent of the estab- 
lishments and none, with the exception of 



Prince Edward Island, had more than 6£ 
per cent of their establishments with a 
profit-sharing plan. 

On the whole, the statistics tend to show 
the prevalence of these plans in small and 
medium-sized establishments. This would 
probably be expected since in these, rather 
than in large-sized establishments, a closer 
personal relationship has an opportunity to 
exist between employer and worker and, 
more important, the worker can more 
clearly see the connection between his 
effort and the profitableness of the firm. 



TABLE 1.— PROFIT-SHARING PLANS IN CANADIAN MANUFACTURING, APRIL 1, 

1954 



Non-Office Workers 



Establishments 



Number Per Cent 



Workers 



Number Per Cent 



Having profit-sharing plans 

No plan reported 

Stipulating proportion of profits to be shared 

Not stipulating proportion of profits to be shared 
No information on proportion shared 

Total coverage 



266 

6,418 

152 

100 

14 



4-0 
56-0 
2-3 
1-5 
•2 



37,861 

764,675 

17,752 

13,144 

6,965 



6,684 



100-0 



802,536 



4-7 

95-3 

2-2 

1-6 



100-0 



TABLE 2 



PROFIT-SHARING PLANS IN CANADIAN MANUFACTURING, 
BY INDUSTRY, APRIL 1, 1954 





Survey Coverage 


Profit-Sharing Plans Reported 


Industry 


Establish- 
ments 


Non-Office 
Workers 


Establishments 


Non-Office Workers 




No. 


No. 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 




1,062 
25 
34 
248 
295 
724 
821 
302 
476 
809 
717 
176 
195 
245 
62 
296 
197 


86,335 

7,676 

14,382 

21,404 

46,910 

62,207 

59,017 

65,645 

28,273 

122,684 

127,711 

38,018 

47,159 

21,416 

9,407 

29,844 

14,448 


44 


4-1 


8,689 


10-1 








1 

10 
13 

10 

24 

8 

17 

37 

32 

10 

19 

8 

2 

19 

12 


2-9 
4-0 
4-4 
1-4 
2-9 
2-7 
3-6 
4-6 
4-5 
5-7 
9-7 
3-3 
3-2 
6-4 
6-1 


154 

1,068 

2,806 

1,492 

2,031 

501 

841 

4,569 

1,986 

6,481 

3,176 

552 

157 

1,132 

2,226 


1-1 




50 




6-0 


Clothing (Textile and Fur) 


2-4 


Wood Products 


3-4 


Paper Products 


•8 


Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries 


3-0 


Iron and Steel Products 


3-7 




1-6 




17-0 




6-7 


Non-Metallic Mineral Products 


2-6 


Products of Petroleum and Coal 


1-7 




3-8 




15-4 








6,684 


802,536 


266 


4-0 


37,861 


4-7 







75803—9 



897 



Strikes and Lockouts 



Canada, May 1956* 

An increased number of work stoppages 
arising out of industrial disputes during 
May 1956 involved a substantial number 
of workers and caused a sharp increase in 
the time loss compared with the previous 
month and with May 1955. 

Stoppages in four cotton textile mills 
in Quebec involved 5,784 workers and 
caused a time loss of 93,100 man-working 
days, or 68 per cent of the total idleness 
for the month. 

In May 1956 preliminary figures show 
a total of 33 strikes and lockouts in exist- 
ence, involving 17,855 workers, with a time 
loss of 136,510 man-working days, com- 
pared with 20 strikes and lockouts in April 
1956, with 2,772 workers involved and a 
loss of 10,050 days. In May 1955 there 
were 17 strikes and lockouts, 3,200 workers 
involved and a loss of 40,500 days. 

For the first five months of 1956 
preliminary figures show a total of 80 
strikes and lockouts, involving 42,463 
workers, with a loss of 736,570 days. In 
the same period in 1955 there were 55 
strikes and lockouts, 18,361 workers in- 
volved and a loss of 321,275 days. 

Based on the number of non-agricultural 
paid workers in Canada, the time lost in 
May 1956 was 0-16 per cent of the esti- 
mated working time; April 1956, 0-01 per 
cent; May 1955, 0-05 per cent; the first 
five months of 1956, 0-17 per cent; and the 
first five months of 1955, 0-07 per cent. 

The demand for increased wages was a 
factor in 22 of the 33 disputes in existence 
during May. Of the other disputes, six 
arose over conditions of work, two over 
suspensions or dismissals of workers, two 
over union questions and one over reduced 
hours. 

Of the 33 strikes and lockouts in exist- 
ence during May, five were settled in 
favour of the workers, three in favour of 
the employer, six were compromise settle- 
ments and five were indefinite in result, 
work being resumed pending final settle- 
ment. At the end of the month 14 disputes 
were still in existence. 

(The record does not include minor strikes 
such as are defined in a footnote to Table 
G-l nor does it include strikes and lockouts 
about which information has been received 
indicating that employment conditions are 

*See Tables G-l and G-2 at back of book. 

898 



no longer affected but which the unions 
concerned have not declared terminated. 
Strikes and lockouts of this nature still in 
progress are: compositors, etc., at Winnipeg, 
Man., which began on November 8, 1945, 
and at Ottawa and Hamilton, Ont., and 
Edmonton, Alta., on May 30, 1946; women's 
clothing factory workers at Montreal, Que., 
on February 23, 1954; lumber mill workers 
at Saint John, N.B., on May 26, 1955; and 
newspaper printing plant workers at Mont- 
real, Que., on April 20, 1955. 

Other Countries 

(The latest available information as to 
strikes and lockouts in various countries is 
given here from month to month. Statistics 
given in the annual review and in this 
article are taken from the government pub- 
lications of the countries concerned or from 
the International Labour Office Year Book 
of Labour Statistics.) 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland 

According to the British Ministry of 
Labour Gazette, the number of work stop- 
pages in Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland beginning in March 1956 was 280 
and 19 were still in progress from the 
previous month, making a total of 299 
during the month. In all stoppages of 
work in progress, 52,200 workers were 
involved and a time loss of 384,000 days 
caused. 

Of the 280 disputes leading to stoppages 
of work that began in March, 42, directly 
involving 6,200 workers, arose over demands 
for advances in wages, and 86, directly 
involving 11,200 workers, over other wage 
questions; five, directly involving 800 
workers, over questions as to working 
hours; 33, directly involving 3,800 workers, 
over questions respecting the employment 
of particular classes or persons; 109, 
directly involving 7,200 workers, over other 
questions respecting working arrangements; 
three, directly involving 200 workers, over 
questions of trade union principle; and 
two, directly involving 100 workers, were in 
support of workers involved in other 
disputes. 

United States 

Preliminary figures for April 1956 show 
350 work stoppages resulting from labour- 
management disputes beginning in the 
month, involving 140,000 workers. The 
time loss for all work stoppages in progress 
during the month was 1,500,000 man-days. 
Corresponding figures for March 1956 were 
250 stoppages involving 50,000 workers and 
a loss of 2,000,000 days. 



Final figures for 1955 show a total of 
4,320 work stoppages beginning in the year, 
involving 2,650,000 workers, with a time loss 
of 28,200,000 man-days for all stoppages in 
effect or 0-26 per cent of the estimated 



working time of all workers. Corresponding 
figures for 1954 were 3,468 stoppages, 
1,530,000 workers involved and a loss of 
22,600,000 man-days or 0-21 per cent of 
the estimated working time of all workers. 



Prices and the Cost of Living 



Consumer Price Index, June 1956 

Canada's consumer price index (1949=: 
100) advanced 1-0 per cent from 116-6 to 
117-8 between May and June 1956. This 
was the largest monthly increase in the 
index in several years and compares with 
an index of 115-9 a year ago. 

Although four of the five component 
groups moved higher in the period, the 
increase in the total index was almost 
entirely due to a sharp advance in the food 
series. 

Foods rose 2-9 per cent from 109-3 to 
112-5 on the strength of an exceptionally 
strong seasonal increase in potatoes, com- 
bined with increases in coffee, fresh fruits 
and vegetables, and all meat items. 

The shelter index moved up 0-4 per cent 
from 132-1 to 132-6 as a result of increases 
in both the rent and home-ownership 
components. The advance in the rent 
index reflected changes associated with the 
traditional May 1 moving date. 

The household operation index increased 
fractionally from 116-5 to 116-7 under the 
influence of higher prices for laundry and 
dry cleaning, floor coverings, utensils and 
equipment, and shoe repairs. Further 
seasonal declines in coal prices were 
reported. 

The other commodities and services index 
moved from 120-5 to 120-6 as further price 
increases for men's haircuts, as well as 
higher quotations for personal care items 
and bus fares, proved more important than 
minor decreases for camera film and 
gasoline. 

Clothing decreased from 108-8 to 108-6 
as lower prices for women's and children's 
wear groups were only partially offset by 
increases for men's shoes. 

Group indexes one year earlier (June 
1955) were: food 111-0, shelter 129-2, 
clothing 107-8, household operation 116-1 
and other commodities and services 117-8. 

*See Tables F-l and F-2 at back of book. 



City Consumer Price Indexes, May 1956 

Seven of the ten regional consumer price 
indexes (1949 = 100) declined between the 
beginning of April and the beginning of 
May 1956. The decreases ranged from 0-9 
per cent in Vancouver to 0-1 per cent in 
Halifax, Saint John and Montreal. The 
index was unchanged in Ottawa and in- 
creased 0-7 and 0-4 per cent in St. John's 
and Toronto, respectively. 

Food indexes were lower in all but the 
latter two cities. Decreases were reported 
for coffee and tomatoes while prices were 
higher for eggs, potatoes and some beef 
cuts. The shelter indexes were unchanged 
in five cities and up slightly in the other 
five. Little movement occurred in the 
clothing indexes: five were unchanged, two 
increased fractionally and three moved to 
lower levels. Household operation indexes 
had varied movements: three increased, 
three were unchanged and four declined. 
The Vancouver decrease was mainly due to 
seasonal declines in fuel prices. The other 
commodities and services indexes were 
higher in seven of the ten regional cities 
as increases were fairly general for theatre 
admissions and women's hairdressing. The 
index was unchanged in one city and 
slightly lower in the other two. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between April and May were as 
follows: Vancouver —0-9 to 117-7; Winni- 
peg —0-4 to 116-1; Saskatoon-Regina 
—0-3 to 114-6; Edmonton-Calgary —0-3 
to 114-3; Halifax -0-1 to 114-7; Saint 
John —0-1 to 117-5; Montreal —0-1 to 
116-6; St. John's +0-7 to 106-6;* Toronto 
+0-4 to 119-1. Ottawa remained un- 
changed at 117-7. 

Wholesale Prices, May 1956 

Showing its seventh consecutive monthly 
advance, Canada's general wholesale price 
index (1935-39 = 100) rose to 225-3 in May 
from 224-5 in the preceding month. The 
increase over last year's May index (217-8) 



*On base June 1951 = 100. 



75803— 9£ 



899 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FROM JANUARY 1951 




was 3-4 per cent. The movement of the 
eight component groups was mixed, three 
advancing, four receding and one remaining 
unchanged. 

Animal products, which had shown a 
slight increase in April after several months 
of decline, registered the largest gain, 
moving up 1-5 per cent to 221-4. Vege- 
table products rose 0-9 per cent to 198-4. 

Increases in wire and wire rods moved 
iron and its products up 0-4 per cent to 
237-0. Non-metallic minerals and their 
products showed the largest decline with a 
drop of 0-8 per cent to 178-8 caused 
largely by seasonal decreases in United 
States anthracite coal, coke, and sand and 
gravel. 

Wood, wood products and paper receded 
0-2 per cent to 306-0 when an easier rate 
of exchange for the United States dollar 
in Canadian funds was reflected in lower 
export prices for newsprint, woodpulp and 
cedar shingles. Weakness in the United 
States dollar was also responsible for 
decreases in gold and silver, which, along 
with a decrease in tin, caused non-ferrous 
metals to decline 0-1 per cent to 207-2. 
Fibres, textiles and textile products also 
declined 0-1 per cent to 228-9. Chemicals 
and allied products held steady at 180-9. 

The Canadian farm product prices 
index at terminal markets advanced 3-6 
per cent to 207-7 from 200-4 in April. An 
increase of 5-2 per cent in field products 
again mainly reflected sharply higher potato 



prices on eastern markets and lesser gains 
in the West. The animal products index 
rose 2-6 per cent from 232-0 to 238-0 as 
spring lambs came onto eastern markets at 
seasonably high levels and lesser gains took 
place in steers, hogs, and western egg prices. 

Residential building material prices 

rose fractionally; the index changed from 
293-4 to 294-1. 

The non-residential building material 
prices index (1949 = 100) also registered a 
small gain from 127-2 to 127-4. 

U.S. Consumer Price Index, May 1956 

The biggest spurt in three years in the 
United States consumer price index (1947- 
49 = 100) was recorded between mid-April 
and mid-May. A rise of 0-4 per cent from 
April's 114-9 put the index at 115-4. 

This was equal to the record high set 
in October 1953 and was 1-1 per cent 
higher than a year earlier. 

A further rise to a new peak in the next 
two or three months was predicted by 
Ewan Clague, Chief of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, who 
said "the index is bound to be strong in 
the next few months, until harvesting, 
beginning in August, puts some downward 
pressure on food prices". 

The latest rise was the third in a row. 



900 



U.K. Index of Retail Prices, March 1956 

The United Kingdom index of retail 
prices for mid-March was 101-3 (Jan. 
1956=100). 

The Ministry of Labour claims that the 
spending habits of nine British households in 
ten are reflected in the new index. Left out 
are homes where the head of the house 
earned more than £20 a week in 1953, when 
the survey was taken, and where three- 
quarters of the income came from national 
insurance and national assistance. The 
reason is that spending patterns of these 
groups differ considerably from the vast 
majority and would distort the average. 

The inquiry that eventually led to the 
new index started in 1953 with the choice 
of a large and representative selection of 
households spread throughout London, the 
big provincial cities, smaller urban areas 
and the rural districts. Over a period of 
a year, detailed records of spending were 
collected from about 12,000 different house- 
holds ranging from persons living alone to 
families as big as 15. 

From these the Ministry's committee 
selected the range of goods and services 
which they felt represented the pattern of 
the average household's spending. Com- 
pared with the list of goods and services 
used to calculate the index which had been 
in force since 1947, 80 new items were in- 



cluded, making in all a total of 350. For the 
first time television sets, nylons, and second- 
hand cars were put on the list of items 
whose price movements are watched. 

Because there is such a large number of 
items included in the index, the weights 
are expressed as proportions of a total of 
1,000. Out of this 1,000 the weight given 
to food is 350, to fuel and light 55, and 
clothing and footwear 106. The main 
groups of expenditure are food, alcoholic 
drink, tobacco, housing, fuel and light, 
durable household goods, clothing and 
footwear, transport and vehicles, miscel- 
laneous goods (which include such items 
as newspapers, toilet requisites, and toys) 
and services (which include postal services, 
entertainment, domestic help, hairdressing, 
shoe repairs and laundry). 

The new index was compiled because 
the previous index had been based on a 
household expenditure inquiry made in 
1937-38 covering wage earners and small 
salary earners only. Though it had been 
adjusted to take account of postwar condi- 
tions, there was general agreement that a 
new inquiry was essential to reflect more 
completely present-day conditions, 

The new index is only the third that 
Britain has had in some 40 years, the first 
being brought in on the basis of Edwardian 
workers' spending; it lasted from the 
First World War until after the Second. 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not 
for sale by the Department of Labour. 
Persons wishing to purchase them should 
communicate with the publishers. Publica- 
tions listed may be borrowed by making 
application to the Librarian, Department 
of Labour, Ottawa. Students must apply 
through the library of their institution. 
Applications for loans should give the 
number (numeral) of the publication 
desired and the month in which it was 
listed in the Labour Gazette. 



List No. 95. 



Accident Prevention 



1. National Board of Fire Under- 
writers. Standards for the Installation, 
Maintenance and Use of First Aid Fire 



Appliances as recommended by the 
National Fire Protection Association. 
New York, 1955. Pp. 52. 

2. National Safety Council. Super- 
visors Safety Manual; Better Production 
without Injury and Waste from Accidents. 
Chicago, 1956. Pp. 354. 

This book was prepared for the supervisor 
because he is responsible for job training 
and for making the worker safety conscious. 

Business 

3. Conference on Research in Income 
and Wealth. Input-Output Analysis, an 
Appraisal; a Report of the National 
Bureau of Economic Research, New York. 
Princeton, Princeton University Press. 
1955. Pp. 371. Papers delivered at the 
Conference held in October 1952. 



901 



Partial Contents: Some Basic Problems 
of Empirical Input-Output Analysis, by 
Wassily Leontief. The Nature and Uses of 
Interindustry-Relations Data and Methods, 
by W. Duane Evans and Marvin Hoffen- 
foerg. Research required for the Applica- 
tion of Interindustry Economics, by J. D. 
Norton. A Survey of Current Interindustry 
Models by Frederick T. Moore. Input- 
Output Analysis of the Puerto Rican 
Economy, by Amor Gosfield. 

4. Jehring, John James. Profit Sharing 
for Small Business. Evanston, 111., The 
Profit Sharing Research Foundation, 1955. 
Pp. 53. 

This study assembles and presents data 
from a representative group of small com- 
panies with profit-sharing plans. 

5. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Automobile Plans for Salesmen, by 
George M. Umemura. New York, 1955. 
Pp. 63. 

A survey of the use of automobiles in 
selling. There are three common means 
used by companies to provide their salesmen 
with automobile transportation. These are: 
1. Buying cars and assigning them to sales 
force; 2. Leasing cars on a long-term agree- 
ment; and 3. Reimbursing salesmen for the 
use of their personal cars for company 
business. 

6. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Forecasting in Industry, by 
Solomon Ethe. New York, cl956. Pp. 76. 

This report tells how some companies fore- 
cast sales. 

7. U.S. Small Business Administration. 
Management Aids for Small Business; 
Annual No. 1. Edited by Edward L. 
Anthony. Washington, G.P.O., 1955. 
Pp. 184. 

This is a compilation of 31 issues of the 
biweekly publication, "Management aids for 
small business." This series is designed for 
top executives in small business. 

Cost and Standard of Living 

8. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. City 
Family Expenditure, 1953. Ottawa, Queen's 
Printer, 1956. Pp. 48. 

"In addition to showing family expenditure 
patterns according to locality, family size 
and composition, and levels of expenditure, 
this report furnishes detailed information 
on expenditure in five urban centres on 
almost 400 items of expenditure." Cf. 
Preface. 

9. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Urban 
Family Food Expenditure, 1953. Ottawa, 
Queen's Printer, 1955. Pp. 28. 

". . . The present report provides background 
material for the survey families dealing with 
family composition and income along with 



information related to the age of the family 
head. It also shows average food expendi- 
tures classified by family type and by 
income." 

10. New York (State). Department of 
Labor. Division of Research and 
Statistics. Cost of Living for Women 
Workers, New York State, September 1955. 
New York, 1956. Pp. 49. 

Economic Conditions 

11. U.S. Board of Governors of the 
Federal Reserve System. Consultant 
Committee on General Business Expec- 
tations. An Appraisal of Data and 
Research on Businessmen's Expectations 
about Outlook and Operating Variables; 
Report . . . submitted at the Request of the 
Subcommittee on Economic Statistics of 
the Joint Committee on the Economic 
Report. Washington, 1955. Pp. 200. 

Martin R. Gainsbrugh, chairman of 
Committee. 

The scope of the Committee's investiga- 
tion was confined to: 

"1 . The role assigned to business expecta- 
tions in economic theory ... 

"2. Description, appraisal and critique of 
several of the existing short-run 
measures of direct business expecta- 
tions . . . 

"3. A review of existing indirect measures 
of business temper and tempo . . . 

"4. How business expectations are formed 
and influenced. . .". 

12. U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on 
the Economic Report. Reports of Federal 
Reserve Consultant Committees on Eco- 
nomic Statistics. Hearings before the Sub- 
committee on Economic Statistics of the 
Joint Committee on the Economic Report, 
Congress of the United States, Eighty- 
fourth Congress, first session, pursuant to 
sec. 5(a) of Public law 304, 79th Congress 
. . . Washington, G.P.O., 1955. Pp. 722. 

Hearings held July 19-Oct. 5, 1955. 

Hearings on, and reports of five consultant 
committees appointed by the Board of 
Governors of the Federal Reserve System. 
These five Committees are: Business Plant 
and Equipment Expenditure Expectations; 
Savings Statistics; Consumer Survey Statis- 
tics; Inventory Statistics; and General 
Business Expectations. 

13. Meade, James Edward. The Belgium- 
Luxembourg Economic Union, 1921-1939; 
Lessons from an Early Experiment. Prince- 
ton, N.J., International Finance Section, 
Department of Economics and Sociology, 
Princeton University, 1956. Pp. 41. 

This pamphlet gives a brief description of 
the economic principles and the machinery 
of the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union. 



902 



Education, Vocational 

14. Expert Working Group on Techno- 
logical Centres. First Expert Working 
Group on Technological Centres, Copen- 
hagen, 10 May to 4 June 1954- New York, 
United Nations, 1955. Pp. 119. 

The Working Group made a survey of 
technological institutes in Denmark with a 
view to setting up similar institutes in 
under-developed countries. 

15. National Institute of Adult Educa- 
tion. Liberal Education in a Technical 
Age; a Survey of the Relationship of Voca- 
tional and Non-Vocational Further Educa- 
tion and Training. London, Max Parrish, 
1955. Pp. 128. 

The Institute set up a Committee of 
Enquiry "to enquire into the relationship 
between the vocational and non-vocational 
elements in further education and training". 

Industrial Relations 

16. Great Britain. Court of Inquiry 
into a Dispute in the London Docks. 
Final Report. London, H.M.S.O., 1954. 
Pp. 23. 

The Court of Inquiry looked into a dispute 
between employers represented by the 
employers' side of the Port of London Local 
Joint Committee and workers who are 
members of the National Amalgamated 
Stevedores and Dockers. 

17. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. Code- 
termination in Practice, by William H. 
McPherson. Urbana, 1955. Pp. 499-519. 

The author defines codetermination as 
follows: "The essence of codetermination is 
an equal partnership of ownership and 
labour in the operation of the enterprise." 
This is a study of codetermination in two 
steel companies in a Ruhr city in Western 
Germany. 

18. Quebec (City). Universite Laval. 
Departement des Relations Industrielles. 
Problemes d'Autorite au Sein de I'Entre- 
prise. Quebec, Les Presses Universitaires 
de Laval, 1955. Pp. 152. 

At head of title: Dixieme Congres des 
Relations Industrielles de Laval. 

Partial contents: Evolution dans les struc- 
tures d'autorite. Evolution du champ de 
negociation de la convention collective. 
Role et responsabilite du contremaitre dans 
l'entreprise. Role et responsabilite du 
delegue d'atelier dans le syndicat. Contacts 
et conflits entre contremaitre et delegue 
d'atelier. 

19. Spero, Sterling Den hard. Labor 
Relations in British Nationalized Industry. 
New York, New York University Press, 
1955. Pp. 83. 

A study of nationalization in British in- 
dustry. Nationalization has not meant 
radical changes. Taxation, social legislation, 



government regulation and collective bar- 
gaining have already achieved many of the 
objectives which government ownership was 
supposed to attain. 

20. Victorian Employers' Federation. 
Arbitration: the Views of A. E. Monk, 
A. P. Aird and M. M. Stewart as expressed 
in a Series of Lectures sponsored by The 
Victorian Employers' Federation. Mel- 
bourne, 1955. Pp. 28. 

Mr. Monk is president of the Australian 
Council of Trade Unions. Mr. Aird is a 
lawyer who represents employers. Mr. 
Stewart was formerly Industrial Registrar 
of the Commonwealth Court of Arbitration 
and now is a Conciliation Commissioner. 

Insurance, Unemployment 

21. Canada. Unemployment Insurance 
Commission. Employer's Handbook on 
Unemployment Insurance. 12th ed. Ottawa, 
Queen's Printer, 1955. Pp. 16. 

This booklet helps the employer to apply 
the Unemployment Insurance Act to his 
business. 

22. Canada. Unemployment Insurance 
Commission. Worker's Handbook on 
Unemployment Insurance. 9th ed. Ottawa, 
Queen's Printer, 1955. Pp. 18. 

This booklet helps the reader to under- 
stand the Unemployment Insurance Act. 

23. U.S. Commission on Intergovern- 
mental Relations. Study Committee on 
Unemployment Compensation and 
and Employment Service. A Study 
Committee Report on Unemployment 
Compensation and Employment Service, 
submitted to the Commission on Inter- 
governmental Relations. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1955. Pp. 100. 

This report analyses and evaluates the 
intergovernmental relationship aspects of the 
Federal-State employment security program. 

Interviewing 

24. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. An 
Evaluation of the Group Interview, by 
Margaret Chandler. Urbana, 1955. Pp. 
26-28. 

This comparison of the group interview 
with the individual interview was made 
after doing research for a study of indus- 
trial relations in the garment industry in a 
Midwestern United States community. 

25. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. The 
Validity of "Undecided" Answers in Ques- 
tionnaire Responses, by Hjalmar Rosen and 
R. A. Hudson Rosen. Urbana, 1955. Pp. 
178-181. 



903 



An analysis of the reasons for "don't 
know" replies to a questionnaire which the 
authors distributed to members of a 
midwestern regional union. 

Labour Organization 

26. Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions. Proceedings of the 17th Constitu- 
tional Convention, December 1-2, 1955, 
New York, N.Y. Washington, 1956. Pp. 
338. 

On Monday, December 5, 1955, the CIO 
joined in the Joint Convention founding the 
American Federation of Labor and Congress 
of Industrial Organizations. 

27. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. The 
Labor Movement and Economic Develop- 
ment in Japan, by Solomon B. Levine. 
Urbana, 1955. Pp. 12. 

A survey of the growth of labour unions 
in Japan since 1949. 

28. Cook, Alice Hanson. Labor's Role 
in Community Affairs, a Handbook for 
Union Committees. Ithaca, New York 
State School of Industrial and Labor Rela- 
tions, Cornell University, 1955. Pp. 56. 

This handbook is designed to help union 
leaders plan what their local or central body 
can do to develop a program of community 
activity, and to find and train the union 
members who will enjoy carrying this kind 
of union responsibility. 

29. Richberg, Donald Randall. How 
shall We deal with Labor Union Monop- 
olies? An address delivered before the 
Economic Club of Detroit, September 26, 
1955 at the Veterans Memorial Building, 
Detroit, Mich. Washington, 1955. Pp. 22. 

The author is former General Counsel 
and Chairman of the National Recovery 
Administration and co-author of the Rail- 
way Labor Act and the National Industrial 
Recovery Act. 

Older Workers 

30. Clark, Frederick Le Gros. Ageing 
in Industry, an Inquiry based on Figures 
derived from Census Reports, into the 
Problem of Ageing under the Conditions of 
Modern Industry, by F. Le Gros Clark and 
Agnes C. Dunne. London, Nuffield Founda- 
tion, 1955. Pp. 146. 

The purpose of this study was to deter- 
mine, as far as possible, how many workers 
are physically able to continue in their 
present jobs beyond their mid-sixties. The 
authors surveyed male workers in 32 occu- 
pations. 



31. Donahue, Wilma T., ed. Earning 
Opportunities for Older Workers. Fore- 
word by Everett Soop. Ann Arbor, 
University of Michigan Press, 1955. Pp. 

277. 

"The aim of this book ... is to examine 
the nature of the barriers to continued 
employment or rehiring of older persons, to 
seek methods by which such persons may be 
effectively utilized in the labour force, and to 
outline the steps by which voluntary organ- 
izations and public agencies, and older people 
themselves, can create new earning oppor- 
tunities for older workers." 

Russia 

32. Barker, G. R. Some Problems of 
Incentives and Labour Productivity in 
Soviet Industry; a Contribution to the 
Study of the Planning of Labour in the 
U.S.S.R. Oxford, Published for Dept. of 
Economics and Institutions of the U.S.S.R. 
. . . University of Birmingham by Basil 
Blackwell, 1955? Pp. 129. 

The author concludes that increased labour 
productivity in Russia depends among other 
things on: 

1. more and better mechanical equipment; 

2. use of incentives of various types; 

3. a certain amount of compulsion; 

4. non-wage incentives, such as goods in 
short supply; 

5. "contributive" incentives, such as uni- 
forms, medals, decorations and badges. 

33. Dewar, Margaret. Labour Policy in 
the U.S.S.R., 1917-1928. London, Royal 
Institute of International Affairs, 1956. Pp. 
286. 

"Using Russian sources (collections of 
laws, records of trade union, Soviet, and 
party congresses, etc.) this book traces the 
evolution of industrial labour policy and by 
an objective presentation of the facts demon- 
strates the contradictions between the 
Bolshevik theory and practice. The 
Appendix gives a chronological list and a 
summary of the main provisions of all 
relevant decrees, ordinances, and instructions 
(conditions of work, wages, incentives, social 
insurance, labour conscription, etc)." 

Skilled Workers 

34. National Manpower Council. 

Improving the Work Skills of the Nation; 
Proceedings of a Conference on Skilled 
Manpower, held April 27-May 1, 1955, at 
Arden House, Harriman Campus of 
Columbia University. New York, Columbia 
University Press, 1955. Pp. 203. 

"The particular concern of the Confer- 
ence was to explore the ways in which 
secondary education, industry, and the 
community could contribute more effec- 
tively ... to the development of the nations 
resources of skilled manpower." Sixty-nine 
experts from education, industry, labor, gov- 
ernment, the armed forces, and other groups 
attended the Conference. 



904 



35. Organization for European Eco- 
nomic Co-operation. Manpower Com- 
mittee. Shortages and Surpluses of Highly 
Qualified Scientists and Engineers in 
Western Europe; a Report. Paris, 1955. 
Pp. 154. 

This report is concerned with enquiries to 
a questionnaire which the O.E.E.C. sub- 
mitted to member countries and to the U.S.A. 
and Canada. Information was sought on 
shortages of highly-qualified scientists and 
engineers, whether any surpluses existed, and 
how the situation was likely to be over the 
next few years. 

Wages and Hours 

36. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Clerical Salary Survey, October 
1955, New York, cl955. Pp. 24. 

This report covers weekly salary rates of 
clerical workers in twenty cities as of 
October 1955. It presents data for 68,686 
workers in 787 plants. 

37. New York (State). Department 
of Labor. Division of Research and 
Statistics. Wages and Hours in the 
Retail Trade Industry in New York State, 
1955. New York, 1956. Pp. 75. 

Workmen's Compensation 

38. Nova Scotia. Workmen's Compen- 
sation Board. Report for 1955. Halifax, 
Queen's Printer, 1956. Pp. 28. 

39. Saskatchewan. Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board. Twenty-Sixth Annual 
Report for the Calendar Year 1955. 
Regina, Queen's Printer, 1956. Pp. 22. 

40. United Steel workers of America. 
Legal Department. The Nova Scotia 
Workmen's Compensation Law; What 
Every Steel Worker should know. Pitts- 
burgh, 1954. Pp. 45. 

This handbook is for union members to 
guide and assist them in complying with the 
requirements of the workmen's compensation 
law of Nova Scotia. 

41. United Steelworkers of America. 
Legal Department. The Ontario Work- 
men's Compensation Law; What Every 
Steel Worker should know. Pittsburgh, 
1954. Pp. 58. 

This booklet is prepared for union mem- 
bers in Ontario to help them comply with 
the Ontario workmen's compensation law. 

42. United Steelworkers of America. 
Legal Department. Quebec Workmen's 
Compensation Law; What Every Worker 
should know. Pittsburgh, 1955. Pp. 47, 48. 

Text in English and French. This booklet 
is designed for union members to help them 
comply with the requirements of the Quebec 
workmen's compensation law. 



Miscellaneous 

43. Canada. Department of Veterans 
Affairs. Should Illness Strike; Treatment 
for Veterans for Non-Pensioned Conditions. 
Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1955. Pp. 20. 

44. Hinojosa Petit, Jose Antonio. A 
Work Simplification Method. Brussels, 
International Institute of Administrative 
Sciences, 1953. Pp. 42. 

The work simplification method consists 
of three main parts: work distribution chart, 
process chart and work count. The distri- 
bution chart shows how the work is dis- 
tributed as well as the contribution of each 
employee in the work unit. The process 
chart shows the work sequence step by step. 
The work count shows how much has been 
done. 

45. International Labour Office. Wel- 
fare Facilities for Workers. Fifth Item on 
the Agenda. Geneva, 1955-1956. 2 Volumes. 

At head of title: Report 5(1) -(2). Inter- 
national Labour Conference. Thirty-Ninth 
Session, Geneva, 1956. 

Volume 1 contains the text of a proposed 
Recommendation concerning welfare facilities 
for workers. Volume 2 summarizes and 
analyses briefly the replies of 43 countries. 

46. Johr, Walter Adolf. The Role of 
the Economist as Official Adviser, by W. A. 
Johr and H. W. Singer. Foreword by 
E. A. G. Robinson. Translated from the 
German by Jane Degras and Stephen 
Frowein. London, Allen & Unwin, 1955. 
Pp. 150. 

"It is the task of this book to indicate 
the particular problems which arise when 
practical questions in the field of economic 
policy have to be answered, and to work 
out the means of their solution. Its aim is 
not only to facilitate the task of the econ- 
omist, but also to inform those who are 
dependent on the advice of the economist 
what they can expect of him. In this way, 
the authors hope, the connection between 
economics and economic policy . . . will also be 
strengthened." Cf. Introduction. 

47. Management Conference on the 
Guaranteed Annual Wage, Chicago, 1955. 
Proceedings . . . Chicago, June 15, 1955. New 
York, National Association of Manufac- 
turers, 1955. Pp. 24. 

Sponsored by the National Association of 
Manufacturers and Illinois Manufacturers 
Association. 

Partial contents: Industry's Responsibility 
for Job Creation and Greater Job Security. 
Employee and Public Conceptions of the 
GAW. Unemployment Compensation. Back- 
ground Standards and Relationship to GAW 
Demands. Implications and Provisions of 
GAW Demands. The Employee and Auto- 
mation. Responsibility of Top Management 
for Job Creation. 



905 



48. Michigan. University. Detroit 
Area Study. A Social Profile of Detroit: 
1955; a Report of the Detroit Area Study 
of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, 
Survey Research Center, Institute for Social 
Research, University of Michigan, 1956. 
Pp. 46. 

The general purpose of this study "was to 
gain a better understanding of the behaviour 
of the family in a large metropolitan 
community". 

49. Socialist Society, U.S.A. Robot 
Revolution; the Implications of Automa- 
tion. New York, Socialist Party, 1955. 
Pp. 47. 

This pamphlet presents the American 
Socialist Party's views on automation. 
Automation may have an adverse effect on 
employment and the economy unless there is 
careful planning. 



50. Torr, Dona. Tom Mann. With an 
introduction by Harry Pollitt. London, 
Lawrence and Wishart, 1944. Pp. 48. 

A biography of a British Communist trade 
unionist who was born in 1856 and died in 
1941. 

51. United Nations. Statistical Office. 
Yearbook of International Trade Statistics, 
1954. New York, 1955. Pp. 556. 

52. U.S. Department of Labor. Building 
and Construction Workers Guide to Wage, 
Overtime, and Other Laws Applicable to 
Federally Financed and Assisted Construc- 
tion Contracts. Washington, G.P.O., 1955. 
Pp. 28. 

This guide describes labor standards pro- 
tection on federal and federally assisted 
construction contracts. 

53. U.S. National Science Foundation. 
Fifth Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1955. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1956. Pp. 159. 



Material on Automation in Books and Periodicals 

Recently Received in Department of Labour Library 



(3rd List) 

Persons wishing to consult the articles 
listed are advised to refer to their local 
libararies or to obtain the periodical from 
the publisher. 

1. Automation — a moral challenge, by Mary 

Eady. (In Canadian Packinghouse 
Worker, April, 1955, p. 7-10.) 

The problems concerned with automation 
include: the large capital investment 
required to install the equipment, the need 
for highly trained technicians, the ques- 
tion of unemployment especially during 
the transition period, and the question as 
too who will benefit from the increased 
production. There will be more leisure 
and living conditions will improve. 

2. Automation and its challenges, by E. H. 

Walker. (In Canadian Personnel and 
Industrial Relations Journal, 4th 
quarter, 1955, p. 16-22.) 

3. Automation and the labour force. (In 

The Employer's Review, March 7th, 
1956, p. 9, 11.) 

A summary of the report of the Sub- 
committee of the U.S. Congressional Joint 
Committee on the Economic Report. 

4. Automation and the occupational out- 

look, by G. B. Baldwin. (In Voca- 
tional Guidance Quarterly, Spring 1956, 
p. 96-100.) 

Complexity of automation will result in 
many changes. New skills will be required 
and there will be new trends in voca- 
tional training. 



5. Automation: boon or disaster? (In The 

Fisherman, March 20, 1956, p. 11.) 

The article considers the meaning of 
automation, the effect of its introduction 
in several different industries, and labor's 
reaction. 

6. Automation brings social changes; from 

a talk entitled "Automation at the 
halfway point" presented at the 
National Conference of Social Work in 
San Francisco, Calif. (In National 
Association of Marine Engineers Official 
Journal, Feb., 1956, p. 14-15.) 

Partial contents: Increased Leisure, Up- 
grading of Skills, Rising Standard of 
Living, Material Abundance. 

7. Automation — fad or fact, by R. E. 

Blumenthal. (In The American Photo 
Engraver, Nov., 1955, p. 1120-1122.) 

8. Automation has become evolution; con- 

cept offers greater profit to alert 
businessmen, by Robert H. Allen. (In 
Financial Post, May 12, 1956, p. 62.) 

A digest of a speech by the sales 
research manager for Moore Business 
Forms, Inc., Toronto, to the National 
Office Management Association and the 
Systems and Procedures Association. For 
data processing automatic machines are 
essential. 



906 



9. Automation hits rails; 232,500 fewer jobs. 

(In Transport Workers Union Express, 
March, 1956, p. 6.) 

Figures supplied by the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics. 

10. Automation is kev to better living — but. 

(In Trainman News, April 16, 1956, 
p.l: 5-6.) 

11. Automation: more facts for executive 

decisions ; some points to consider when 

mechanizing office. By C. B. Laing. 

(In Financial Post, May 12, 1956. 

p. 60.) 

Office automation machinery has devel- 
oped greatly in the last five years. 
Computers and the use of magnetic tape 
play an important part. The article con- 
tinues with description of operations 
introduced into the office routine of 
Prudential Insurance Co. 

12. Automation : promise and problems. By 
Walter P. Reuther. (In The American 
Flint, April, 1956, p. 2-4.) 

The trade union movement recognizes 
the potential benefits of automation such 
as shorter hours, longer vacations and 
opportunities for earlier retirement and 
an increase in material standards of 
living. However, there is the problem of 
unemployment and the growing need for 
specialized semi-professional technicians. 
The rising productivity that automation 
makes possible will increase our national 
strength and improve living standards. 

13. Automation topic at Toronto seminar. 

(In Canadian Labour, March, 1956, 
p. 4.) 

An outline of a conference sponsored by 
the Canadian Institute of Public Affairs. 

14. "Automation War" threatens Britain, by 
Peter Lyne. (In Christian Science 
Monitor, May 3, 1956, p. 1.) 
Comment on the strike of workers at 

the Standard Motor Company, Coventry, 
against automation — regarded as the most 
urgent domestic problem in England. 
Said to be on a par with the machine- 
smashing campaign of the Luddites during 
the early 19th century. 

15. Automation will require higher skills. 

(In The Regulator, April 1956, p. 2- .) 
The need for higher skilled workers to 
meet the demands of modern technical 
development is resulting in young people 
spending a longer period in school before 
taking their first jobs, and in the older 
worker continuing employment for a 
longer time. Also the number of women 
in gainful employment is increasing. 

A summary of a recent study issued by 
the Twentieth Century Fund: — America's 
needs and resources, by J. F. Dewhurst. 



16. Automation will speed business for 
small firms. (In Financial Post, April 
21, 1956, p. 4.) 

Automation of office equipment is prac- 
tical for small business. Next fall the 
Bell Telephone Co. is opening an automa- 
tion workshop in Toronto to help firms 
of all sizes test I.D.P. (integrated data 
processing) facilities. A similar workshop 
has already been opened in Ottawa by 
R. L. Crain Ltd. Integration of clerical 
operations through common language busi- 
ness machines was considered at a 3-day 
meeting of the Toronto chapters of the 
National Office Management Association 
and the Systems and Procedures Associa- 
tion. 

17. British hold conference on automatic 
factories. (In Labour Gazette, Nov. 
1955, p. 1236-7.) 

Comment on a recent article in Scope 
entitled, "Some problems of automation" 
dealing with papers presented at a Con- 
ference held at Margate, England. These 
papers dealt with such subjects as the 
automatic factory, adjustment to automa- 
tion, labour's viewpoint, education, the 
necessity for avoiding strikes. 

18. Commerce Clearing House. 

Union contract clauses . . . Chicago, 
1954. 780 p. 

Pp. 645-654. Technological change. 
Partial contents of these pages: Notifi- 
cation of proposed change. Transfer to 
new jobs. Retraining. 

19. Council for Technological Advancement, 
Chicago. 

Automation and job trends. Chicago, 
Council for Technological Advance- 
ment, 1955. 

24 p. (No. 3 of a series on Tech- 
nology and Employment.) 

Bibliographical footnotes. 
The effects of automation are evolu- 
tionary and have good and bad points. 
Production and marketing are features 
requiring careful consideration, and also 
unemployment. Automation is evidence of 
economic growth and its effect is to in- 
crease job expectancy and to develop new 
industries. It improves the outlook for 
the capital goods industries. 

20. Denies automation will bring mass job- 

lessness, by B. F. Fairless. (In Labour 
Gazette, March 1955, p. 265.) 
Comment on an address by B. F. Fairless 
before the Johnstown, Pa., Chamber of 
Commerce. His views are contrary to 
those of Walter Reuther as expressed the 
previous day before the Joint Congres- 
sional Committee. 



907 



21. Diebold, John. 

Automation; the advent of the 
automatic factory. New York, Van 
Nostrand, cl952. 181 p. 

Contents: The problem of automation, 
Control and the computer, The redesign 
of product and process, Making machines 
automatic, Automatic handling of infor- 
mation, What will automation mean to 
business? Some social and economic 
effects of automation. 

22. Economic aspects of automation, by- 
Noel Branton. (In Accounting, Dec. 
1955, p. 450-543.) 

The ultimate usage of automation 
envisages not only automatic operation but 
automatic control. Labour displacement is 
a feature to be considered by unions. 
Increased productivity may > result in 
improvement in working conditions. There 
will be an increased demand for scientific 
and technical manpower. Development in 
automation is likely to continue without 
drastic changes in working conditions. 

23. Effects of automation equipment on 
office layout design, by K. H. Ripnen. 
(In American Business, April 1956, p. 17; 
40-41.) 

Modern office automation involves the 
operation of acoustics, room temperature 
and lighting, the installation of a refrig- 
eration system, and ultimately involves the 
whole question of air conditioning. The 
layout includes consideration of space, new 
floor considerations, added power and elec- 
trical wiring equipment. 

24. European Productivity Agency. 

Automatic processes in industry. 
Paris, 1955. 46, 44p. 
Bibliography: p. 13-44 of 2nd part. 

25. Guideposts to further automation, by 
David Rubinfien. (In Plant Admin- 
istration, Sept. 1954, p. 126; 131-134; 
136.) 

Automation involves operations and pro- 
cesses for achieving the automatic plant 
with the object of minimizing human 
participation in every phase of processing. 
Notes five obstacles to automation. 

26. Here's how computers are selling; 
growth pattern shows Canadian com- 
panies big buyers. (In Financial Post, 
May 12, 1956, p. 51.) 

Existing orders show that by the end 
of 1956 more than 20 computers will be 
installed in Canada; the estimate is 50 
by the end of 1957. A few of the com- 
panies introducing computers are A. V. 
Roe, Ltd., National Cash Register, Manu- 
facturers Life Insurance Co., and Pruden- 
tial Insurance Co. of America. Other 
firms, reluctant to consider the cost of 
introducing this expensive equipment, are 
making use of computation consultants, 
thus avoiding the need for training staff. 



27. Highlights of TLC-CCL Brief; automa- 
tion's influence requires all-in probe 
(In Canadian Labour, March 1956, 
p. 2.) 

Effects of automation on Canadian in- 
dustry as stated in the brief to the 
Gordon Royal Commission. 

28. How automation affects employment: a 
survey. (In Management Review, 
March 1956, p. 211-12.) 

A recent American machinist survey of 
companies with automation experience in- 
dicates 26 per cent reported increases in 
employment; 51 per cent reported no 
change in total employment; 23 per cent 
reported decreases. 

29. How get most out of automation? 

(In Financial Post, April 7, 1956, p. 20.) 
The arguments for, against automation. 
The benefits of automation accrue directly 
to labor, by John H. Dickey. Manage- 
ment and labor must work harder at 
bargaining, by Murray Cotterill. 

30. Industry has a new robot servant; auto- 
mation saves living standards, cuts out 
danger. By M. O. Cross, Jr. (In 
Financial Post, Feb. 19, 1955, p. 24.) 

Digest of a speech delivered in 

Milwaukee. 

It is unbelievable that unions should 
try to control the introduction of automa- 
tion by the GAW as a kind of penalty tax. 
Automation demands of management new 
techniques in planning, finance, administra- 
tion and execution, and above all the 
creation of new markets to equal increased 
production. Employment must be made 
more stable and unskilled workers made 
into highly trained workers. Manage- 
ment must accept great responsibility in 
the new technological development. 

31. IWA (International Woodworkers of 
America) scans automation and plans 
adjustments; expert panel assembled to 
explore questions. (In B.C. Lumber 
Worker, 1st issue, March 1956, p. 1-2.) 
Automation as applied in Canadian 

industry. Among some industries referred 
to are the McKinnon Industries, Ltd., 
St. Catharines, and The Bell Telephone 
System. Railways and automotive workers 
are also affected. The development of 
electrical computers of various types 
reduces the time and personnel necessary 
for routine operations with the result 
that automation will displace some workers 
and will also displace some industries. 
However, it should raise living standards 
if there is intelligent adjustment to the 
necessary changes. 

32. June, Stephen A., and others. 

The automatic factory — a critical 
examination. Pittsburgh, Instruments 
Pub. Co., cl955. 88 p. 
References: p. 77-79. 
Contents include mechanization vs. the 
automatic factory, obstacles to the auto- 
matic factory, contemporary automaticity, 
social implications of the automatic 
factory. 



908 



33. Let's look at automation! By Joseph 
E. Hardley. (In Northern Circuit, pub. 
by Northern Electric Co. Ltd., spring, 
1956, p. 8-11.) 

Automation has made its greatest 
advance in the process and fabrication 
industries. It will be applied to opera- 
tions or processes which can be better 
performed by machines than by men. It 
is a key to an expansion of our economy 
leading towards an improvement in our 
standard of living. 

34. Local 1-217, IWA (International Wood- 
workers of America) Automation Insti- 
tute huge success. (In The Barker, 
Local 1-217 I.W.A., April, 1956, p. 1.) 

A panel discussion on "what is automa- 
tion". Conclusion reached is that manage- 
ment, government and trade unions must 
work together to meet the challenge of this 
new technological development. 

35. Machines that feed on raw data. (In 
Canadian Business, Sept. 1955, p. 84, 
86- .) 

A review article of: Electronic data 
processing in industry, special report 
No. 3, American Management Association, 
257p. 

The introduction of electronic computers 
into office routine will cut clerical costs, 
but humans are still required to prepare 
and present the original data. 

36. Management's new look — 1955, by G. A. 
Wilkinson. (In Trades and Labour 
Congress Journal, March 1955, p. 18-19.) 
The new "industrial revolution" brings 

changes in productivity with potentialities 
for good or evil depending on release from 
routine jobs or the unemployment that 
may accompany the transition period. 
Automation produces a problem for both 
management and trade unions. 

37. Modern marvels of automation trans- 
form industrial world. (In Monetary 
Times, March 1955, p. 51.) 

38. National Association of Manufacturers 
of the U.S.A. 

Calling all jobs. New York, 1954. 
23p. 

Bibliography: p. 22-23. 
Outlines the history of automation also 
its application and its effect on employ- 
ment. For the future automation is not 
to be feared. 

39. National Manpower Council. 

Improving the work skills of the 
nation; proceedings of a Conference 
on Skilled Manpower held April 27- 
May 1, 1955 . . . Columbia University. 
New York, Col. Univ. Press, 1955. 
203p. 



Pp. 83-98: Automation and the skills 
of the labor force, by G. B. Baldwin. 
A discussion of the effects of automation 
on the skills of the labor force, and of 
the changes in education and training of 
the labor force. Automation will decrease 
employment in some sectors and increase 
it in others. New skills will be required 
at the skilled manual, the technician and 
at the professional levels. Article includes 
a few useful bibliographical footnotes. 

40. A new day's a'comin' — what to expect 
from automation. (In Plant Adminis- 
tration, May 1955, p. 76; 214; 216.) 

Automation is being introduced into 
mechanical processing in many industries 
both in Canada and in the United States 
but employment has increased. The 
development of automation will be gradual, 
jobs will be different and there will be a 
greater demand for skilled labour. Auto- 
mation is one of the signs of economic 
growth and in the future there will be a 
premium on technical ability. Manage- 
ment and employees must have confidence 
that technology will develop for the bene- 
fit of all. 

41. New York (state). Dept. of Commerce. 

Minutes of conference, automation 
and industrial development, May 12, 
1954. Albany, N.Y., Dept. of Com- 
merce, 1954. 133p. 

42. No coffee-break for these super-clerks; 
how computers will change Canadian 
business methods. By D. R. Gordon. 
(In Financial Post, Nov. 26, 1955, 
p. 19.) 

The advantages of introducing com- 
puters in business and the problems faced 
by the executive in the decision regarding 
the introduction of the required equip- 
ment. 

43. Office automation need not cost millions, 
by Wm. B. Forbes. (In Financial Post, 
May 12, 1956, p. 49.) 

In this special report the Financial Post 
discusses the application of automation to 
the office and reports on some of that 
specialized equipment. 

44. Office automation; what's happening in 
CNR accounting? (In Canadian 
National Magazine, Jan. 1955, p. 4-5.) 
A question and answer interview; brings 

out many pertinent points. 

45. O'Mahoney, Joseph C, and others. 

The challenge of automation; papers 
delivered at the National Conference 
on Automation. Washington, Public 
Affairs Press, cl955. 77p. 
The questions raised include: Will auto- 
mation be of benefit or not. Will it raise 
or lower living standards, aid small busi- 
ness or promote monopoly, create more 
employment; will, it result in social 
upheaval or will careful planning control 
the transition? 



909 



Partial contents include: Applications 
and uses, Technological considerations, 
Industrial significance, Labor's stake. 

46. Personnel executives look at automa- 
tion. Reprinted from Personnel Poli- 
cies Forum Survey No. 33. (In 
Management Review, April 1956, p. 
242-4.) 

A group of personnel and industrial rela- 
tions executives foresaw a decrease in 
workforce, greater specialization, lower 
costs, greater need for supervisory train- 
ing, higher wages. 

47. Plugged-in brains widening business; 
how electronics may boost life insur- 
ance sales. By V. J. Egan. (In 
Financial Post, April 23, 1955, p. 21.) 
Comments on the problems of The 

Metropolitan Life and The Sun Life in 
connection with the introduction of elec- 
tronic installations. In Canada the 
problem is complicated by import duties 
and the shortage of skilled technicians 
and engineers to maintain the machines. 
IBM is experimenting with a new "all- 
transistor" calculator which officials pre- 
dict will be commercially acceptable. 

48. Six days behind in invoicing: customers 
complained. Computer came to the 
rescue, helped business to expand. (In 
Financial Post, May 12, 1956, p. 50.) 
The Drug Trading Co. Ltd., Toronto, 

has a large electric computer on order. 
The company decided not to hire experts 
but to train its own staff. 

49. Socialist Society, U.S.A. 

Robot revolution ; the implications of 
automation. New York, Socialist Party, 
1955. 47p. 

Presents the views of the American 
Socialist Party. Careful planning is 
required to ensure that there will be 
production and employment for the benefit 
of all; that there will be a fair division 
of work and leisure, and that the economic 
development will be for the general well- 
being. 

50. Some economic and social accompani- 
ments of the mechanization of industry, 
by Henry S. Dennison. (In The 
American Economic Review, March 
1930, p. 133-155.) 

Many of the same considerations regard- 
ing automation in the present day were 
recognized in connection with the work of 
industry during the early 30's, e.g. the 
effect upon the worker, unemployment, use 
of leisure and new wealth, the effect on 
management. The article concludes that 
the mechanization brings both rich 
opportunities and vital risks. 



51. Some thoughts on automation, by H. R. 
Nicholas. 2 parts. (In Transport and 
General Workers' Record, Feb. 1956, 
p. 230; April 1956, p. 258-259; March 
1956, p. 286-7.) 

The articles consider production and 
employment and the responsibilities of 
unions and government as well as manage- 
ment. Hours of work may be reduced 
and there will be changes in wages and 
grades of workers. The problem of wait- 
ing time in the case of breakdowns in 
the automation process may become more 
intense. 

52. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo 
Park, Calif. 

Proceedings, symposium on elec- 
tronics and automatic production. 
Jointly sponsored by National .Indus- 
trial Conference Board, Inc., Stanford 
Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 
Aug 22-23, 1955. San Francisco, Calif., 
1955. 

Contents: Some reflections on automa- 
tion, by L. M. K. Boelter. Outlook for 
automation, by Dean E. Wooldridge. 
Automation and the logistics of national 
defense, by Rear Admiral F. R. F'urth. 
Automation in the automobile industry, by 
R. T. Keller. Automation in the steel 
industry, by W. K. Scott. Automation in 
the chemical industry, by V. F. Hanson. 
Automation in the electronics industry, by 
L. F. Jones. Automation in business 
statistics, by F. K. Leisch. Automation 
in the life insurance business, by M. E. 
Davis. Electronics in industrial manage- 
ment, by M. E. Salveson. News magazine 
publishing and new technology, by N. 
Bishop. Automatic production and the 
small business man, by P. B. Wishart. 
Symposium on electronics and automatic 
production, notes for contribution to panel 
discussion; by Dr. W. B. Gibson. 
Economic and social implications of auto- 
mation, panel discussion preliminary 
remarks by R. L. Gordon. Economic and 
social implications of automation, panel 
discussion preliminary remarks by W. H. 
Moore. Economic and social implications 
of automation, panel discussion prelim- 
inary remarks by C. B. Thornton. 
Economic and social implications of auto- 
mation, panel discussion preliminary 
remarks by L. Wolman. 

53. "Supersonic" brain designing aid, by 

G. Glinski. (In Canadian Aviation, 
Dec. 1955, p. 81-82.) 

54. They'll learn computer magic. (In 
Financial Post, Sept. 24, 1955, p. 40.) 
Comment on a course of lectures at 

McGill University and at Toronto Uni- 
versity on data processing. The lecturer 
at McGill is George Glinski, who has just 
completed a summer course at MIT. 
Co-operative studies in data processing 
are under way in a number of industries. 
Dr. Gotlieb at Toronto says getting the 
equipment is the smallest part of the job, 



910 



the big job is to set things up so that the 
machines can produce the answers wanted. 
Also the people operating the equipment 
must know the kind of information that 
can be obtained. 

55. Trade unions and "Automation", by J. 
Walton. (In Trades and Labour Con- 
gress Journal, Aug. 1955, p. 33.) 

In Great Britain the Trades Union 
Congress is already considering the impli- 
cations of automation and forecasting its 
development. A survey by the Scientific 
Advisory Committee has been circulated 
to unions for comment. 

56. Trade unions and "Automation" — (Our 

Monthly London Letter). (In Cana- 
dian Mineworker, May 1955, p. 10; 22.) 

57. UAW-CIO. Education Dept., Detroit, 

Michigan. 

Automation; a report to the UAW- 
CIO Economic and Collective Bargain- 
ing Conference held in Detroit, Mich., 
the 12th and 13th of Nov. 1954. With 
an introduction by Walter P. Reuther 
... A resolution on automation adopted 
by the 14th constitutional convention of 
the UAW-CIO. A glossary of terms 
used in automation. Detroit, 1955. 
39p. 

Partial contents: Automation and the 
GAW; Higher pay for automated jobs; 
Changing skills; Automation and the short 
work week. 

58. U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on the 
Economic Report. Subcommittee on 
Economic Stabilization. 

Automation & technological change. 
Hearings . . . 

Oct. 14-28, 1955. Washington, U.S.- 
G.P.O., 1955. 644p. 

P. 14-27: A condensation of the 
book, Automation, by John Diebold. 



59. U.S. Congress studies impact of auto- 

mation. (In Labour Gazette, Nov. 

1955, p. 1237-9.) 

Comment on Congressional hearings 
before the Joint Economic Committee in 
the United States. It is not feasible to 
apply automation processes rapidly. Auto- 
mation is not applicable to every kind of 
production process. The article also 
comments on the evidence of Dr. W. S. 
Buckingham and Walther Reuther. 

60. Views on automation, by John Walton. 

(In Free Labour World, Aug. 1955, 
p. 24-26.) 

61. Why the hush on automation? by Jack 
Burrows. (In The Guardian, March 21, 

1956, p. 5.) 

In Canada we are handicapped by a 
lack of knowledge regarding the impact 
of automation. 

62. Wiener, Norbert. 

The human use of human beings; 
cybernetics and society . . . Boston, 
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1954. 199p. 

Application of the theory of cybernetics 
has produced a machine that can do 
routine mental jobs better than any man, 
thus making the untrained mind obso- 
lescent. 

Partial contents: Cybernetics in history, 
The first and the second industrial revo- 
lution, Some communication machines and 
their future. 

63. You just "plug in" this brain; Toronto 
broker hires some electronic office help. 
(In Financial Post, Sept. 24, 1955, p. 18.) 
Automation in the office is making 

impressive gains and the latest advocate 
of electronic offices is Bongard & Co., 
Toronto, stock brokers. The article tells 
how the electronic office works, what it 
costs, and comments on the months of 
groundwork that comes before the instal- 
lation. 



Labour Conditions in Government Contracts 

(Continued from page 893) 

Department of Transport 

Machias Seal Island N S: L E & P E Armstrong, construction of single dwelling & 
demolition of existing dwelling. River St Lawrence Que: Marine Industries Ltd, *dredging 
ship cannel between Quebec City & Montreal. Saguenay Que: Accurate Electrical Con- 
tractors, construction of airport lighting. Fort William Ont: Barnett-McQueen Co Ltd, 
construction of maintenance garage & related work, Lakehead Airport. Malton Ont: 
Gordon A MacEachern Ltd, cleaning bldgs at Airport. Ottawa Ont: B Perini & Sons 
(Canada) Ltd, excavation & foundation for Terminal Bldg, Uplands Airport; Standard 
Structural Steel Ltd, construction of structural steel work, Terminal Bldg, Uplands Air- 
port. Calgary Alta: Standard Gravel & Surfacing of Canada Ltd, additional development 
of airport. Green Island B C: Northwest Construction Ltd, construction of dwellings, 
light tower & demolition of existing dwellings. Terrace B C: Skeena Construction Ltd, 
construction of bldg & related work. Vancouver B C: Narod Construction Ltd, construc- 
tion of control tower & related work, Airport. 

911 



Labour Statistics 



Page 

Tables A-l to A-4— Labour Force 912 

Table B-l— Labour Income 913 

Tables C-l to C-6 — Employment, Hours and Earnings 914 

Tables D-l to D-5— Employment Service Statistics 920 

Tables E-l to E-4 — Unemployment Insurance 926 

Tables F-l and F-2— Prices 929 

Tables G-l and G-2— Strikes and Lockouts 930 

Tables H-l and H-2— Industrial Accidents 935 



A — Labour Force 

TABLE A-L— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION, WEEK ENDED APRIL 21, 1956 

(Estimates int housands) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 



The Labour Force 

Both Sexes 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Males 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Females 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

All Ages 

14—19 years 

20—24 years 

25 — 44 years 

45 — 64 years 

65 years and over 

Persons with Jobs 

All status groups 

Males 

Females 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Paid Workers 

Males 

Females 

Persons Without Jobs and Seeking Work 

Both Sexes 

Persons not in the Labour Force 

Both Sexes 

Males 

Females 



Canada 


Nfld. 


P.E.I. 

N.S. 
N.B. 


Que. 


Ont. 


Man. 
Sask. 
Alta. 


5,583 

771 

4,812 


99 

* 

97 


416 

49 

367 


1,576 

173 

1,403 


2,054 

210 

1,844 


975 
311 
664 


4,279 

742 

3,537 


* 80 
78 


323 
46 

277 


1,233 

172 

1,061 


1,522 

202 

1,320 


770 
296 
474 


1,304 

29 

1,275 


19 

* 

19 


♦ 93 
90 


343 
342 


» 532 
524 


205 

15 

190 


5,583 

509 

719 

2,598 

1,533 

224 


99 
14 
16 
44 
24 
* 


416 
40 
54 
187 
114 
21 


1,576 
183 
231 
730 
384 
48 


2,054 
165 
241 
960 
597 
91 


975 
76 
129 
456 
273 
41 


5,326 
4,046 
1,280 


85 
67 
18 


372 

282 

90 


1,467 

1,133 

334 


2,006 

1,478 

528 


945 
744 
201 


764 
4,562 


* 
83 


48 
324 


170 
1,297 


209 
1,797 


309 
636 


4,133 

2,959 
1,174 


66 
50 
16 


287 

208 

79 


1,169 

857 
312 


1,658 

1,167 

491 


569 
395 
174 


257 


14 


44 


109 


48 


30 


5,080 
1,026 
4,054 


158 
52 
106 


462 
107 
355 


1,441 

254 

1,187 


1,630 

300 

1,330 


929 
204 
725 



B.C. 



463 
26 
437 

351 

24 

327 

112 

110 

463 

31 

48 

221 

141 



451 
342 



26 
425 



384 



460 
109 
351 



Less than 10,000. 



912 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 





Week Ended 
April 21, 1956 


Week Ended 
Mar. 24, 1956 


Week Ended 
April 23, 1955 




Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

WorkO) 


Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work(i) 


Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 
Work(i) 




274 

257 
57 
96 

81 
14 

* 
* 

17 

* 

12 


255 

240 

15 
11 


309 

295 
71 

120 
81 
14 

* 
14 
10 


281 
268 

13 

* 

10 


350 

327 
57 
115 
108 
33 

* 

23 

* 

17 


323 




304 


Under 1 month 




4 — 6 months 


- 


13 — 18 months. . . 




19 — and over 

Worked 


19 








14 







(0 To obtain number seeking part-time work, subtract figures in this column from those in the "Total" column. 
* Less than 10,000. 



B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



— 


Agricul- 
ture, 
Forestry, 

Fishing, 
Trapping, 

Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Construc- 
tion 


Utilities, 
Transport- 
ation, 
Communi- 
cation, 
Storage, 
Trade 


Finance, 
Services, 
(including 

Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 


Total 




49 
55 
72 
76 
73 
73 
77 

73 
70 
62 
61 
72 
80 
83 
85 
84 
86 
86 
85 

75 

79 
70 


214 
231 
272 
303 
329 
323 
342 

316 
325 
328 
333 
338 
344 
343 
351 
354 
354 
354 
357 

349 
358 
365 


47 
47 
52 
63 
70 
69 
78 

60 
57 
57 
64 
74 
85 
86 
93 
94 
100 
89 
78 

71 
69 
69 


169 
180 
208 
233 
252 
261 
278 

258 
258 
260 
268 
275 
281 
284 
284 
287 
288 
292 
293 

280 
282 
284 


147 
156 
178 
199 
217 
239 
256 

244 
246 
250 
249 
253 
262 
251 
256 
266 
264 
268 
265 

263 
264 
266 


21 
24 
28 
32 
35 
35 
37 

35 
35 
35 
36 
37 
38 
38 
38 
38 
39 
39 
39 

39 
38 
39 


647 




693 




810 




906 


1953— Average 


976 




1,000 




1,068 




986 




991 




992 




1,011 




1,049 




1,090 


July 


1,085 




1,107 


September 


1,123 
1,131 




1,128 




1,117 




1,077 


February 


1,090 


March 


1,093 







913 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— At April 1, employers in the 
principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,570,981. 

TABLE C-l.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100). (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Year and Month 



Industrial Composite 1 



Index Numbers 



Employ- 
ment 



Aggregate 
Weekly- 
Payrolls 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Average 
Weekly- 
Wages and 
Salaries 



Manufacturing 



Index Numbers 



Employ- 
ment 



Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 



1947— Average. . 
1948— Average.. 
1949 — Average. . 
1950— Average.. 
1951 — Average.. 
1952— Average.. 
1953 — Average.. 
1954— Average.. 
1955— Average.. 

1953— Jan. 1 

Feb. 1 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 1 

May 1 

June 1 

July 1 

Aug. 1 

Sept. 1 

Oct. 1 

Nov. 1 

Dec. 1 

1954— Jan. 1 

Feb. 1 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 1 

May 1 

June 1 

July 1 

Aug. 1 

Sept. 1 

Oct. 1 

Nov. 1 

Dec. 1 

1955— Jan. 1 

Feb. 1 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 1 

May 1 

June 1 

July 1 

Aug. 1 

Sept. 1 

Oct. 1 

Nov. 1 

Dec. 1 

1956— Jan. 1 

Feb. 1 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 1 



95 

99 
100 
101 
108 
111 
113 
109 
112 

113 
110 
110 
110 
110 
112 
114 
115 
116 
116 
115 
114 

109 
107 

106 

108 

100 
109 
111 
112 
112 
113 
112 
112 

109 
105 
105 
105 
107 
111 
115 
116 
118 
118 
118 
117 

114 
112 
113 
113 



36.19 
40.06 
42.96 
44.84 
49.61 
54.13 
57.30 
58.88 
60.87 

53.81 
56.72 
57.40 
57.33 
57.52 
57.72 
57.57 
57.52 
57.61 
58.11 
58.14 
58.13 

56.56 
58.47 
59.22 
59.06 
59.15 
58.42 
58.98 
59.17 
58.93 
59.25 
59.78 
59.59 

58.49 
60.15 
60.86 
60.68 
60.96 
60.76 
60.87 
61.13 
61.11 
61.49 
61.97 
62.02 

60.54 
62.43 
63.20 
63.37 



36.34 
40.67 
43.97 
46.21 
51.25 
56.11 
59.01 
60.94 
63.34 

54.92 
58.82 
59.25 
59.43 
59.43 
59.43 
59.16 
58.93 
58.83 
59.69 
59.98 
60.29 

58.24 
60.60 
61.13 
61.19 
61.30 
60.54 
60.99 
61.07 
60.87 
61.39 
61.89 
62.07 

60.80 
62.53 
63.11 
63.28 
63.81 
63.54 
63.28 
63.18 
63.24 
64.04 
64.54 
64.71 

62.47 
65.05 
65.57 
66.03 



1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing, 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recre- 
ational service). 



914 



TABLE C-2.— AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 

AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Area 


Employment 
Index Numbers 


Average Weekly Wages and 
Salaries, in Dollars 


April 1 
1956 


March 1 
1956 


April 1 
1955 


April 1 
1956 


March 1 
1956 


April 1 
1955 


(a) Provinces 


118-1 
105-5 
98-7 
101-9 
111-3 
116-6 
102-9 
108-3 
133-2 
112-6 

113-4 

115-5 

89-7 
117-3 
109-1 
103-7 
106-3 
108-8 

77-0 
115-2 
114-3 

98-5 
171-0 
116-4 
123-2 
125-1 
109-7 

92-8 
107-2 
106-8 
132-1 
115-3 
127-4 
109-1 
119-7 
102-9 
102-4 
110-1 
107-7 
156-7 
143-2 
111-3 
116-0 


119-5 

125-7 
100-4 
105-4 
112-1 
115-5 
102-8 
107-1 
132-0 
110-9 

113-2 

112-0 

89-1 
117-0 
106-1 
103-7 
104-3 
106-7 

78-0 
114-0 
113-4 

96-4 
159-9 
114-4 
115-9 
124-0 
108-8 

90-4 
105-5 
105-5 
131-1 
113-8 
124-6 
107-9 
117-7 
103-6 
102-1 
108-2 
108-4 
153-8 
139-9 
109-3 
113-1 


113-4 
97-6 
92-3 
95-0 
103-4 
108-8 
98-5 
106-1 
121-2 
103-1 

105-7 

107-7 
89-7 
118-0 
108-8 
102-8 
98-2 
96-9 
74-4 
108-4 
108-5 
91-3 
157-2 
112-8 
111-7 
118-4 
101-0 
83-4 
94-8 
101-0 
127-5 
108-6 
112-8 
103-7 
104-8 
97-6 
99-2 
108-9 
109-5 
137-5 
132-0 
102-1 
110-7 


55.76 
47.84 
51.63 
55.10 
60.55 
66.13 
59.73 
59.98 
65.05 
68.64 

63.37 

47.18 
63.07 
51.78 
51.93 
51.57 
52.27 
58.06 
54.18 
61.80 
57.29 
67.49 
80.83 
71.86 
75.13 
66.91 
68.63 
64.03 
57.49 
60.65 
77.72 
60.80 
77.87 
72.75 
77.33 
63.76 
56.99 
57.42 
56.56 
60.81 
61.38 
66.02 
61.23 


55.58 
44.40 
52.43 
55.01 
60.83 
65.67 
59.79 
59.67 
65.53 
68.13 

63.20 

46.27 
63.51 
52.26 
51.99 
52.40 
53.96 
58.57 
54.47 
61.60 
58.13 
66.79 
71.97 
72.10 
71.73 
66.44 
67.91 
62.71 
57.75 
60.04 
77.95 
60.75 
78.07 
72.39 
78.12 
64.13 
56.66 
57.39 
56.21 
60.27 
61.45 
65.44 
61.44 


53 36 




47.77 




51.84 




53.87 




58 22 




63 25 


Manitoba 


58.01 
56.83 




61 07 




64.70 




60 68 


(b) Metropolitan Areas 


45.05 




59.79 




50.99 




51.88 




49.59 




50.36 




56.54 




54.17 




59.04 


Ottawa— Hull 


55.60 




63.20 




69.97 




69.93 




70.12 




64.09 




64.98 




59.63 


Gait 


56.28 




59.28 




74.02 




58.00 




73.98 




74.11 


Sault Ste. Marie 


70.35 


Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 


60.88 




55.70 




54.88 




53.59 




57.82 




58.47 




62.98 




59.19 







915 



TABLE C-3.— INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 

WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Industry 



Employment Index Numbers 



Average Weekly Wages and 
Salaries, in Dollars 



April 1 March 1 April 1 
1956 1956 1955 



April 1 
1956 



March 1 April 1 
1955 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Biscuits and crackers 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery mfg 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Construction 

Building and structures 

Building 

Engineering work 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

Other service 

Industrial composite 



115 9 

120-5 
76-7 
161-4 
105-7 
69-1 
227-8 
126-3 

113 2 

99-6 
118-9 
71-8 
102-9 
107-4 
91-3 
102-7 
84-9 
110-8 
91-6 
94-9 
88-0 
90-3 
73-7 
88-1 
96-6 
100-7 
97-9 
84-3 
105-7 
106-5 
109-6 
94-6 
118-4 
120-0 
114-5 
113-6 
110-8 
711 
143-8 
109-1 
104-9 
108-2 
116-9 
118-3 
110-5 
144-8 
353-8 
147-3 
127-9 
88-5 
149-6 
126-6 
129-7 
113-8 
146-3 
147-5 
127-7 
104-5 
133-9 
127-4 
125-1 
114-9 
128-4 
106-2 



102 
112 

117 

91- 

87' 



115 9 

119-8 
76-3 
160-4 
107-8 
71-2 
229-7 
123-8 

112 3 

98-0 
115-7 
67-6 
101-9 
107-0 
89-1 
99-8 
102-0 
110-0 
91-7 
94-9 
88-3 
90-5 
74-0 
88-8 
97-0 



101 



117 6 

111-3 
105-9 
155-0 



113 4 



105 
106 
109 

93 

118-0 
119-8 
113-6 
113-3 
108-9 

70-4 
141-3 
107-8 
104-6 
106-1 
1140 
116-5 
107-7 
141-8 
349-8 
144-5 
117-5 

88-9 
147-7 
126-2 
127-9 
113-8 
146-2 
146-0 
125-5 
103-6 
130-7 
126-6 
1240 
114-7 
127-3 
104-0 

101-9 

111-2 
116-3 
89-3 
87-1 

115 9 

109-6 
103-6 
153-7 

113 2 



110 

113-4 
80-6 
144-0 
102-7 
71-4 
206-0 
117-6 

106 5 

95-2 
110-6 
64-2 
102-3 
104-1 
89-5 
97-7 
990 
104-3 
87-5 
91-5 
84-0 
84-9 
69-8 
86-7 
92-3 
96-1 
96-9 
77-8 
101-3 
103-7 
103-2 
87-2 
1120 
115-0 
104-7 
110-8 
99-2 
73-5 
124-2 



105-7 
101-4 

99-2 
137-4 
335-5 
137-3 
120-4 

82-8 
144-0 
120-1 
123-2 
102-4 
140-4 
131-9 
112-7 

95-1 
123-3 
120-4 
120-0 
108-9 
123-5 
100-0 

88-3 
93-3 
94-8 
86-5 
80-5 

108 6 

103-0 
101-5 
139-0 

105 7 



75.94 

78.48 
69.85 
82.30 
74.14 
59.11 
89.34 
69.59 

66 03 

59.44 
69.96 
53.16 
62.27 
55.90 
46.28 
73.86 
59.76 
67.16 
44.58 
42.65 
51.95 
49.10 
50.15 
57.42 
42.59 
42.67 
43.24 
42.30 
56.54 
58.68 
53.99 
51.01 
77.60 
83.48 
62.54 
71.11 
73.48 
75.53 
77.08 
69.51 
62.08 
72.89 
71.35 
80.40 
69.83 
74.57 
77.25 
82.38 
76.00 
67.68 
66.26 
75.13 
69.89 
72.52 
81.59 
71.16 
69.38 
65.93 
67.65 
94.82 
72.96 
67.61 
81.73 
56.38 

66 29 

71.16 
70.37 
75.53 
56.16 

42.51 

35.83 
39.34 
61.25 

63.37 



77.43 

79.21 
70.41 
83.11 
77.18 
63.77 
91.02 
70.24 

65.57 

58.84 
66.12 
55.02 
61.29 
54.80 
49.23 
73.82 
54.57 
66.40 
46.02 
44.03 
53.48 
51.36 
51.54 
58.81 
43.61 
42.36 
44.86 
43.87 
57.08 
59.10 
54.79 
51.53 
76.95 
82.81 
61.82 
70.42 
73.75 
74.72 
76.49 
68.93 
63.71 
72.41 
72.58 
81.04 
69.74 
72.35 
77.37 
77.96 
69.44 
65.60 
67.39 
74.03 
69.11 
71.42 
80.13 
70.50 
68.14 
64.99 
66.05 
93 35 
72.34 
67.49 
80.10 



67 32 

72.81 
72.48 
74.65 
56.03 

42 48 

36.30 
38.26 



63 20 



916 



Tables C-4 and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to 
C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-4.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Newfoundland 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta (») 

British Columbia ( 2 ) 



Average Hours Worked 


Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 


April 1, 
1956 


March 1, 
1956 


April 1, 
1955 


April 1, 
1956 


March 1, 
1956 


April 1, 
1955 


42-1 


43-2 


42-9 


144-8 


134-9 


136-4 


40-6 


41-4 


41-5 


132-5 


132-2 


126-4 


421 


42-3 


41-9 


134 1 


133-0 


126-7 


41-9 


42-9 


420 


134 


132-3 


129-1 


41-0 


40-9 


410 


159-0 


157-4 


152-5 


40-6 


40-7 


40-2 


141-0 


139-1 


137-1 


40-3 


39-7 


39-8 


159-1 


155-9 


148-1 


40-1 


39-8 


40-3 


155-8 


154-3 


149-9 


38-4 


38-3 


38-2 


179-2 


177-9 


171-6 



(0 Includes Northwest Territories. 
( 2 ) Includes Yukon Territory. 

Note: Information on hours and earnings by cities is obtainable from Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics). 



917 



TABLE C-5.— HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 
Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Average Hours 


Average Hourly 


Average Weekly 








Earnings 


Wages 


Apr. 1 


Mar.l 


Apr. 1 


Apr. 1 


Mar.l 


Apr. 1 


Apr. 1 


Mar.l 


Apr. 1 


1956 


1956 


1955 


1956 


1956 


1955 


1956 


1956 


1955 


no. 


no. 


no. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


$ 


$ 


$ 


42-7 


44-0 


42-3 


167-8 


166-8 


160-4 


71.65 


73.39 


67.85 


43-4 


M-4 


43-4 


173-1 


171-5 


163-6 


75.13 


76.15 


71.00 


45-2 


46-1 


44-9 


143-5 


142-3 


139-1 


64.86 


65.60 


62.46 


42-6 


43-6 


42-7 


187-7 


185-8 


177-7 


79.96 


81.01 


75.88 


40-8 


43-5 


39-8 


160-2 


160-4 


156 •( 


65.4C 


69.77 


62.09 


38-9 


41-c 


37-8 


149-7 


150 -C 


147-4 


58.23 


62.85 


55.72 


45-8 


47-5 


45-3 


183-5 


184-6 


175-6 


84.04 


87.69 


79.55 


42-8 


43-3 


42-3 


157-4 


157-9 


154-1 


67.37 


68.37 


65.18 


41-1 


41-3 


41-1 


150-4 


148-5 


144-2 


61.81 


61.33 


59.31 


41-4 


41-3 


41 C 


132-1 


130-1 


126-2 


54.69 


53.73 


51.78 


42-3 


39-5 


40-7 


158-3 


155-0 


154-8 


66.96 


61.23 


63.00 


38-3 


39-7 


38-6 


119-0 


121-2 


114-1 


45.58 


48.12 


44.04 


41-3 


41-3 


40-7 


142-1 


141-5 


137-4 


58.69 


58.44 


55.92 


44-5 


43-5 


43-5 


114-8 


113-9 


108-5 


51.09 


49.55 


47.20 


40-5 


40-4 


39-8 


167-9 


168-C 


161-2 


68. 0C 


67.87 


64.16 


39-5 


40-C 


39-0 


140-2 


126-C 


128-1 


55.38 


50.4C 


49.96 


41-1 


41-1 


42-0 


154-4 


150-8 


148-8 


63.46 


61.98 


62.50 


40-1 


41-S 


40-8 


103-4 


103-6 


100-2 


41.46 


43.30 


40.92 


39-9 


41-6 


40-5 


99-5 


99-7 


96-7 


39.70 


41.48 


39.16 


41-4 


43-3 


42-5 


113-3 


113-2 


112-C 


46.91 


49.02 


47.60 


40-2 


42-2 


41-3 


112-3 


113-6 


1131 


45.14 


47.94 


46.71 


42-2 


44C 


43-2 


106-5 


106-5 


104 -C 


44.94 


46.86 


44.93 


42-8 


45-2 


44-5 


120-9 


118-7 


117-4 


51.75 


53.65 


52.24 


38-1 


39-S 


38-3 


99-8 


99-2 


98-8 


38.02 


39.48 


37.84 


38-4 


39-3 


38-4 


100-2 


98-2 


97-8 


38.48 


38.59 


37.56 


36-3 


38-3 


36-8 


104-9 


105-1 


103-4 


38.08 


40.25 


38.05 


39-1 


41-2 


38-7 


97-7 


97-9 


97-7 


38.20 


40.33 


37.81 


40-8 


41-9 


41-0 


132-5 


131-3 


128-3 


54.06 


55.01 


52.60 


39-8 


40-8 


40-4 


142-8 


141-2 


137-0 


56.83 


57.61 


55.35 


42-4 


43-5 


42-1 


120-1 


119-5 


116-4 


50.92 


51.98 


49.00 


42-4 


43-8 


42-3 


111-2 


110-2 


108-5 


47.15 


48.27 


45.90 


42-4 


42-3 


42-1 


172-4 


171-5 


163-8 


73.10 


72.54 


68.96 


42-8 


42-6 


42-4 


184-4 


183-4 


174-6 


78.92 


78.13 


74.03 


41-3 


41-3 


41-2 


136-1 


135-9 


130-2 


56.21 


56.13 


53.64 


40-2 


40-0 


40-0 


179-8 


178-4 


171-8 


72.28 


71.36 


68.72 


41-5 


41-9 


41-2 


169-7 


169-7 


161-8 


70.43 


71.10 


66.66 


41-3 


40-9 


40-1 


178-3 


177-7 


169-0 


73.64 


72.68 


67.77 


41-6 


42-3 


40-8 


168-7 


168-6 


167-9 


70.18 


71.32 


68.50 


42-2 


42-1 


41-8 


156-7 


155-0 


147-2 


66.13 


65.26 


61.53 


41-1 


42-3 


40-9 


142-5 


143-3 


142-6 


58.57 


60.62 


58.32 


42-7 


42-8 


41-8 


166-1 


166-7 


159-8 


70.92 


71.35 


66.80 


42-0 


431 


41-6 


161-6 


162-2 


155-5 


67.87 


69.91 


64.69 


40-8 


41-1 


40-8 


189-8 


190-0 


176-1 


77.44 


78.09 


71.85 


40-7 


40-8 


40-9 


161-3 


160-9 


154-8 


65.65 


65.65 


63.31 


41-2 


40-4 


41-5 


171-8 


169-8 


167-2 


70.78 


68.60 


69.39 


41-2 


41-5 


40-8 


173-7 


173-7 


172-8 


71.56 


72.09 


70.50 


42-2 


40-4 


43-7 


184-5 


182-8 


180-8 


77.86 


73.85 


79.01 


41-3 


38-0 


40-7 


175-7 


171-1 


165-1 


72.56 


65.02 


67.20 


41-0 


39-9 


40-0 


163-0 


161-4 


159-8 


66.83 


64.40 


63.92 


39-8 


41-4 


41-9 


162-4 


160-1 


153-6 


64.64 


66.28 


64.36 


41-5 


41-1 


41-4 


170-5 


169-3 


163-4 


70.76 


69.58 


67.65 


40-9 


40-8 


41-1 


147-8 


147-8 


146-3 


60.45 


60.30 


60.13 


42-7 


42-5 


42-0 


160-3 


158-0 


153-5 


68.45 


67.15 


64.47 


41-4 


40-8 


41-3 


185-4 


184-2 


176-3 


76.76 


75.15 


72.81 


41-0 


41-0 


40-4 


157-5 


154-8 


150-9 


64.58 


63.47 


60.96 


41-5 


41-1 


39-7 


170-5 


169-3 


164-6 


70.76 


69.58 


65.35 


43-1 


43-0 


42-8 


153-3 


150-3 


145-9 


66.07 


64.63 


62.35 


43-6 


43-7 


42-9 


140-6 


139-6 


136-4 


61.30 


61.01 


58.52 


43-0 


42-9 


42-6 


152-5 


148-6 


145-1 


65.58 


63.75 


61.81 


40-8 


40-6 


40-9 


206-9 


203-9 


191-1 


84.42 


82.78 


78.16 


41-4 


41-2 


41-2 


156-6 


155-6 


148-8 


64.83 


64.11 


61.31 


41-7 


41-9 


40-9 


129-1 


128-9 


122-9 


53.83 


54.01 


50.27 


42-2 


41-9 


42-6 


180-2 


176-9 


171-9 


76.04 


74.12 


73.23 


41-4 


41-3 


41-4 


120-8 


121-1 


118-2 


50.01 


50.01 


48.93 


41-4 


41-4 


41-3 


162-2 


160-6 


155-8 


67.15 


66.49 


64.35 


40-8 


41-3 


40-9 


137-1 


135-2 


131-8 


65.94 


55.84 


53.91 


39-5 


40-9 


39-4 


164-1 


162-9 


152-6 


64.82 


66.63 


60.12 


39-1 


40-7 


38-8 


175-4 


174-1 


162-5 


68.58 


70.86 


63.05 


40-5 


41-8 


40-9 


134-3 


132-6 


130-1 


54.39 


54.76 


53.21 


44-8 


44-6 


45-0 


149-5 


149-1 


142-7 


66.98 


66.50 


64.22 


40-4 


40-5 


40-5 


89-1 


88-5 


84-9 


36.00 


35.84 


34.38 


40-3 


40-9 


40-8 


89-2 


88-9 


84-6 


35.95 


36.36 


34.52 


41-3 


40-3 


40-7 


84-9 


83-3 


81-4 


35.06 


33.57 


33.13 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile prpducts (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

•Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

•Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery manufacturing 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

•Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

•Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

•Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment 
•Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations . 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

•Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Construction 

Buildings and structures 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 



Durable manufactured goods industries. 



918 



TABLE C-6.— EARNINGS, HOURS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 

Source: Man Hours and Hourly Earnings: Prices and Price Indexes, D.B.S. 



Period 



Average 
Hours 
Worked 
Per Week 



Average 
Hourly- 
Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Index Numbers (A v. 1949 = 100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Consumer 
Price 
Index 



Avergae 
Real Weekly 

Earnings 



Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 



Average 1949. 
Average 1950. 
Average 1951 . 
Average 1952 . 
Average 1953 . 
Average 1954 . 
Average 1955. 



Week Preceding 
March 
April 
May 
June 
July 
August 
September 
October 
November 
December 



January 1 
February 1 
March 1 



1955. 
1955. 
1955. 
1955. 
1955. 
1955. 
1955. 
1955. 
1955. 
1955. 



1956... 
1956... 
1956C 1 ). 



42-3 
42-3 
41-8 
41-5 
41-3 
40-6 
41-0 



41-2 
41-1 

41-2 
41-0 
40-9 
40-8 
41-2 
41-5 
41-7 
41-6 

41-4" 
41-2 
41-3 



98-6 
103-6 
116-8 
129-2 
135-8 
140-8 
144-5 



143-5 
144-3 
145-4 
145-5 
145-0 
145-1 
143-8 
144-8 
145-4 
146-1 

147-5 
147-3 
148-5 



41.71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 
56.09 
57.16 
59.25 



59.12 
59.31 
59.90 
59.66 
59.31 
59.20 
59.25 
60.09 
60.63 
60.78 

61.07 s 
60.69 
61.33 



100-0 
105-1 
117-0 
128-6 
134-5 
137-0 
142-1 



141-7 
142-2 
143-6 
143-0 
142-2 
141-9 
142-1 
144-1 
145-4 
145-7 

146-4 
145-5 
147-0 



100-0 
102-9 
113-7 
116-5 
115-5 
116-2 
116-4 



116-0 
116-1 
116-4 
115-9 
116-0 
116-4 
116-8 
116-9 
116-9 
116-9 

116-8 
116-4 
116-4 



100-0 
102-1 
102-9 
110-4 
116-5 
117-9 
122-0 



122-2 
122-5 
123-4 
123-4 
122-6 
121-9 
121-7 
123-3 
124-4 
124-6 

125-3 
125-0 
126-3 



Note: Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
Weekly earnings index. (Average 1949 = 100) by the Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 
* Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures for January 1, 1956 are 39-0 and $57.53. 
( J ) Latest figures subject to revision. 



919 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 

Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These statistics are compiled from two different reporting 
forms, UIC 751: statistical report on employment operations by industry, and UIC 757: 
inventory of registrations and vacancies by occupation. The data on applicants and 
vacancies in these two reporting forms are not identical. 

TABLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Month 



Unfilled Vacancies* 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Live Applications for Employment 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Date Nearest: 

June 1, 1950 

June 1, 1951 

June 1, 1952 

June 1, 1953 

June 1, 1954 

June 1, 1955 

July 1, 1955 

August 1, 1955 

September 1, 1955 
October 1, 1955... 
November 1, 1955 
December 1, 1955. 

January 1, 1956. . . 
February 1, 1956.. 

March 1, 1956 

April 1, 1956 

May 1, 1956 0).... 
June 1, 1956 C 1 ) . . . . 



25,038 
48,353 
26,915 
24,564 
14,284 

21,675 
18,741 
18,363 
26,320 
28,794 
24,268 
26,895 

17,986 
18,180 
20,559 
23,010 
35,698 
44,157 



16,375 
17,701 
18,253 
21,143 
15,790 

18,451 
17,392 
16,665 
19,536 
18,225 
14,665 
14,969 

12,111 
12,992 
14,299 
15,668 
19,913 
22,612 



41,413 
66,054 
45,168 
45,707 
30,074 

40,126 
36,133 
35,028 
45,856 
47,019 
38,933 
41,864 

30,097 
31,172 
34,858 
38,678 
55,611 



184,335 
101,384 
163,530 
152,488 
237,848 

205,630 
152,711 
132,710 
121,945 
117,723 
136,620 
194,478 

312,066 
396,642 
418,909 
428,221 
313,750 
160,642 



70,062 
49,677 
61,295 
49,614 
76,782 

76,273 
77,865 
72,674 
63,738 
63,545 
69,715 
73,852 

84,815 
107,850 
107,927 
104,745 

89,239 



254,397 
151,061 
224,825 
202,102 
314,630 

281,903 
230,576 
205,384 
185,683 
181,268 
206,335 
268,330 

396,881 
504,492 
526,836 
532,966 
402,989 
229,339 



* Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 
0) Latest figures subject to revision. 



920 



TABLE D-2.— UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT APRIL 30, 

1956 0) 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 



Industry 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Change from 



March 29, April 29, 
1956 1955 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining, Quarrying and Oil Wells 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non-Metal Mining 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting , 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages , 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products , 

Rubber Products , 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) , 

Clothing (textile and fur) , 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries. . . 

Iron and Steel Products , 

Transportation Equipment 

Non-Ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries , 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Serrice 

Community or Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

GRAND TOTAL 



3,465 
5,616 

1,212 

777 

251 

80 

24 

80 

7,613 

618 
3 

59 
105 
197 
184 
772 
375 
240 
1,375 
1,486 
452 
735 
131 
88 
599 
194 

3,494 

2,595 
899 

2,353 

1,955 

83 

315 

532 

3,848 
1,354 
2,494 

841 

8,214 

540 
5,123 

195 
1,155 
1,201 



243 
11 



3,307 

280 

21 

13 

184 

175 

1,351 

116 

109 

196 

214 

110 

73 

140 

64 

19 

117 

125 

149 

84 
65 

535 

212 

18 

305 

82 

3,131 

817 
2,314 

1,385 

11,055 

1,715 
538 
248 
493 

8,061 



3,708 
5,627 

1,294 

796 
284 
82 
24 
108 

10,920 

898 

24 

72 

289 

372 

1,535 

888 

484 

436 

1,589 

1,596 

525 

875 

195 

107 

716 

319 

3,643 

2,679 
964 



167 
101 



614 

6,979 

2,171 
4,808 

2,226 

19,269 

2,255 
5,661 
443 
1,648 
9,262 



+2,296 
+ 3,679 

+ 199 

- 34 
+ 164 



54 



+ 2,116 

+ 355 
12 
32 



44 
172 
348 

79 
125 
186 
187 

47 



37 
367 



+ 1,525 

+ 1,079 
+ 446 

+ 981 

+ 635 

+ 39 

+ 307 

+ 215 

+ 1,658 

+ 397 
+ 1,261 

+ 430 

+ 5,202 

+ 629 
+ 1,292 
+ 156 
+ 430 
+ 2,695 



+ 2,118 
+ 3,999 



337 

381 
81 
16 
11 
10 

4,457 

271 

8 

16 

142 

165 

439 

108 

289 

117 

852 

705 

303 

389 

59 

30 

377 

187 



+ 1,792 

+ 1,313 

+ 479 

+ 1,687 

+ 1,275 

+ 50 

+ 362 



2,231 

892 
1,339 

823 

7,539 

914 

3,168 

152 

813 

2,492 



37,188 



19,980 



57,168 



+18,301 



+ 25,380 



(!) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



75803—10 



921 



TABLE D-3.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT MAY 3, 1956 (*) 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Occupational Group 



Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Live Applications for Employment 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Professional and managerial workers 

Clerical workers 

Sales workers 

Personal and domestic service workers . . . 

Seamen 

Agriculture and fishing 

Skilled and semiskilled workers 

Food and kindred products (inc 

tobacco) 

Textiles, clothing, etc 

Lumber and wood products 

Pulp, paper (inc. printing) 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 

Metalworking 

Electrical 

Transportation equipment 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation (except seamen) 

Communications and public utility . , 

Trade and service 

Other skilled and semiskilled 

Foremen 

Apprentices 

Unskilled workers 

Food and tobacco 

Lumber and lumber products 

Metalworking 

Construction 

Other unskilled workers 

GRAND TOTAL 



6,029 
2,351 
1,762 
1,556 



14,038 

81 

86 

5,891 

53 

53 

16 

1,298 

188 

19 

489 

1,632 

1,334 

64 

489 

1,992 

120 

233 

5,928 

170 

545 

675 

2,420 

2,118 



891 

5,580 

1,392 

9,149 

2 

50 
2,079 



310 

56 

12 

2 

770 

150 

9 

28 



5 KM 



7,931 
3,154 

10,705 

38 

4,048 

16,117 

100 

1,572 

5,895 

60 

151 

19 

1,314 

207 

25 

489 

1,633 

1,374 

64 

799 

2,048 

132 

235 



320 

554 

703 

2,420 

2,701 



4,427 
10,169 

4,752 
30,897 

1,521 

3,002 

154,521 

1,449 

3,449 

36,063 

881 

1,154 

437 

9,292 

1,586 

436 

1,749 

39,625 

30,356 

694 

2,911 

16,174 

3,915 

4,350 

104,461 

4,220 

20,537 

3,147 

53,629 

22,928 



1,288 

21,824 

11,829 

17,291 

12 

537 

17,962 

761 
10,789 
148 
474 
999 

41 
934 
958 

33 



7 

92 

1 

1,438 

954 

314 

19 

18,496 

5,423 

365 

556 

3 

12,149 



5,715 

31,993 

16,581 

48,188 

1,533 

3,539 

172,483 

2,210 
14,238 
36,211 

1,355 

2,153 

478 

10,226 

2,544 
469 

1,749 

39,632 

30,448 

695 

4,349 
17,128 

4,229 

4,369 

122,957 

9,643 

20,902 

3,703 

53,632 

35,077 



35,698 



19,913 



55,611 



313,750 



89,239 



402,989 



0) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT MAY 3, 1956 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 





Unfilled Vacancies (2) 


Live 


Applications 


Office 


(1) 

May 3, 
1956 


Previous 

Month 

March 29, 

1956 


Previous 

Year 

April 28, 

1955 


(1) 

May 3, 
1956 


Previous 

Month 

March 29, 

1956 


Previous 
Year 

April 28, 
1955 




267 

42 

4 

221 

250 

190 
60 

1,403 

34 

56 
1,058 


333 

9 

3 

321 

134 

95 
39 

1,339 

27 

27 

1,087 


330 

20 

54 

256 

280 

245 
35 

1,515 

26 

31 

1,116 


20,427 

5,070 
2,511 
12,846 

3,105 

1,817 
1,288 

21,113 

937 
1,358 
4,229 

948 
2,326 

458 
2,875 

737 
3,634 
1,838 
1,773 

25,756 

4,520 
2,709 
1,962 
1,606 

800 
4,823 
2,775 
3,205 
1,334 

780 
1,242 

151,142 

614 

685 
1,271 
3,778 
2,162 
2,070 
2,764 
1,350 
1,050 
1,881 
1,295 
1,449 
3,178 
3,254 
2,230 

647 
2,397 

730 
2,690 
1,328 

499 
1,055 
4,303 
1,396 
1,497 
2,094 
38,174 
2,102 
1,012 
13,082 
4,813 
4,103 
1,688 
3,881 

997 

937 
1,261 
3,539 
1,375 
1,547 
1,379 
2,472 
1,777 
3,446 
3,116 
1,821 
1,940 
3,260 


22,344 

4,926 
2,126 
15,292 

4,302 

2,718 
1,584 

25,621 

1,101 
1,796 
4,512 
1,112 
3,203 

596 
3,572 

872 
4,698 
1,907 
2,252 

31,902 

5,786 
2,679 
3,000 
2,036 

697 
8,018 
3,038 
2,793 
1,321 

827 
1,707 

192,971 

676 

847 
1,425 
3,708 
2,509 
2,841 
2,608 
2,343 
1,241 
2,267 
2,095 
2,074 
4,091 
4,161 
3,212 

785 
3,117 
1,055 
4,879 
1,458 

675 
1,104 
4,857 
1,540 
1,639 
2,418 
51,163 
2,450 
1,796 
16,514 
5,293 
7,067 
1,500 
2,547 
1,447 
1,377 
1,730 
3,910 
2,139 
1,892 
1,786 
3,012 
1,835 
5,251 
4,192 
2,200 
2,190 
5,562 


18,884 
3,764 
1 604 




Grand Falls 




13,516 

2,583 

1 178 


Prince Edward Island 






1 405 


Nova Scotia 


20,797 

991 






906 


Halifax 


4,435 
759 






64 
11 
71 

2 

40 
61 

6 

1,434 

17 

45 

320 

176 

90 

494 

5 

234 

8 

36 

9 

15,361 

72 

60 

8 

438 

3 

577 

61 

86 

24 

1,562 

13 

44 

189 

109 

141 

50 

113 

452 

193 

59 

12 

34 

461 

27 

13 

40 

5,841 

286 

24 

825 

297 

191 

12 

283 

16 

106 

73 

61 

354 

124 

49 

31 

61 

119 

272 

36 

61 

832 


36 
7 
30 
1 
49 
65 
10 

857 
19 
29 
23 

129 
31 

355 
12 

224 
7 
16 
12 

9,419 

62 

25 

18 

58 

6 

89 

10 

90 

40 

60 

5 

27 

126 

107 

29 

39 

110 

471 

95 

53 

2 

30 

7 

62 

5 

33 

4,259 

6 

416 

530 

95 

41 

18 

284 

18 

87 

39 

82 

87 

77 

36 

19 

37 

61 

196 

33 

52 

775 


212 
15 
30 


2,330 
244 






3,466 
540 






37 
40 

8 

1,040 

121 

17 

12 

368 

8 

312 

4 

178 

10 

7 

3 

7,559 

77 
60 
10 

421 
4 

116 
10 
66 
38 
1 
2 
30 
31 

145 
63 
14 
10 

194 
70 
46 


4,019 
1,137 






1,970 

26,139 

4,984 
2,930 


New Brunswick 








2,142 




1,899 




540 




4,271 




2,981 




2,705 


St. Stephen 


1,277 




562 




1,848 




177,647 




801 




997 




1,428 




3,522 




1,626 




2,459 




2,596 




1,553 




1,173 




2,289 




1,050 




1,745 


Hull 


2,895 




2,736 




2,299 




817 




2,268 




547 




5,312 




1,579 








10 

5 

15 

7 

29 

3,253 

313 

7 

596 

149 

293 

6 

63 

10 

88 

69 

69 

38 

59 

21 

27 

22 

48 

160 

26 

47 

513 


1,739 




4,287 




1,477 




1,388 




2,354 




54,279 




2,333 


Port Alfred 


1,156 




15,317 


Rimouski 


4,289 




5,052 


Roberval 


1,621 




4,077 


Ste. Agathe 


1,026 




1,291 


Ste. Therese 


1,286 




3,485 


St. Hyacinthe 


1,991 




1,739 




1,183 




2,565 


Sept lies 


1,433 




3,612 


Sherbrooke 


4,003 


Sorel 


2,928 


Thetford Mines 


1,762 




4,334 



75803— 10* 



923 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT MAY 3, 1956 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 



Office 



Quebec— con. 

Vald'Or 

Valley field 

Victoria ville 

Ontario 

Arnprior 

Barrie 

Belleville 

Bracebridge 

Brampton 

Brantford 

Brock ville 

Carle ton Place... 

Chatham 

Cobourg 

Collingwood 

Cornwall 

Fort Erie 

Fort Frances .... 
Fort William.... 

Gait 

Gananoque 

Goderich 

Guelph 

Hamilton 

Hawkesbury .... 

Ingersoll 

Kapuskasing 

Kenora 

Kingston 

Kirkland Lake. . 

Kitchener 

Leamington 

Lindsay 

Listowel 

London 

Midland 

Napanee 

New Toronto . 

Niagara Falls 

North Bay 

Oakville 

Orillia 

Oshawa 

Ottawa 

Owen Sound 

Parry Sound 

Pembroke 

Perth 

Peterborough 

Picton 

Port Arthur 

Port Colborne 

Prescott 

Renfrew 

St. Catharines 

St. Thomas 

Sarnia 

Sault Ste. Marie. . 

Simcoe 

Sioux Lookout 

Smiths Falls 

Stratford 

Sturgeon Falls 

Sudbury 

Timmins 

Toronto 

Trenton 

Walkerton 

Wallaceburg 

Welland 

Weston 

Windsor 

Woodstock 

Manitoba 

Brandon 

Dauphin 

FlinFlon 

Portage la Prairie 

The Pas 

Winnipeg 



Un£ 


lied Vacan 


cies(2) 


Live Applications 


(1) 


Previous 


Previous 


(1) 


Previous 


Previous 




Month 


Year 




Month 


Year 


May 3, 


March 29, 


April 28, 


May 3, 


March 29, 


April 28, 


1956 


1956 


1955 


1956 


1956 


1955 


268 


334 


99 


2,209 


2,039 


2,588 


109 


54 


40 


1,661 


2,102 


1,623 


189 


124 


69 


1,883 


2,352 


1,737 


20,773 


16,565 


10,767 


93,676 


137,032 


138,983 


105 


15 


15 


268 


442 


368 


203 


95 


192 


1,143 


1,556 


1,189 


19 


11 


23 


1,223 


1,745 


1,406 


213 


80 


214 


608 


1,417 


916 


142 


91 


106 


375 


622 


541 


168 


141 


72 


1,469 


1,545 


2,168 


52 


55 


19 


278 


464 


424 


1 




2 
39 


233 

1,744 


325 

2,348 


276 


276 


67 


2,031 


15 


13 


8 


465 


604 


508 


28 


20 


28 


409 


834 


550 


148 


102 


73 


1,762 


2,596 


2,201 


58 


47 


6 


349 


582 


474 


35 


11 


10 


438 


651 


491 


394 


200 


141 


1,449 


2,556 


2,269 


145 


126 


58 


456 


740 


1,064 


25 


5 


6 


129 


284 


211 


30 


19 


40 


279 


661 


461 


232 


165 


133 


940 


1,176 


1,577 


1,149 


851 


622 


6,648 


8,886 


10,382 


31 


21 


28 


787 


1,127 


1,045 


85 


29 


22 


235 


674 


527 


115 


80 


50 


1,497 


1,410 


1,893 


157 


32 


86 


293 


638 


806 


197 


151 


198 


1,083 


1,604 


1,041 


133 


126 


47 


1,060 


1,031 


1,049 


117 


130 


98 


1,095 


2,353 


2,446 


112 


50 


23 


528 


693 


858 


84 


74 


202 


513 


959 


638 


57 


55 


19 


240 


433 


394 


1,018 


892 


645 


2,581 


3,308 


3,676 


40 


6 


22 


461 


1,173 


802 


10 


5 


10 


500 


778 


463 


386 


227 


157 


1,431 


2,361 


2,113 


162 


75 


63 


1,084 


1,713 


2,283 


82 


46 


100 


982 


1,720 


1,419 


327 


205 


113 


210 


378 


336 


49 


64 


33 


521 


833 


658 


271 


361 


124 


1,913 


3,366 


2,355 


4,179 


3,756 


1,431 


4,085 


5,503 


4,850 


59 


57 


48 


1,175 


1,890 


1,648 


18 


2 


23 


310 


490 


451 


394 


316 


189 


1,418 


1,763 


1,856 


29 


30 


47 


407 


662 


572 


242 


162 


53 


2,229 


2,756 


2,789 


25 


5 


5 


348 


627 


369 


582 


477 


251 


3,374 


4,389 


5,021 


23 


14 


4 


337 


640 


733 


21 


22 


9 


854 


1,011 


713 


23 


15 


19 


331 


528 


683 


222 


144 


88 


1,447 


2,897 


2,554 


143 


65 


67 


820 


905 


965 


129 


80 


48 


920 


1,632 


2,087 


451 


388 


234 


1,246 


1,462 


1,821 


104 


38 


49 


909 


1,194 


1,020 


19 


23 


11 


217 


283 


268 


12 


10 


14 


286 


618 


292 


91 


66 


33 


323 


615 


761 


2 


5 
320 




1,025 
2,962 


1,224 
3,600 


1,557 


435 


274 


4,081 


110 


127 


37 


1,906 


2,047 


2,296 


5,480 


4,759 


3,191 


21,253 


31,751 


36, 704 


99 


102 


34 


630 


956 


915 


58 


41 


57 


374 


710 


468 


23 


17 


14 


347 


542 


650 


69 


51 


16 


809 


1,360 


1,860 


454 


404 


334 


1,038 


1,701 


1,438 


360 


275 


286 


4,112 


6,019 


4,651 


46 


51 


54 


505 


671 


601 


2,901 


1,993 


2,040 


20,474 


25,605 


22,322 


334 


216 


245 


1,812 


2,275 


1,979 


52 


26 


62 


977 


1,449 


974 


64 


41 


25 


139 


140 


264 


58 


49 


71 


1,005 


1,219 


1,056 


24 


8 


5 


70 


133 


131 


2,369 


1,653 


1,632 


16,471 


20,389 


17,918 



924 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT MAY 3, 1956 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 



Office 



Saskatchewan 

Estevan 

Moose Jaw 

North Battleford . 

Prince Albert 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

Swift Current 

Weyburn 

Yorkton 

Alberta 

Blairmore 

Calgary 

Drumheller 

Edmonton 

Edson 

Lethbridge 

Medicine Hat 

Red Deer 

British Columbia .... 

Chilliwack 

Courtenay 

Cranbrook 

Dawson Creek — 

Duncan 

Kamloops 

Kelowna 

Kitimat 

Missio n City 

Nanai mo 

Nelson 

New Westminster 

Pentict on 

Port Alberni 

Prince George. . . . 
Prince Rupert .... 

Princeton 

Trail 

Vancouver 

Vernon 

Victoria 

Whitehorse 

Canada 

Males 

Females 



Unfilled Vacancies(2) 



(1) 

May 3, 

1956 



2,822 
125 
452 
130 

77 
953 
624 
230 

76 
155 

5,355 

32 

1,650 
28 

1,845 
87 

1,408 
208 
97 

5,045 

64 

94 

9 

66 

82 

140 

18 

525 

90 

78 

75 

343 

11 

105 

209 

127 

12 

18 

2,167 

71 

484 

257 

55,611 

35,698 
19,913 



Previous 

Month 

March 29, 

1956 



1,271 

83 
250 
120 

44 
319 
230 
106 

38 

81 

2,920 

34 

1,078 

11 

1,251 

88 

261 

114 

83 

3,847 

99 
49 
11 
43 
50 
85 
12 

425 
61 
82 
25 

203 
6 

158 
88 
71 
3 
13 
1,843 
13 

381 

126 

38,678 

23,010 

15,668 



Previous 
Year 

April 28 
1955 



1,600 

68 
182 
39 
32 
707 
289 
89 
62 
132 

2,438 

15 
896 

30 
989 

74 
245 
100 

66 

2,594 

72 
20 
23 
36 
55 
86 
25 

*'**63' 



153 

21 

23 

91 

99 

4 

29 

1,205 

26 

281 

251 

30,163 

15,508 
14,655 



Live Applications 



(1) 

May 3, 
1956 



13,207 

260 

916 

861 

2,121 

2,700 

3,342 

437 

336 

2,234 

19,921 

384 
4,632 

504 
10,828 

332 
1,464 

591 
1,186 

34,168 

915 

407 

773 

754 

450 

1,015 

1,146 

243 

736 

635 

821 

3,771 

720 

242 

2,381 

877 

203 

786 

13,760 

1,004 

2,041 

488 

402,989 

313,750 
89,239 



Previous 

Month 

March 29 

1956 



19,341 

299 
1,695 
1,420 
2,223 
4,894 
4,529 
1,063 

510 
2,708 

26,014 

465 
6,691 

647 
12,242 

3.54 
2,931 
1,315 
1,369 

47,834 

1,887 

873 
1,101 

551 
1,042 
1,022 
1,512 

257 
1,384 
1,409 
1,159 
5,303 
1,470 

615 
1,350 
1,102 

392 
1,053 
19,148 
1,753 
2,925 

526 

532,966 

428,221 
104,745 



Previous 
Year 

April 28, 
1955 



13,936 

232 
1,101 
1,148 
2,294 
2,799 
3,002 
696 
330 
2,334 

25,186 

388 
7,079 

667 
11,115 

461 
2,534 
1,194 
1,706 

46,399 

982 
904 
1,304 
699 
450 
920 
757 



1,060 

776 

1,236 

5,002 

1,180 

301 

2,485 

947 

282 

928 

21,143 

1,574 

2,913 

556 

492,876 

394,275 
98,601 



1 Preliminary subject to revision. 

2 Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



TABLE D-5.— PLACEMENTS EFFECTED BY EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 
1951—1956 



Year 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Atlantic 
Region 


Quebec 
Region 


Ontario 
Region 


Prairie 
Region 


Pacific 
Region 


1951 


918,238 
980,507 
993,406 
861,588 
953,576 
203,162 
267,065 


655,933 
677,777 
661,167 
545,452 
642,726 
127,484 
183,851 


262,305 
302,730 
332,239 
316,136 
310,850 
75,678 
83,214 


68,895 
84,640 
76,913 
67,893 
67,619 
16,898 
19,806 


223,979 
251,744 
259,874 
209,394 
222,370 
50,170 
62,433 


332,499 
320,684 
342,678 
277,417 
343,456 
72,164 
99,663 


196,754 
207,569 
201,670 
175,199 
178,015 
39,574 
51,476 


96,111 


1952 


115,870 


1953 


112,271 


1954 


131,685 


1955 


142,116 


1955 (4 


months) 


24,356 


1956 (4 


months) 


33,687 









925 



E — Unemployment Insurance 



TABLE E-l.— BENEFICIARIES AND BENEFIT PAYMENTS BY PROVINCE APRIL 1956 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 



Estimated 
Average 
Number of 
Beneficiaries 
Per Week* 

(in 
thousands) 



Number 

Commencing 

Benefit on 

Initial and 

Renewal 

Claims 



Weeks Paidf (Disability 
Days in Brackets) 



Amount of 

Benefit 

Paid 

$ 



Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Total, Canada, April 1956. 
Total, Canada, March 1956 
Total, Canada, April 1955. . 



18-5 
3-7 
23-1 
27-8 
153-2 
98-9 
21-3 
18-1 
17-4 
33-2 



3,859 

666 

6,460 

7,948 

50,753 

30,690 

5,086 

3,310 

7,330 

10,552 



77,557 

15,475 

96,897 

116,840 

643,584 

415,401 

89,444 

76,141 

73,037 

139,569 



(582) 
(556) 
(5,625) 
(4,146) 
(51,552) 
(46,711) 
(6,793) 
(3,434) 
(4,217) 
(13,723) 



415-2 
451-5 
496-6 



126,654 
154,458 
149,259 



1,743,909 (137,339) 
2,008,060 (138,743) 
10,747,880* (118,354) 



1,590,986 
268,375 
1,740,543 
2,193,869 
12,677,838 
7,754,362 
1,655,532 
1,286,813 
1,550,559 
2,482,732 



33,201,609 
38,167,352 
33,775,066 



* Based on the number of payment documents for the month. 

t Under the old Act, payment was made on the basis of "days", whereas now the basis is "weekly" 

t Days. 



926 



TABLE E-2.— REGULAR CLAIMANTS * HAVING AN UNEMPLOYMENT REGISTER IN 

THE "LIVE FILE" ON THE LAST WORKING DAY OF THE MONTH, BY DURATION, 

SEX AND PROVINCE, APRIL 30, 1956 



Province and Sex 



Duration on the Register (weeks) 



Total 



3-4 



5-8 



9-12 



13-16 



17-20 



April 
29, 1955 
Total 



CANADA 

Male 

Female , 

Newfoundland 

Male 

Female 

Prince Edward Island 

Male 

Female 

Nova Scotia 

Male 

Female 

New Brunswick 

Male 

Female 

Quebec 

Male 

Female 

Ontario 

Male 

Female 

Manitoba 

Male 

Female 

Saskatchewan 

Male 

Female 

Alberta 

Male 

Female 

British Columbia 

Male 

Female 



292,063f 

228,257 

63,806 



46,220 
35,262 
10,958 



24,184 
19,500 



30,622 
25,067 
5,555 



13,595 
13,109 



2,045 

1,712 

333 

16,488 
14,536 
1,952 

19,401 
17,126 
2,275 

112,037 
91,744 
20,293 

67,755 
45,194 
22,561 

13,277 
9,174 
4,103 

9,118 
7,173 
1,945 

15,418 
12,755 
2,663 

22,929 
15,734 
7,195 



1,794 

1,740 

54 

162 
138 

24 

2,575 

2,300 

275 

3,418 

3,111 

307 

15,506 
11,784 
3,722 

12,467 
8,302 
4,165 

1,944 

1,238 

706 

878 
716 
162 



2,600 



4,480 
3,333 
1,147 



1,098 

1,081 

17 

136 
100 
36 

1,358 

1,240 

118 

1,672 

1,441 

231 

9,037 
7,416 
1,621 

5,125 
3,399 
1,726 



647 

221 

900 
785 
115 

1,745 

1,589 

156 

2,245 

1,802 
443 



1,200 

1,165 

35 

121 

106 

15 

1,978 

1,790 

188 

1,895 

1,695 

200 

12,626 
10,589 
2,037 



1,071 
785 
286 



539 

127 

2,116 

1,919 

197 

2,259 

1,729 

530 



48,103 

38,896 

9,207 



1,707 

1,650 

57 

219 
196 
23 

2,565 

2,280 

285 

3,131 

2,785 

346 

21,539 
18,557 
2,982 

11,024 
7,669 
3,355 

1,716 

1,204 
512 



749 
237 

2,099 

1,762 

337 

3,117 
2,044 
1,073 



39,500 

31,386 

8,114 



1,913 
1,847 



232 

188 
44 

2,058 

1,797 

261 

2,708 
2,434 

274 

17,053 
14,774 
2,279 

8,375 
5,451 
2,924 

1,665 

1,098 

567 

1,147 
865 
282 

1,756 

1,341 

415 

2,593 
1,591 
1,002 



40,179 

31,229 

8,950 



28,864 
23,637 
5,227 



34,391 
23,280 
11,111 



2,793 

2,681 

112 

534 
453 

81 

2,583 

2,262 

321 

3,151 

2,796 
355 

14,069 
11,738 
2,331 

8,897 
5,796 
3,101 

2,231 

1,487 
744 

1,574 

1,155 

419 

1,689 

1,230 

459 

2,658 
1,631 
1,027 



1,996 

1,939 

57 

430 

382 

48 

1,642 

1,497 

145 

2,025 

1,811 

214 

10,918 
9,436 
1,482 

5,508 
3,837 
1,671 

1,578 

1,193 

385 



310 
105 
205 



1,269 

1,038 

231 

2,188 

1,399 

789 



1,094 
1,006 



211 
149 
62 

1,729 

1,370 

359 

1,401 

1,053 

348 

11,289 
7,450 
3,839 



5,990 
3,679 



2,204 
1,522 



1,657 

1,259 

398 

1,748 
1,276 

472 

3,389 
2,205 
1,184 



353,928 

284,328 

69,600 



11,438 

11,079 

359 

1,486 

1,260 

226 

15,979 
14,201 
1,778 

17,659 
16,030 
1,629 

129,922 
106,998 
22,924 

101,469 
74,538 
26,931 

14,364 
10,175 
4,189 

9,365 
7,469 
1,896 

22,131 
19,511 
2,620 

30,115 

23,067 

7,048 



* Seasonal benefit is no longer applicable, the period having expired on April 21, (in 1955, April 15). 
t This total, which includes disability claimants, is comparable to former totals of ordinary, short-time and tem- 
porary lay-off claimants. 



927 



TABLE E-3.— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCE, APRIL 

1956 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 



Claims 

filed at 

Local 

Offices 



Total* 



Disposal of Claims (Regular Benefit only) and Claims 
Pending at End of Month 



Initial! 



Renewal 



Total 
Disposed 

off 



Entitled 

to 
Benefit 



Not 
Entitled 

to 
Benefit 



Pending 



Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Total, Canada, April 1956. . 
Total, Canada, March 1956 
Total, Canada, April 1955. . 



5,207 

719 

7,318 

9,431 

47,962 

33,767 

6,098 

4,097 

8,457 

12,313 



4,079 

590 

5,369 

6,928 

36,186 

24,031 

4,533 

3,267 

6,461 

8,426 



1,128 

129 

1,949 

2,503 

11,776 

9,736 

1,565 

830 

1,996 

3,887 



5,521 
792 

8,265 
10,141 
59,842 
37,527 

6,550 

4,491 
10,316 
13,595 



2,765 

365 

5,377 

6,222 

36,846 

23,755 

3,679 

2,287 

6,668 



2,756 
427 
2,888 
3,919 
22,996 
13,772 
2,871 
2,204 
3,648 
4,657 



135,369 
170,687 
154,260 



99,870 
121,708 
107,480 



35,499 
48,979 
46,780 



157,040 
176,734 
173,611 



96,902 
114,060 
117,599 



60,138 
62,674 
56,012 



2,291 
171 

2,111 

2,481 
13,073 

7,207 
895 
749 

1,718 



33,654 
55,408 
32,269 



* In addition, revised claims received numbered 28,733. 
t Includes initial claims considered for seasonal benefit. 

{ In addition, 41,889 revised claims were disposed of. Of these, 13,822 were special requests not granted, and 1,233 
were appeals by claimants. There were 4,662 revised claims pending at the end of the month. 



TABLE E-4.- 



ESTIMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT 



Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Beginning of Month of: 


Total 


Employed 


Claimants* 


1955 — March 


3,476,000 
3,469,000 
3,260,000 
3,253,000 
3,298,000 
3,309,000 
3,345,000 
3,343,000 
3,359,000 
3,407,000 

3,505,000 
3,532,000 
3,571,000 


2,856,300 
2,863,800 
2,906,100 
3,012,300 
3,111,700 
3,141,300 
3,192,200 
3,197,600 
3,195,900 
3,187,200 

3,116,900 
3,055,100 
3,060,000 


619,700f 
605,200f 






353,900 




240,700 


July 


186,300 




167,700 




152,800 




145,400 




163,100 




219,800 




388, 100t 




475,900t 




511,000t 







* Claimants having an unemployment register in the live file last working day of preceding month. The series prior 
to November 1955 has been revised to include all claimants (ordinary, short-time and temporary lay-off), 
t Includes seasonal benefit claimants. 



928 



F — Prices 

TABLE F-l.— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

(1949 = 100) 
Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



Total 



Food 



Shelter 



Clothing 



Household 
Operation 



Other 
Commodi- 
ties and 
Services 



1949— Year 

1950— Year 

1951— Year 

1952— Year 

1953— Year 

1955 — January. . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 
September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 

1956 — January . . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



100-0 

102-9 

113-7 

116-5 

115-5 

116-4 
116-3 
116-0 
116-1 
116-4 
115-9 
116-0 
116-4 
116-8 
116-9 
116-9 
116-9 

116-8 
116-4 
116-4 
116-6 
116-6 
117-8 



100-0 
102-6 
117-0 
116-8 
112-6 
112-1 



111 

110 

111 

112 

111 

111 

112-4 

113-7 

113-5 

113-0 

112-4 

111-5 

109-9 
109-1 
109-7 
109-3 
112-5 



100-0 

106-2 

114-4 

102-2 

123-6 

128-4 
128-5 
128-6 
128-7 
128-8 
129-2 
129-6 
129-8 
1300 
130-2 
130-6 
131-0 

131-3 
131-5 
131-6 
131-9 
132-1 
132-6 



100-0 

99-7 

109-8 

111-8 

110-1 

108-1 
108-1 
108-0 
107-9 
107-9 
107-8 
107-8 
108-8 
107-8 
107-8 
107-9 
108-5 

108-6 
108-6 
108-7 
108-7 
108-8 
108-6 



100-0 

102-4 

113-1 

116-2 

117-0 

117-1 
117-1 
117-0 
116-9 
116-4 
116-1 
115-8 
115-8 
115-9 
116-1 
116-5 
116-6 

116-5 
116-7 
116-8 
116-6 
116-5 
116-7 



100-0 

103-1 

111-5 

116-0 

115-8 

118-2 
118-3 
118-3 
118-2 
118-3 
117-8 
117-7 
118-0 
117-9 
118-1 
118-3 
118-3 

119-0 
119-3 
119-9 
120-1 
120-5 
120-6 



TABLE F-2.— CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES FOR REGIONAL CITIES OF CANADA 
AT THE BEGINNING OF MAY 1956 

Soukce: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

(1949 = 100) 





Total 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


Household 
Operations 


Other 
Com- 
modi- 
ties and 
Services 





May 1, 
1955 


April 1, 
1956 


May 1, 
1956 


(!) St. John's, Nfld.... 


105-0 
115-4 
118-1 
117-0 
117-3 
118-9 
115-6 
114-4 
114-2 
117-2 


105-9 
114-8 
117-6 
116-7 
117-7 
118-7 
116-5 
114-9 
114-6 
118-6 


106-6 
114-7 
117-5 
116-6 
117-7 
119-1 
116-1 
114-6 
114-3 
117-7 


103-1 
104-3 
108-6 
111-0 
107-2 
107-7 
109-4 
109-5 
106-5 
111-1 


109-8 
125-6 
128-5 
136-2 
136-8 
148-3 
127-6 
118-1 
121-2 
128-2 


100-8 
114-2 
116-7 
108-0 
111-4 
111-2 
113-2 
114-8 
113-9 
113-5 


104-5 
119-9 
117-4 
114-7 
116-4 
116-5 
113-9 
116-4 
116-8 
124-1 


114-5 


Halifax 


120-3 


Saint John 


124-8 




120-5 


Ottawa 


124-2 


Toronto 


120-9 


Winnipeg 


120-8 


Saskatoon — Regina 


116-5 


Edmonton — Calgary 


119-7 




120-1 







N.B. — Indexes above measure percentage changes in prices over time in each city and should not be used to compare 
actual levels of prices as between cities. 

0) St. John's Index on the base— June 1951 = 100. 



929 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 
TABLE G-l.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, JANUARY-MAY 1955, 1956f 





Number of Strikes 
and Lockouts 


Number of Workers 
Involved 


Time Loss 


Date 


Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 


In 
Existence 


Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 


In 

Existence 


In 
Man- 
working 
Days 


Per Cent 
of 
Esti- 
mated 
Working 
Time 


1956* 
January 


13J 

12 

12 

14 

29 


13 
22 
22 
20 
33 


17.335J 
3,884 
2,324 
2,500 

16,420 


17,335 

20,144 

3,243 

2,772 

17,855 


338,340 

234,795 

16,875 

10,050 

136,510 


0-38 


February 


0-27 


March 


0-02 


April 


001 


May 


016 






Cumulative 


80 


42,463 


736,570 


0-17 






1955 
January 


18} 

5 

7 

16 
9 


18 
12 
13 
21 
17 


12,179} 

346 
1,778 
1,821 
2,237 


12,179 
2,843 
2,297 
2,656 
3,200 


218,985 
20,669 
15,752 
25,369 
40,500 


0-25 


February 


0-02 


March 


0-02 


April 


003 


May 


0-05 






Cumulative 


55 


18,361 


321,275 


007 







* Preliminary figures. 

t Strikes unconcluded at the end of the previous year are included in these totals. 

t The record of the Department includes lockouts as well as strikes but a lockout, or an industrial 
condition which is undoubtedly a lockout, is not often encountered. In the statistical table, therefore, 
strikes and lockouts are recorded together. A strike or lockout included as such in the records of the 
Department is a cessation of work involving six or more employees and lasting at least one working day. 
Strikes of less than one day's duration and strikes involving less than six employees are not included in 
the published record unless ten days or more time loss is caused but a separate record of such strikes 
is maintained in the Department and these figures are given in the annual review. The records include 
all strikes and lockouts which come to the knowledge of the Department and the methods taken to 
obtain information preclude the probability of omissions of strikes of importance. Information as to a 
strike involving a small number of employees or for a short period of time is frequently not received 
until some time after its commencement. 



930 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, CANADA, MAY 1956 0) 



Industry, Occupation, 
Locality- 



Number Involved 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Workers 



Time 
Loss in 

Man- 
Working 

Days 



Date 
Began 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts in Progress Prior to May 1956 



Mining — 

Lead and zinc miners, 
Ainsworth, B.C. 



Manufacturing — 
Textiles, Clothing, etc. — 
Cotton factory 
workers, 

Drummondville, 
Que. 

Metal Products — 
Electrical apparatus 
factory workers, 
Pembroke, Ont. 



Non-Metallic Minerals, 
Chemicals, etc. — 
Chemical factory 
workers, 
Palo, Sask. 



1,320 



20 



27 



1,600 



30,000 



440 



270 



Mar. 


21 


Apr. 


27 


Apr. 


5 


Oct. 22 
1955 



For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages and 
reduced hours from 44 to 40 
per week with same take- 
home pay, following reference 
to conciliation board; un- 
concluded. 



Dispute over quality checkers; 
unconcluded. 



For a greater increase in wages 
than recommended by con- 
ciliation board in new agree- 
ment under negotiations; 
unconcluded. 



For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages, shift 
differential and reduced 
hours from 44 to 40 per week 
with same take-home pay; 
concluded May 11; concili- 
ation; compromise. 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May 1956 



Mining — 

Coal miners, 
Thorburn, N.S. 



Coal miners, 
Glace Bay, N.S. 



Manufacturing — 
Vegetable Foods, etc- 
Bakery workers, 
Vernon, B.C. 



Fur andLeather Products — 
Fur dressers and dyers 
Toronto, Ont. 



Fur factory workers, 
Toronto, Ont. 



Textiles, Clothing, etc. 
Cotton factory 
workers, 
Magog, Que. 



17 



375 



532 



13 



70 



( 3 ) 



2,010 



1,125 



700 



165 



80 



325 



35,000 



May 


16 


May 


23 


May 


1 


May 


3 


May 


28 


May 


8 



Dispute over hour set for 
riding trip; concluded May 
18; return of workers; in 
favour of employer. 

Protesting suspension of four 
miners for loading dirty 
coal; concluded May 24; 
return of workers; in favour 
of employer. 



For a union agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages 
and reduced hours from 44 to 
40 per week with same take- 
home pay; unconcluded. 

For a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages; 
concluded May 11; negoti- 
ations; in favour of workers. 

For a new agreement pro- 
viding for "no subcontracting 
clause"; concluded May 31; 
negotiations; in favour of 
workers. 

Protesting proposed time study 
of certain operations; uncon- 
cluded. 



931 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, CANADA, MAY 1956 C 1 ) 



Industry, Occupation, 
Locality 



Number Involved 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Workers 



Time 
Loss in 

Man- 
Working 

Days 



Date 
Began 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May 1956— Continued 



Textile weavers, 
Cornwall, Ont. 



Cotton factory 
workers, 
Sherbrooke, 



Que. 



Cotton factory 
workers, 
Ville 

Montmorency, 
Que. 



Pulp, Paper and Paper 

Products — 

Pulp and paper mill 

workers, 

Jonquiere, 

Kenogami and 
River Bend, 
Que. 



Printing and Publishing- 
Plate printers, 
Ottawa, Ont. 



Miscellaneous Wood 
Products — 
Lumber mill workers, 
St. John's West, 
Nfld. 



Metal Products — 

Aircraft engine factory 
workers, 
Malton, Ont. 

Machine and tool 
factory workers, 
Montreal, Que. 



Agricultural implement 
factory workers, 
Hamilton, Ont. 



Electrical apparatus 
factory workers, 
Toronto, Ont. 



17 



925 



1,529 



( 4 ) 



1,600 



17 



36 



2,350 



26 



1,500 



351 



13,600 



14,500 



7,000 



85 



125 



2,500 



205 



700 



7,000 



May 9 



May 11 



May 18 



May 23 



May 16 



May 23 



May 1 



May 2 



May 3 



May 3 



For upward revision in in- 
centive bonus; concluded 
May 10; return of workers 
pending settlement; inde- 
finite. 

Protesting dismissal of a 
worker for poor workman- 
ship; unconcluded. 

For a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages, 
union shop or Rand formula, 
seniority and other changes, 
and dispute re time-study 
findings, following reference 
to arbitration board; 
unconcluded. 



For new agreements providing 
for increased wages, parity 
in wages and hours between 
mills and other changes, 
following reference to 
arbitration board; con- 
cluded May 29; negotiations; 
compromise. 



Dispute over production quota; 
concluded May 23; negoti- 
ations; indefinite. 



For a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages; 
concluded May 26; negoti- 
ations; indefinite, result not 
reported. 

Protesting job assignments; 
concluded May 2; negoti- 
ations; indefinite. 

For implementation of award 
of arbitration board for 
increased wages in union 
agreement under negoti- 
ations; concluded May 11; 
return of workers and re- 
placement; in favour of 
employer. 

To attend a union meeting re 
strike vote; concluded May 
3; return of workers; in- 
definite, see later strike. 



For a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages 
and pension plan, following 
reference to conciliation 
board ; unconcluded . 



932 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, CANADA, MAY 1956 0) 



Industry, Occupation, 
Locality 



Number Involved 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Workers 



Time 
Loss in 

Man- 
Working 

Days 



Date 
Began 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May 1956— Continued 



Electric motor 
factory workers, 
St. Thomas, Ont. 



Die casting factory 
workers, 

Wallaceburg, Ont. 



Electronic equipment 
factory workers, 
Montreal, Que. 



Agricultural implement 
factory workers, 
Hamilton, Ont. 



Non-Metallic Minerals, 
Chemicals, etc. — 
Paint factory workers, 
Brantford, Ont. 



Construction — 
Buildings and Structures — 
Bricklayers, 
stonemasons and 
apprentices, 
Prince Albert and 
Saskatoon, Sask. 

Carpenters, 
Vernon, B.C. 



Asbestos insulation 
mechanics and 
improvers, 
Ont. 



Power machine 
operators, 
Ottawa, Ont. 



15 



78 



294 



125 



1,500 



118 



W 



39 



11 



( 6 ) 



335 



150 



1,090 



2,950 



185 



700 



200 



350 



30 



4,280 



May 7 



May 17 



May 23 



May 25 



May 10 



May 1 



May 9 



May 14 



150 



May 31 



For a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages, 
union security, seniority, 
fringe benefits and term of 
agreement, following refer- 
ence to conciliation board; 
concluded May 25; negoti- 
ations; compromise. 

For a new agreement pro- 
viding for reduced hours 
from 45 to 40 per week with 
same take-home pay, follow- 
ing reference to conciliation 
board; unconcluded. 

For a new agreement pro- 
viding for wage increase 
retroactive to Aug. 1, 1955, 
following reference to arbi- 
tration board; concludedMay 
24; negotiations; in favour of 
workers. 

Alleged delay in negotiations 
for a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages, 
guaranteed annual wage and 
fringe benefits; concluded 
May 25; negotiations; com- 
promise. 



For a union agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages, 
seniority, extension of vaca- 
tion plan and other changes; 
concluded May 11; negoti- 
ations; in favour of workers. 



For a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages; 
concluded May 11; concili- 
ation; compromise. 



For a union agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages; 
concluded May 11; negoti- 
ations; in favour of workers. 

For a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages, 
welfare fund and ratio of 
three mechanics to one 
improver, following reference 
to conciliation board; partial 
return of workers; uncon- 
cluded. 

For increased wages; uncon- 
cluded. 



933 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, CANADA, MAY 1956 p) 



Industry, Occupation, 
Locality 



Number Involved 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Workers 



Time 
Loss in 

Man- 
Working 

Days 



Date 
Began 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May 1956— Concluded 



Transportation and 

Public Utilities — 

Electric Railways and 

Local Bus Lines — 

Bus drivers, mechanics 

checkers and helpers 

Windsor, Ont. 

Water— 
Unlicensed and 
licensed ships' 
personnel, 

Great Lakes and 
St. Lawrence 
River. 



Trade — 

Ready-mix concrete 
jobbers, 

Halifax, N.S. 



Steel jobbers, 
Kitchener, Ont. 



283 



2,100 



22 



2,800 



,000 



300 



25 



May 21 



May 10 



May 15 



May 28 



For seniority in holiday 
schedules: unconcluded. 



For a new agreement pro- 
viding for hourly instead of 
monthly rates of pay, in- 
crease in wages and in pay 
for overtime, and limitation 
of hours of work, following 
reference to conciliation 
board; concluded May 19; 
conciliation, federal; compro- 
mise. 

For a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages, 
reduced hours from 49§ to 44^ 
per week with same take- 
home pay and fringe benefits; 
unconcluded. 

For a union agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages, 
reduced hours and fringe 
benefits; unconcluded. 



0) Preliminary data based where possible on reports from parties concerned, in some cases 
incomplete; subject to revision for the annual review. 

( 2 ) In this table the date of commencement is that on which time loss first occurred and the date of 
conclusion is the last day on which time was lost to an appreciable extent. 

( 3 ) 77 indirectly affected; ( 4 ) 552 indirectly affected; ( 5 ) 10 indirectly affected; ( 6 ) 1,275 indirectly 
affected. 



934 



H — Industrial Accidents 

TABLE H-l.— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES IN CANADA DURING THE FIRST QUARTER 
OF 1956 BY GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES AND CAUSES 

Note: The method of preparing these figures is described elsewhere in this issue in an article entitled "Fatal Industrial 

Accidents in Canada". 



Cause 


j 


c 
'Sc 

bO 

o 


M 

c 

"3. 

a 
3 

M 

s 

IB 


bO 

c 

'£> 

03 

3 

C? 

C 

M 
C 

1 


3 


*3 


1 

CO 

§ 


T3 

c 
* c 

00 O 

o| 

JZ OS'S 


g 

^2 

«i 

3 
■-3 3 

a 
E-» § 


XI 

H 


8' 

c 
c 


CD 
O 

'£ 
CD 
GO 


CD 

'1 

J5 
"o 
c 
P 


8 


Striking Against or Stepping on Objects 




























Struck by 


5 

1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
2 


24 
1 
1 

22 
2 
4 
1 


"2 

1 


20 
3 
4 

13 
3 
1 
9 


10 

1 
1 
8 
7 
7 
13 


12 

2 
2 
8 
1 
7 
10 




10 










81 


(a) Tools, machinery, cranes, etc 










g 


(b) Moving vehicles 


i 


9 
1 
2 
20 
5 










18 


(c ) Other objects 










')') 


Caught In, On or Between Machinery, Vehicles, etc . . 


2 
2 

1 








18 






3 
2 




47 
45 




(a) Falls on same level 






2 


1 
5 


1 


9 

2 
9 


13 

1 
5 


10 
3 


1 

1 


5 

3 
3 


1 

1 




2 

2 
4 




45 


Conflagrations, Temperature Extremes and Ex- 


18 






?1 


Electric Current 








4 
1 








4 










1 


5 




2 


1 




4 




14 


Miscellaneous Accidents 






































Total, First Quarter— 1956 


9 


36 


3 


45 


48 


38 


2 


45 


7 




15 




248* 






Total, First Quarter— 1955 


9 


46 


3 


33 


66 


31 


6 


43 


10 


1 


20 




268 







TABLE H-2.— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES BY PROVINCE AND GROUPS OF 
INDUSTRIES DURING THE FIRST QUARTER OF 1956 



Industry 






CO 


ffl 


D 


a 

O 




CO 


i 


d 


H 
£ 
2 


*o5 
O 


Agriculture 










2 

6 


4 
10 




2 

1 


"5 


1 

11 




9 


Logging 


2 
3 
1 
1 




1 




36 


Fishing and Trapping 


3 






1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


7 
12 
9 


16 
14 
14 


1 
1 


1 


7 
7 
5 


10 
10 
9 
1 
6 
1 


"3 


45 


Manufacturing 


48 


Construction 


38 












2 








2 


8 


7 
5 


2 


4 


12 


45 


Trade 






7 


Finance 


















Service 






1 


1 


2 


5 


2 




2 


2 




15 


Unclassified 










7 




9 




















Total 


5 


46 


75 


6 


8 


38 


51 


3 


248* 







* Of this total 198 fatalities were reported by the various provincial Workmen's Compensation Boards, and the 
Board of Transport Commissioners; details of the remaining 50 were obtained from other non-official sources. 



935 



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936 



AUGUST 15, 1956 



CURRENT 

manpower or*d labour relations 

REVIEW 



Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Canada 

Current Manpower Situation 

EMPLOYMENT reached an all-time high during July, producing the 
tightest manpower situation since 1951. Labour shortages were 
reported in an increasing number of occupations, particularly in the 
western provinces. Construction and forestry continued to attract large 
numbers of workers, drawing on the supply usually available for farming 
operations. 

In the week ended July 21, persons with jobs were estimated at 
5,789,000, about 142,000 more than in June and 201, 000 more than in 
July 1955. Persons without jobs 
and seeking work declined by 
15,000 to 102,000, some 48,000 
fewer than in July 1955. Regis- 
trations for employment at National 
Employment Service offices con- 
tinued to show a similar downward 
trend. 



Particularly strong demand 
for workers during the month came 
from farming, forestry, construction 
and the tourist industries. Two- 
thirds of the employment increase 
took place in agriculture, mainly in 
the Prairie and Ontario regions, 
where labour supplies were already 
tight. Labour shortages developed 
in ten additional areas, bringing 
the total number of areas in the 
shortage category to 21. All but 
one of these were in Ontario or 
the Prairie Provinces. 

Construction reached a new 
record during June, when it was 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 




JASONDJFMAMJJASO 



A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 



937 



. 

MANUFACTURING EMPLOYMENT I 
1949=100 



120 



no 



100 



90 





£2 JJ FMAMJ J ASOHDJ 



estimated that 35,000 more workens 
were employed thnn ever before. 
In July, forestry employment was 
at a new high for the month and 
the demand for labour was very 
string in all pulpwood areas. Farm 
operators, on the other hand, were 
experiencing little success in 
attracting workers; the number 
employed in agriculture was some 
92,000 lower than last year. 

The settlement of the steel 
strike in the United States and the 
successful conclusion of negotiations in the Canadian steel industry 
removed the threat of a production cutback in several manufacturing 
industries. By mid-June, employment in manufacturing was at a new 
record of 1,450,000, about 6 per cent higher than a year earlier. There 
was apparently little change during July, apart from the usual slowdown 
caused by annual holidays and the beginning of model change-over in 
the automobile industry. 

The current high level of activity has not been achieved without a 
considerable strain on manpower and material resources. Since the 
economic upturn in early 1955, the rate of increase in production and 
employment has been very high — as high, in fact, as in any comparable 
postwar period. The high rate of employment increase was facilitated 
by the large surplus of labour that existed at the beginning of the ex- 
pansion period. In fact, employment increased by about 200,000 during 
the year ended July 1956; about 150,000 of this increase came from the 
rapidly growing labour force and the remainder from the ranks of the 
unemployed. 

Because of the limited supplies of manpower readily available at 
present, it seems clear that the rate of employment increase will be 
slower in the remaining months of the year. In July, the number of 
persons without jobs and seeking work had fallen to 1.7 per cent of the 
labour force, almost as low as this figure has ever been. The school 
holidays, of course, brought the usual influx of students into the labour 
force but in most areas they quickly found jobs and the demand for 
workers in many occupations continued unabated. 

How well is the demand for workers distributed across the country? 
In any period of expansion, there are always some areas that are touched 
lightly, or not at all, by the general prosperity. This time, however, 
most centres have recorded noticeable increases in employment, although 
in some areas, the employment gains have not absorbed all available 
workers. At the beginning of August, only 12 areas were classified as 
having a moderate labour surplus, fewer than at any comparable date 
in the past five years. 

Scarcities of labour are concentrated in Ontario and the Prairie 
Provinces. The most recent data place almost one-fifth of all labour 
market areas in the country in the labour shortage category, which 
indicates that the demand for workers exceeds the supply in most of the 

938 



major occupations in these areas. Of the 21 shortage areas, 8 are in 
Ontario and 12 — more than half the number of areas in the Prairie region — 
in the Prairie Provinces. 

In addition to the concentration of labour requirements in certain 
areas there are noticeable concentrations of demand in certain occu- 
pations. The accompanying table gives some indication of demand and 
supply in 26 of the 100 occupational groups listed by the National Em- 
ployment Service. The table is based on the proportions of job vacancies 
to applications for employment registered at NES offices. It should be 
noted that applications for employment are a more complete indication of 
supply than vacancies are of demand. This is so because in order to 
draw unemployment insurance benefits a person must register for employ- 
ment, while employers register vacancies on an entirely voluntary basis. 
Consequently, a shortage situation is considered to exist when vacan- 
cies are approximately 50 per cent of applications. 

The July figures show that, for the country as a whole, vacancies 
were more than 50 per cent of registrations in 15 occupations — more 
than at any time since 1951. In many occupations the ratio was far 
greater than 50 per cent, reflecting more intense shortages. As might 
be expected, the heaviest demand was in the Prairie Provinces. Of the 
26 occupations listed, all but four were suffering from shortages in the 
Prairies. More than half were in short supply in Ontario and British 
Columbia. 

Labour Shortages for Selected Occupational Groups 

July 1956 

Note: Each (x) shows where vacancies listed by employers amount to 50 per cent or more 
of registrations for employment at National Employment Service offices. 



Occupations 



Canada 



Atlantic 



Quebec 



Ontario 



Prairie 



Pacific 



Males 

Accountants , 

Engineers , 

Draughtsmen 

Farm and harvest hands , 

Loggers and bushmen 

Machinists, toolmakers, diesetters. 

Sheet metal workers 

Boilermakers. , 

Structural iron and steel workers.... 

Welders and flame cutters 

Electricians 

Miners 

Bricklayers and tile setters 

Carpenters 

Cement and concrete finishers 

Painters 

Plasterers 

Plumbers and steamfitters 

Cranemen and shovelmen 

Blasters, powdermen and drillers... 

Auto mechanics 

Unskilled lumber workers , 

Unskilled metalworkers 

Unskilled construction workers 

Females 

Secretaries and stenographers 

Domestic service 



939 



The scarcity of persons with professional qualifications is a long- 
standing one, and a recent survey 1 by the Department of Labour indicates^ 
that this situation is not likely to change substantially in the next few 
years. In almost all of the industries surveyed, well over half of the 
firms reported shortages of professional workers. The greatest diffi- 
culty appeared to be in recruiting chemists, commerce graduates and 
all types of engineers. During 1955, the net increase in the number of 
professional persons hired in the firms surveyed was generally more 
than 10 per cent, more than 20 per cent in some professions. Forecasts 
by these firms indicate that, in almost all professional occupations, re- 
quirements in the next three years would not be much less than the 
actual gains experienced last year. 

This heavy demand is reflected in the records of the National Em- 
ployment Service. Currently, the number of job vacancies listed for 
engineers is more than five times greater than the number of persons re- 
gistered, and vacancies for draughtsmen are three times greater than 
registrations. Most of the vacancies are in Ontario but shortages exist 
of these occupations in the major centres of all regions. 

The supply of construction workers is also a matter of concern in 
all regions, although the industry has been successful in attracting 
workers away from many other activities. By mid-June, employment in 
construction is estimated to have reached a new record of 467,000, a 
gain of 17 per cent from a year earlier. In July, the major requirements of 
the industry appeared to be satisfied. However, there were still short- 
ages of tradesmen and unskilled construction workers in many areas of 
the Prairie region, notably at the L,akehead, Brandon, Swift Current, 
Estevan, Calgary and Edmonton. With the exception of bricklayers and 
plumbers, shortages of construction skills in other regions appeared to 
be less marked. 

The heavy requirements for construction workers have, in many 
areas, attracted workers normally available for farming and pulpwood 
logging. As a result, the NES has received large orders for workers from 
these industries well ahead of their period of peak activity. The demand 
for pulp cutters is particularly heavy in Northern Ontario and Quebec. 

Farm workers are needed in most agricultural areas of the country. 
Strong demands for tobacco workers were reported from Simcoe and 
Ingersoll and for sugar-beet workers in the Lethbridge area. 

The supply of metal workers has tightened with the rise in economic 
activity, although not to the same extent as during the defence build- 
up in 1951. Welders are urgently required along the route of the western 
pipeline and in many areas of Northern Ontario and Eastern Canada. 
Areas where openings for machinists and sheet-metal workers are particu- 
larly plentiful include Oshawa, Ottawa, Toronto, Halifax, Calgary and 
Edmonton. 

Scarcity of miners has resulted from the sharp rise in world demand 
for base metals in the past year. Hard-rock miners are requiredin Kirkland 
Lake, Val d'Or and a number of areas in British Columbia. 



^Biennial Survey of Requirements for Professional Personnel, to be released in the 
next four months. 

940 



Labour-Management Relations 

SUCCESSFUL negotiations in major sections of Canadian industry 
brought about a sharp reduction in the number of workers involved 
in bargaining since mid-July. Approximately 40,000 workers who had been 
bargaining a month ago were covered by contracts signed for workers in 
the primary steel industry, for certain railway employees, for automobile 
workers at Windsor, Oakville and Toronto and for hydro employees in 
Ontario. At the time of writing, some 16,000 nickel workers at Sudbury 
and Port Colborne were voting on the acceptance of a settlement negoti- 
ated by their union. 

In recent weeks there has been a steadily increasing number of 
strikes among smaller bargaining groups. At mid-August, 20 such strikes 
were in progress compared with 12 at mid- July. Only 2,500 workers were 
involved but the strikes have been of fairly long duration, 11 of them 
having been in effect for more than a month. 

Automobiles — Late in July a new agreement was reached by the 
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited, and the United Automobile 
Workers of America. The agreement, which covers about 9,000 employees 
in plants at Windsor, Oakville and Toronto, followed more than three 
months of negotiations and will remain in effect for a period of two 
years. Employees will receive a 6-cent-an-hour increase in each of the 
two years of the contract. An immediate cost-of-living increase of 2 cents 
per hour is also provided and further cost-of-living adjustments may be 
made at regular intervals. The wage rates for certain classes of skilled 
tradesmen were further increased and differentials for shift work were 
widened. Employees will also be entitled to improvements in holiday, 
health and welfare and pension plans and a new apprenticeship program 
is to be introduced. As in the earlier General Motors agreement, the 
Company will contribute 5 cents an hour for purposes of a supplemental 
unemployment benefit plan. The new terms are, in fact, similar in many 
respects to the earlier agreement covering General Motors plants (L.G., 
Feb., p. 141). 

Bargaining at the other major automobile firm, Chrysler Corporation 
of Canada, has also been in progress for some time and union officials 
have expressed the belief that a settlement along the general lines of the 
General Motors and Ford contracts will be reached shortly. 

Steel — Negotiations which involved the major producers of steel 
in the United States and Canada were completed during the past month. 
The settlement of the steel strike in the United States resulted in a 
three-year contract with total concessions valued at 45 cents an hour. 
The two Canadian subsidiaries of United States steel companies, Union 
Drawn Steel Co., Ltd., Hamilton, and Marmoraton Mining Co. Ltd., Mar- 
mora, whose workers joined in the American strike, resumed operations 
following a settlement giving concessions similar to those given by the 
parent companies. The Canadian workers also received an additional 16- 
cent-an-hour wage increase designed to bring their wage rates into closer 
relationship with those in the United States. 

941 



Agreement between the United Steelworkers of America and the Steel 
Company of Canada, Limited, Hamilton, was reached on July 28, shortly 
after the conclusion of the steel strike in the United States. The settle- 
ment was reached during the course of conciliation board hearings under 
the chairmanship of Judge Walter Little. The two-year contract, effective 
April 1, 1956, provides for a package settlement worth 33/2 cents an hour 
and including wage increases of 10 cents an hour, effective April 1, 
195b, and 8 cents an hour effective April 1, 1957, and a 15-cent hourly 
premium for Sunday work, increases in job increments, shift differentials 
and pensions and payment for all holidays. 

Contract negotiations at Algoma Steel Corporation, Limited, Sault 
Ste. Marie, resulting in a two-year agreement followed closely on the 
settlement at Hamilton. The terms of settlement were reported to be 
similar to those at the Steel Company of Canada. 

Railways — The recommendations of a conciliation board appointed 
in the dispute between the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen and the 
Canadian National Railways were accepted by both parties by August 1. 
A 12-per-cent wage increase was recommended, 7 per cent to take effect 
April 1, 1956, and 5 per cent on June 1, 1957. Also obtained were six 
paid holidays and improvements in certain operating conditions. 

The conciliation board appointed in the dispute between the Ca- 
nadian Pacific Railway and the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen recent- 
ly released its recommendations which are substantially the same as 
those for the trainmen on the CNR. Neither party has, as yet, indicated 
acceptance or rejection of the recommendations. 

At the time of writing, conciliation is still in progress in the differ- 
ences between the CPR and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen 
and Enginemen. 

Seamen — Approximately 2,000 west coast seamen represented by 
the Canadian Merchant Service Guild, National Association of Marine 
Engineers of Canada, Inc., and the West Coast Seamen's Union, signed 
agreements with 50 towboat firms, members of the British Columbia 
Towboat Owners' Association. The wage increase amounts to $40.00 a 
month, $25.00 effective August 1, 1956, and $15.00 effective August 1, 
1957. The work week is to be reduced from 56 to 40 hours and certain 
other fringe benefits are also to be granted. 

Logging - Member companies of the Northern Interior Lumbermen's 
Association of B.C. and loggers, represented by the International Wood- 
workers of America, reached agreement on the basis of a package settle- 
ment proposed by a B.C. Government conciliation officer. The two-year 
contract made provision for increases of 8 cents an hour on September 1, 
1956, and 5 cents on September 1, 1957, additional paid statutory 
holidays, a medical plan and other fringe benefits. 

Negotiations are continuing between the same union and the southern 
interior companies of British Columbia. 

Mining — Following reference to a conciliation board, agreement 
was reached by the International Nickel Co. of Canada and the Inter- 
national Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers. The workers are voting 

942 



on the acceptance of the settlement on August 17, 1956. The proposed 
two-year contract includes provision for wage increases of from 8% to 
17% cents an hour for the first year and from 9 to 18% cents an hour for 
the second. Other clauses include a premium of 15 cents an hour for 
Sunday work, and a 10-per-cent increase in pensions. 

Coal miners in the three westernmost provinces voted recently to 
reject a proposed settlement of their bargaining with the Coal Operators' 
Association of Western Canada. The proposal includes a wage increase 
of 3 cents an hour, the first raise in pay sought by the union in three 
years. Two paid statutory holidays were also to be added to the contract. 

Clothing — More than 7,000 members of the International Ladies' 
Garment Workers' Union in the Montreal area have accepted a three-year 
contract that will include a weekly increase in wages of $8.00, two 
additional paid holidays and severence pay. Also provided for in the 
new agreement is an improvement in the vacation pay allowance of the 
workers and an increase in the employer contribution to the retirement 
fund. The contract goes into effect January 1, 1957. 

Shipbuilding - Bargaining has been in progress in sh" *'ards located 
at Sorel, Que., and Vancouver and Victoria, B.C. At Sorr ,200 workers 
of Marine Industries, Limited, agreed to a contract after u <o-day strike. 
The workers, represented by the Canadian and Catholic Confederation of 
Labour, accepted a 7%-cent-an-hour immediate wage increase with an 
additional 7 cents to be paid beginning August 1, 1957. Bargaining at 
the shipyards on the west coast is centred around a substantial wage 
increase. The shipyard wage conference representing some 20 unions 
is seeking a 35-cent-an-hour increase for all classifications of workers. 
The present contract, however, signed two years ago, does not expire 
until October 15, 1956. 

Construction - The dispute between 1,300 British Columbia plumbers 
and the Master Plumbers' Association was settled by a new agreement 
providing an increase of 20 cents an hour retroactive to August 1, a 
further 15-cent-an-hour increase on January 1, 1957, and a 1.6-per-cent 
increase in statutory holiday pay from April 1, 1957. At Halifax, where 
all the building trades bargain together, the negotiations have entered 
the conciliation stage. 

Public Utilities - The National Union of Public Service Employees 
has signed its first agreement on behalf of 10,000 employees of the 
Ontario Hydro Commission. Hydro employees* voted to accept the new 
contract, which will provide them with an average pay increase of 5 
per cent. The new wage rates will be retroactive to April 1, 1956. 

Work Stoppages 

Preliminary figures show 39 strikes in existence during July 1956. 
Involved were 9,193 workers with a resulting time loss of 57,820 man- 
working days. Comparative figures for the previous month are 36 strikes, 
involving 16,815 workers in a time loss of 77,775 days, and for July 
1955, 33 strikes involving 10,924 workers in a time loss of 95,975 days. 

943 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 



DISTRIBUTION OF PAID WORKERS 
IN THE FOUR LABOUR MARKET CATEGORIES! 



August 1, 
1956 



August 1, 
1955 



Substantial 
Surplus 




SUBSTANTIAL employment in- 
creases brought about a fur- 
ther reduction in local labour sup- 
plies during July. Changes in the 
demand-supply situation resulted in 
the reclassification of 22 areas into 
categories denoting a tighter labour 
supply and four areas, into cate- 
gories denoting increasing labour 
supply. The classification of local 
labour markets at August 1 together 
with last year's comparable figures 
are shown in the table below. The 
most notable feature in the table is 
that this year 21 areas were in 
shortage at August 1, compared with 
only one last year. 

As in earlier months, most of 
the new shortage areas are in 
Ontario and the Prairie Provinces. 
In Ottawa-Hull there was a severe 
shortage of workers in construction, 
farming and clerical occupations. 
Sault Ste. Marie and Pembroke were 
classified as shortage areas be- 
cause of the scarcity of construction and forestry workers and in the six 
new shortage areas in the Prairies, shortages were not only of farm 
workers but also of construction workers, welders and numerous other 
occupations. Kamloops was classified as a shortage area mainly be- 
cause of the heavy requirements for unskilled construction and lumber 
workers. 

Ill ere were noticeable increases in available labour in Farnham- 
Granby because of seasonal layoffs in textiles and clothing, in Chatham 
because of layoffs in the auto parts industry and of lower employment 
this year in food processing, and in Central Vancouver Island because 
of the fire hazard in forest areas. 



Moderate 
Surplus 



Shortage 



□ 



Labour Market 
Areas 


Labour Surplus* 


Approximate 
Ba !a nee * 


Labour 
Shortage* 


1 • 


2 


3 


4 


Aug. 1 
1956 


Aug. 1 
1955 


Aug. 1 
1956 


Aug. 1 
1955 


Aug. 1 
1956 


Aug. 1 
1955 


Aug. 1 
1956 


Aug. 1 
1955 


Metropolitan 
Major Industrial 
Major Agricultural 
Minor 


- 


- 


1 
6 
1 
2 


2 
9 

3 


7 
18 

7 
46 


9 
18 
14 
53 


3 
3 
6 
9 


1 


Total 


- 


- 


10 


14 


78 


94 


21 


1 



*See. inside back cover May Labour Gazette. 



944 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS 
August 1, 1956 



APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 


LABOUR SURPLUS BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 


Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 


Group 4 






Windier 


Hamilton 
Montreal 
Quoboc - Levis 


Calgary 
Edmonton 
— > OTTAWA - HULL 


METROPOLITAN AREAS 






St. John'. 




(labour forco 75,000 or moro) 






Toronto 
Vancouver - Now 

Westminster 
Winnipeg 








Brantford 


Cornwall 


' Fort William - 






Cornor Brook 


Guolph 


Port Arthur 






FARNHAM - GRANBY < 


Halifax 


Sudbury 






Saint John 


— >J0LIETTE 


Timmins - 






Shawlnlgan Falls 


Kingston 


Klrkland Lake 






Trols-Rlvleres 


Kitchener 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 






Lac St. Jean 

London 

Moncton 




(labour forco 25,000-75,000; 








60 -- r eont or mora in 
non-agricultural activity) 






New Glasgow 
Niagara Peninsula 
Oshawa 
Peterborough 
— >ROUYN-VALD'0R 
Sarnla 
Sherbrooke 
Sydnoy 
Victoria 








CHATHAM < 


Barrio 
Charlottetown 


Brandon 
Lethbrldge 


MAJOR AGRICULTURAL AREAS 






Prince Albert 


— >MOOSE JAW 


(labour forco 25,000 - 75,000; 






Rod Deer 


— >NORTH BATTLEFORD 


40 par cant or Mora In agriculture) 






Reglna 
— > RIVIERE DU LOUP 
_ i THETFORD - MEGANTIC - 
— ^ ST. GEORGES 


— >SASKATOON 
— >YORKTON 






CENTRAL VANCOUVER 


— » BATHURST 


Bracebrldge 






ISLAND < 


Belleville - Trenton 


— >DAWSON CREEK 






Drummondvllla 


Beauharnols 

Brampton 

Brldgewater 
— >CAMPBELLTON 

Chllllwack 

Cranbrook 

Dauphin 

Drumheller 

Edmundston 

Fredericton 

Gait 
— >GASPE 

Goderlch 

Grand Falls 

Kentvllle 

Lachuto - 
Sto. Theresa 

Lindsay 

MEDICINE HAT < 

Mentmagny 


— >KAMLOOPS 

Llstowel 
— >PEMBROKE 
— >SAULT STE. MARIE 

Swift Current 
— >WEYBURN 

Woodstock - Ingersoll 


MINOR AREAS 
(labow forco 10,000 -25,000) 






— » NEWCASTLE 

North Bay 

Okanogan Valley 

Owen Sound 

Portage la Prairie 
— > PRINCE GEORGE 

Prince Rupert 

Quebec North Shore 
— >RIMOUSKI 

Slmcoe 

Sorol 

Sto. Agatho - 
St. Jerome 

St. Hyoclntho 

St. Jean 

Stratford 
—>ST. STEPHEN 

St. Thomas 

Summerslde 

Trail - Nelson 

Truro 
— >VALLEYFIELD 

Vlctorlavlllo 

Walkerton 

Woodstock, N.B. 










Yarmouth 





those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow Indicates the group from which they moved. 



ATLANTIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ATLANTIC 
1955 1956 




With Jobs: 
400,000 „ «■ »» _^ — - Non-Agricultoro 



50,000- 
25,000- 



With Jobs: ■ 
Agriculture 



JFMAMJJASOND 



EMPLOYMENT increased further 
in the Atlantic region during July 
from the all-time high recorded in 
June. Persons with jobs in the 
region were estimated to be 
542,000 at July 21, an increase of 
11,000 from a month earlier and 
18,000 from the same date in 
1955. Most of the increase during 
the month can be attributed to 
seasonal expansion in agriculture. 
However, non-farm employment 
increased too, mainly as a result 
of accelerated activity in the 
construction industry but also 
because of additional hirings in 
manufacturing, stevedoring and 
the service industries. 



Labour requirements during July were greater throughout the region 
than at any time in the past few years. Among the several factors con- 
tributing to this increase were an increase in building construction, 
higher lumber and pulp-cutting quotas and expansion of production in 
iron and steel. 

Construction activity during the month reached the highest level 
since 1953 and there was evidence that some strain was being put on the 
supplies of certain building materials and skilled manpower. Shortages 
of structural steel and cement and lack of qualified supervisory personnel 
and other skilled help were reported to have delayed work on some 
projects. The logging industry was equally vigorous, exerting very heavy 
demands for workers throughout the month. Reflecting the buoyancy of 
this industry, figures from the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association 
show that employment at the end of July was at a postwar high and more 
than 40 per cent higher than a year earlier. In iron and steel manu- 
facturing, employment reached a notably higher level than last year, as 
several hundred additional workers were hired during the month, but 
employment was still lower than in the early part of 1954. 

Employment changes during the month resulted in the reclassifi- 
cation of four of the 21 areas in the region from the moderate surplus to 
the balanced category. At August 1, the area classification was as 
follows (last year's figures in brackets): in balance, 19 (14); in moderate 
surplus, 2 (7). 

Local Area Developments 
St. John's (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Unemployment continued 
to decline rapidly in this area as a result of a general increase in 
activity. Labour requirements increased most noticeably in the con- 
struction industry, resulting in a shortage of electricians and plumbers. 
Total registrations in the area were less than half as many as a year 
earlier, while vacancies had more than doubled. 



946 



Bathurst, Campbellton, Newcastle and St. Stephen (minor). Reclassified 
from Group 2 to Group 3. 

QUEBEC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - QUEBEC 
1955 1956 



1,5 50,000 «•■« 



Labour Force ' 




1,400,000 '*%^ * 



150.000 -«»** — ^V Parson* Without Jobs 

— -"0% and Seeking Work 

000 ^v> 



I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I 

J FMAMJJ ASOND 



EMPLOYMENT in Quebec in- 
creased seasonally during July, 
and reached an all-time peak by 
the end of the month. Persons with 
jobs at July 21 were estimated at 
1,590,000, an increase of 34,000 
from the previous month and of 
23,000 from the previous year. 

Employment in pulpwood 
operations was higher than in any 
year since 1948 and demand for 
loggers far exceeded the supply. 
In construction, employment con- 
tinued to be higher than a year 
earlier and skilled tradesmen, 
especially bricklayers, were 
scarce. Engineers, draughtsmen, 
skilled miners, auto mechanics, 

secretaries and stenographers were in great demand. Activity in manu- 
facturing decreased from the previous month, as many manufacturing 
plants closed down for annual holidays. However, more than 5 per cent 
more workers are employed in manufacturing this year than last. Total 
industrial employment was about 7 per cent higher than a year earlier; 
the greatest year-to-year increase occurred in the forestry, aircraft and 
parts, electrical apparatus and supplies and construction industries. 

Eight of the 24 local areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month, seven from the moderate surplus to the balanced category and one 
from the balanced to the moderate surplus category. Although by the end 
of the month the same number of areas were in the various categories as 
a year earlier, many of the balanced areas were closer to the shortage 
category this year than last. The area classification in both years at 
August 1 was: in balance, 20; in moderate surplus, 4. 

Local Area Developments 
Montreal (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Following the usual 
seasonal pattern, employment increased again in Montreal during July, 
despite a temporary lull in production caused by the closing of a number 
of manufacturing plants for annual vacations. Construction employment 
was at an all-time high and skilled tradesmen were scarce. Engineers, 
draughtsmen, clerks, secretaries, stenographers, boiler makers, welders, 
coremakers, moulders, and toolmakers were in short supply. 

Quebec-Levis (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Employment increased 
seasonally in Quebec-Levis during July, mainly in logging and con- 
struction. Skilled construction workers, shovel operators, loggers, auto 
mechanics, shoe stitchers and worsted menders were in demand. 



947 



Fa rnh urn- Gran by (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
Seasonal slowdowns in the textile and rubber industries resulted in the 
reclassification of the area from the balanced to the moderate surplus 
category. Registrations for employment at the NES office, however, were 
fewer than last year. In 1955, Farnham-Granby remained in the moderate 
surplus category throughout the summer and fall. 

Joliette (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. The 
number of job registrations decreased seasonally during July, mainly in 
the construction industry. The iron and steel industry was operating at 
a very high level. 

Rouyn-Val d'Or (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 
The number of registrations for employment decreased considerably in 
logging and construction and the demand for loggers and skilled miners 
far exceeded the available supply. Some shortages also developed in the 
skilled construction trades. 

Riviere du Loup, Thetford -Megan tic- St. Georges, Gaspe, Rimouski, 
Valley field (major agricultural and minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to 
Group 3. 

ONTARIO 



2.150,000 

2,100.000 

g 2,050,000 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ONTARIO 
1955 i95 6 







Parson* Without Jobs 
g 100,000 — - .. v and Soaking Work 

[ 50,000- 



I I I I I I I L 



J FMAMJJ ASOND 

...,,.,,, , ; _ij | ; 



IN Ontario, employment continued 
to expand at a much faster rate 
during July than is usual for this 
time of the year and exceeded the 
all-time high of a month earlier. 
Persons with jobs reached an 
estimated total of 2,137,000 at 
July 21, an increase of 43,000 
from the previous month, and 
104,000 from July 1955. Most of 
the increase occurred in agri- 
cultural employment but the non- 
agricultural sector also registered 
substantial gains. 



In agriculture, the shortage of 
farm help was quite severe. The 
employment of large numbers of 
students gave only partial relief. 
Manufacturing, in general, continued to operate at or near capacity, ex- 
cept for the automobile and farm implement industries, which reported the 
usual seasonal layoffs, and the aircraft industry in which some production 
adjustments occurred. The construction industry remained very busy and 
employment continued to be higher than last year. Continued strength in 
the trade, service, mining and logging industries contributed to the un- 
usually strong labour demand. 

The ratios of job vacancies to registrations for employment at NES 
offices indicate that male workers in the professional and skilled cate- 
gories were in exceptionally short supply but that unskilled workers, 
apart from farm help, were available in adequate numbers. Women in the 



948 



professional and skilled groups were also in strong demand but the 
shortages were not as marked as in the male sector. Compared with a 
year earlier, the tightening up in the labour demand-supply situation was 
much more pronounced for men than for women. 

Four labour market areas were reclassified during the month, three 
from the balanced to the shortage category and one from balance to 
moderate surplus. At August 1, classification of the 34 areas in the 
region was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in shortage, 
8 (0); in balance, 23 (32); in moderate surplus, 3 (2). 

Local Area Developments 
Hamilton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Employment in most in- 
dustries continued to rise higher than a year ago but some seasonal slack- 
ness was noted in the textiles, small appliances, farm implements and 
automobile industries. There were substantial shortages of engineers, 
draughtsmen, metal tradesmen and domestics. 

Ottawa-Hull (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 4>, The 
already heavy demand for workers increased during July and extended to 
cover practically all industries. Many occupations were in very short 
supply, particularly in the construction industry. 

Toronto (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Most industries continued 
to operate at very high levels but some easing off in labour demand was 
noticeable because of layoffs in the automobile industry and its feeder 
plants and in the agricultural implements industry. Shortages existed, 
particularly in the professional and managerial categories, metalworking 
trades, clerical and various service occupations. 

Windsor (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. The automobile industry and 
its suppliers began laying off substantial numbers of workers for an in- 
definite period because of model change-over. A lull in the construction 
industry added to the labour surplus. Shortages continued, however, of 
engineers and of certain fully qualified metal workers. 

Chatham (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 

Pembroke, Sault Ste. Marie (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 4. 



PRAIRIE 

EMPLOYMENT increased rapidly in the Prairie region during July, reach- 
ing an all-time record as expansion in almost all major industries con- 
tinued unabated. Persons with jobs in the region were estimated at 
1,038,000 at July 21, an increase of 38,000 from the previous month and 
32,000 from the previous year. Despite a sizeable increase in the labour 
force there were heavy pressures on available manpower supplies through- 
out the region during the month. In addition to a general shortage of 
skilled construction tradesmen, loggers and professional workers, suitable 
unskilled workers were reported to be scarce in a large number of areas. 
There were indications that pressures on manpower supplies would be- 
come more pronounced in August following the commencement of grain 
harvesting. The year-to-year increase in job opportunities was reflected 
in the NES figures; vacancies listed at NES offices at the end of the 

949 



1,000,000- 
g 950,000^ — 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PRAIRIE 
1955 1956 



Labour Force 



With Jobs: 
Non-Agriculture 



400,000 - 
.350,000- 



% 300,000 
5 250,000- 



With Jobs: ^ 

Agriculture 



JFMAMJJASOND 

i , ■ i , ...... ..nil... . , , ,,,.,,,, I,,,,' ,,,,.,,,.,.. .. 



month equalled 52 per cent of job 
registrations, compared with 26 
per cent a year earlier. 

Seven of the 20 areas in the 
region were reclassified during 
the month, one from the labour 
shortage to the balanced category 
and six from balance to the short- 
age category. At August 1, the 
area classification was as follows 
(last year's figures in brackets): 
in shortage, 12 (1); in balance, 
8 (19). 

Local Area Developments 

Calgary (metropolitan). Remained 

in Group 4. Employment continued 

at a very high level in this area. 

Labour shortages persisted in a 

wide number of occupations. The most urgent requirements were for 

general farm workers, welders for pipeline construction, engineers and 

draughtsmen. 

Edmonton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 4. Despite a substantial 
increase in the labour force as a result of a steady influx of workers 
from outlying areas and increased registrations of high school students, 
available labour supplies continued to decline during July. Suitable 
workers were scarce in all occupational groups; engineers, draughtsmen 
and nurses were reported to be in critically short supply. 

Winnipeg (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Labour requirements 
continued to be much stronger than last year in all industries; vacancies 
listed at the NES office at the end of the month represented 40 per cent 
of total registrations for employment, compared with 20 per cent a year 
earlier. The construction industry continued to be very active, resulting 
in shortages of almost all types of skilled tradesmen. 

Fort William - Port Arthur (major industrial). Remained in Group 4. A 
record volume of construction was being carried out in this area, causing 
a general labour shortage. There were also approximately 700 vacancies 
for loggers at the end of July and very few job seekers. 

Moose Jaw, North Sattleford, Saskatoon and Yorkton (major agricultural). 
Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 4. 

Weyburn and Dawson Creek (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 4. 

Medicine Hat (minor). Reclassified from Group 4 to Group 3. 



PACIFIC 

DURING July, employment in the Pacific region established an all-time 
record for the second month in a row. Persons with jobs were estimated 
at 482,000 at July 21, about 16,000 more than a month earlier and 24,000 
more than a year ago. Employment continued to increase in practically 
all industries although fire hazard resulted in minor shut-downs in log- 
ging- 
950 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PACIFIC 

------- .1955 1956 

Labour Force 




Persons 
"With Jobs 



X . ^.^ < 



I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 
J FMAMJJ ASOND 






Favourable weather conditions 
helped agriculture make a good re- 
covery from the effects of the bad 
weather last fall and again last 
spring. The fishing industry was 
busy. Most branches of mining 
were fully active although hamper- 
ed by shortages of skilled workers 
in several areas. Considerable 
industrial and commercial ex- 
pansion and developmental work 
was under way. Employment in 
manufacturing continued to be 
high, particularly in the pulp and 
paper, iron and steel and non- 
ferrous metal products industries, 
where it was much higher than a 

year earlier. The construction industry made uninterrupted progress, the 
volume of projects under way increasing well above 1955 levels. All 
commercial and service industries recorded substantial gains over last 
year. 

The supply of professional skilled and semi-skilled workers was very 
low, and that of unskilled workers was also tight. In Kami oops, Kitimat 
and White horse, employment opportunities for men considerably exceeded 
registrations for employment. Shortages were reported in many areas of 
engineers, draughtsmen, several metal and construction trades, miners, 
loggers, woodworkers, mechanics, office workers, and experienced staff 
for the service industry. 

During the month, three labour market areas were reclassified, one 
from the balanced to the shortage category, one from moderate surplus to 
balance and one from balance to moderate surplus. At August 1, classi- 
fication of the ten areas in the region was as follows (last year's figures 
in brackets): in shortage, 1 (0); in balance, 8 (9); in moderate surplus, 

i a). 

Local Area Developments 
Vancouver-New Westminster (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Most 
industries remained very active but sawmills and hardrock mines were 
hampered by serious labour shortages and logging was delayed by forest 
closures. Shortages included most engineering occupations, metal trades, 
miners, marine workers, certain construction trades, office workers, 
specialized sales personnel, nurses, domestics and restaurant help. 

Victoria (major industrial). Remained in Group 3. Industries generally 
continued to operate at or near capacity but most logging camps were 
closed because of fire hazard. Trade benefited from a record tourist 
business. Draughtsmen, shipbuilding tradesmen, auto and oil burner 
mechanics, stenographers and domestics continued to be in short supply. 

Central Vancouver Island (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 

Kami oops (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 4. 

Prince George (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

951 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of August 10, 1956) 



Principal Item* 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a)... 

Total persons with jobs 

At work 35 hours or more.... 
At work less than 35 hours. 
With jobs but not at work ... 



With jobs but on short time 

With jobs but laid off full week 



Persons without jobs and seeking work 



Total paid workers .. 

hi agriculture 

In non-agriculture 



Kegistered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 



Claimants for Unemployment 

Insurance benefit 

Amount of benefit payments . 



Industrial employment (1949=100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949=100) 



Immigration 



Strikes and Lockouts 

No. of days lost 

No. of workers involved 
No. of strikes 



Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg„) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949=100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949=100) 
Total labour income $000,000 



Industrial Production 

Total (average 1935-39=100). 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



July 21 
July 21 
July 21 
July 21 
July 21 

July 21 
July 21 

July 21 

July 21 
July 21 
July 21 



July 19 
July 19 
July 19 
July 19 
July 19 
July 19 



July 1 
June 

June 1 
June 1 

1st qtr. 
1956 

July 
July 
July 



June 1 

June 1 

June 1 

June 1 

July 1 

June 1 
May 



May 
May 
May 
May 



5,891,000 

5,789,000 

5,025,000 

303,000 

461,000 

20,000 



102,000 

4,492,000 

127,000 

4,365,000 



21,400 
56,800 
57,800 
23,800 
19,500 
179,3 00 



136,032 
$9,930,856 

119.3 
115,2 

18,963 



57,820 

9,193 

39 



$63.83 

$ 1.52 

41.0 

$62.24 

118.5 

126.7 

1.166 



283.2 
288.7 
357.1 
245.0 



+ 2.2 
+ 2.5 

- 2.5 

- 12.9 
+222.4 

- 9.1 



- 12.8 

+ 1.4 
+ 19.8 
+ 1.0 



15.7 
13.5 
3.2 
0.0 
7.1 
6.6 



28.0 
48.2 

3.6 
1.0 



0.2 
0.5 
1.0 
0.5 
0.6 
1.5 
3.6 



+ 2.2 

+ 0.8 

+ 1.3 

+ 0.4 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from 
Labour Force, a monthly publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also 
inside back cover, 4a y "Labour Gazette. 

((b) See inside back cover, May Labour Gazette^ 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year 
with total for same period previous year. 

* Less than 10,000. 



952 



Notes of 
Current 
Interest 

Locomotive Firemen Will 
Ash Affiliation with CLC 

A decision to apply for affiliation with 
the AFL-CIO in the United States and 
with the CLC in Canada was taken by the 
29-man general policy committee of the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen at a two-day meeting in 
Winnipeg in July. 

The policy group had been given 
authority at the Brotherhood's 1947 con- 
vention to apply for affiliation whenever a 
merger was effected between the AFL and 
the CIO. 

The move, which brings to an end 83 
years of independent existence by the 
union, will carry 84,000 members into the 
AFL-CIO and 12,000 into the CLC. 

Two separate resolutions were required, 
one on the affiliation with the AFL-CIO 
and one on the affiliation with the CLC. 
The latter resolution was introduced by five 
Canadian officers on the Committee. They 
were: J. G. McLean, W. E. Gamble and 
W. L. Druce, vice-presidents; George 
Murray, a member of the board of directors, 
and Harry Brown of the union's joint rela- 
tions committee. 

The union was to file the application for 
affiliation within two weeks of the meeting, 
and approval was expected within 30 days. 



Demands of Civilization 
Outrunning Labour Force 

"The demands of our civilization have 
outrun the possibilities of many of our 
outmoded methods of production and busi- 
ness," declared Donald P. Campbell of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 
an address to the Canadian Manufacturers' 
Asosciation's annual general meeting. 

"Our production, marketing, distributing 
and business office procedures," Mr. Camp- 
bell said, "are grossly inadequate to cope 
with the speed with which our civilization 
is developing." 

The labour force at our disposal had also 
been outrun by these demands of civiliza- 
tion, he said. 



78839—2 



Some people, Mr. Campbell pointed out, 
believed an automatic industrial world was 
just around the corner. He said their 
feelings were divided: some were waiting 
for "the wonderful era of new productivity" 
while others worried about injury to labour 
by the automatic machine. He thought 
that many attached more meaning than it 
deserved to the word "automation". 

"The development of automation and 
general mechanization," Mr. Campbell 
stated, "will be held back because there are 
not enough technicians in the world to 
carry out the work of either construction 
or maintenance." The ratio of engineers to 
technicians, he said, must also be increased 
in plants which are to be highly mech- 
anized. 

Mr. Campbell continued: "Maintenance 
will have to be done skilfully and quickly. 
Labour will have to be re-trained. It may 
be necessary for labour to re-classify its 
work subdivisions and bring them up to 
date. We need technicians trained in more 
than one field. For example: we need the 
electro-chemical technician instead of the 
electrical worker and the chemical worker. 
Labour must develop flexibility. Special 
schools for the training of technicians may 
be needed." 



Clause Protects Worher 
If Automation Ends Job 

Clauses that are asserted to protect 
workers against job displacement by auto- 
mation have been won by two unions in 
the public utilities field in the United 
States. They are the International Brother- 
hood of Electrical Workers and the Utility 
Workers Union of America. 

A typical job protection clause is that in 
the contract between the IBEW and the 
Niagara-Mohawk Power Corporation, which 
reads: — 

"While this agreement is effective, no 
regular employee with five or more years 
of continuous service shall be laid off 
because of lack of work, nor shall his rate 
of pay be reduced thereby. In the event 
of a reduction, elimination or reassignment 
of work, the company will offer to an 
eligible employee affected thereby a job 
that may then be available within the divi- 
sion in which he is employed and for which 
he is qualified. It is understood, however, 
that such job offer to an eligible employee 
shall not displace another employee with 
five or more years of continuous service. 
If such affected eligible employee declines 
the job offered, his services shall be 
terminated and the company shall have no 
further obligation of any kind." 

953 



How to Ease Transition 
To Automation — U.K. 

That the transition to automation will 
be greatly eased if due attention is given 
to the needs, feelings and difficulties of the 
workers concerned, and if the trade unions 
are consulted in advance of each step, is 
one of the points emphasized in a report 
on automation recently published by H.M. 
Stationery Office in the United Kingdom. 

Unemployment is unlikely to be a serious 
matter, the report says, provided that 
automation is not introduced too rapidly, 
that firms plan their manpower require- 
ments well in advance, and provided also 
that a state of full employment continues, 
so that redundant workers can be quickly 
re-absorbed. 

Difficulties, however, may arise in the 
acquiring or adapting of skills, particularly 
amongst the older workers; in persuading 
workers to accept shift work, which may 
be needed to enable machines to run 
continuously; and in maintaining the 
interest of the workers in the job when 
the regular social contact afforded by the 
traditional operative teams is taken away. 
But the conclusion is reached that with 
good management all of these difficulties 
can be overcome. 

It is pointed out that the report is not 
a statement of policy and was not written 
for the technical specialist. Rather it is 
intended to provide food for serious thought 
and discussion, particularly by industrialists, 
trade unionists and administrators with an 
informed interest in the subject. 

The report lays special emphasis on the 
need for much research and exchange of 
information on the subject of automation, 
and points out that no one knows enough 
about the subject to dogmatise about it. 

Some of the technical trends can be 
foreseen fairly clearly, however, the report 
goes on to say. The production, handling 
and assembly of components will be further 
mechanized and transfer-machines will be 
more widely used in the mass-production of 
engineering components. Automatic control 
of processes, already far advanced in some 
industries such as petroleum and chemicals, 
will continue to make progress. Electronic 
computers will help to solve problems of 
management, at first by doing routine 
clerical work of various kinds, and later by 
controlling processes and machinery and by 
bringing about the integration of control 
which must precede the establishment of 
an automatic factory. 

The benefits of automation will not be 
confined to large firms, though their larger- 
scale production and larger financial 



resources may give them an advantage. 
Many small firms, nevertheless, may find 
their factories suited to automatic pro- 
cesses, both economically and technically, 
the report says. 



Lack of Trained Workers 
Seen Delaying Automation 

The dislocation in the employment o 
office and factory workers, though it cer- 
tainly merits the concern it is causing, will 
probably not be the most serious question 
in connection with the spread of automa- 
tion. With the enlightened co-operation of 
labour, management and government, this 
dislocation should be manageable. But the 
stumbling block will more likely be a 
shortage of trained people "who are 
equipped to cope with the Automated 
World of Tomorrow when tomorrow is 
suddenly upon us". 

This is the opinion put forward by Allan 
Kent, staff reporter of the newspaper, at 
the conclusion of a series of four articles 
on various aspects of automation, published 
recently in the Toronto Telegram. It was 
announced last month that Mr. Kent had 
been awarded a $1,000 prize for the series. 

The result of this shortage of trained 
people, Mr. Kent goes on to say, may be 
that it "will so delay the whole process 
that we won't have to endure the miseries 
of labour dislocation at all — nor enjoy the 
anticipated benefits of automation either". 

The impact that automation will have on 
employment, the writer says, will depend 
on the rate at which it is adopted. "If 
automation comes in slowly a really chaotic 
unemployment situation might be averted 
by the normal rate of retirement, or through 
such devices as earlier retirement, and a 
shorter work week. But," he concludes, "it 
isn't likely to come in that slowly." 

Besides the shortage of the skilled man- 
power needed, the articles mention other 
factors which may put a brake on the 
adoption of automatic machinery. These 
include the high cost of the machinery and 
its inadaptability to other uses if industrial 
changes or changes in demand for products 
come about. 

"Expensive automated machinery has a 
degree of inflexibility that would make it 
a dangerous investment in any industry 
that was less sure than the automobile 
industry of having a large, stable market 
for a pretty well standardized product," the 
writer says. 

He also mentions the risk run by firms 
that invest in such machinery that changes 
in materials used in manufacturing, or in 



, 



954 



methods of production, will render it 
obsolete. For instance, he says that "new 
products are coming along regularly — con- 
sider plastics, for only one example — which 
may make it possible in many cases to 
substitute a single-piece product for an 
assembled product, thus making an auto- 
mated assembly process unnecessary. 

"Nevertheless," Mr. Kent says, "it seems 
clear that the sheer dynamism of techno- 
logical progress will bring it (automation) 
upon us at an ever-increasing rate." 

The case is mentioned of the "many 
workers in minor clerical or industrial jobs 
who for one reason or another just aren't 
capable of doing a higher-level job than 
they're now doing. If their jobs are 
swallowed up by a data processing machine 
or an automated assembly line, what's to 
happen to them?" the writer asks. 

He quotes Prof. Norbert Wiener of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology as 
saying that this "Second Industrial Revolu- 
tion" is going eventually to displace most 
labour "that performs judgments of a low 
level", both in the factory and in the office. 

Prof. W. H. Watson, Director of the 
Computation Centre of the University of 
Toronto, is quoted as saying that Canadian 
business ought to be learning a great deal 
more about automation and the computing 
machines than it is. It should also be 
concerned, Prof. Watson says, about where 
it is going to get the specially trained men 
who will be needed for any firm's success — 
"or even survival" — in the "Automation 
Age". 

It is suggested by Prof. Watson and Prof. 
Gotlieb, Chief Computer in the Computa- 
tion Centre, that large concerns should be 
taking advantage of the evening courses in 
digital computer and data processing work 
that are being offered by the University 
and send some of their young men to the 
courses at company expense. 



J. McGregor Director of 
Unemployment insurance 

The appointment of James McGregor as 
Director of Unemployment Insurance was 
announced last month by J. G. Bisson, 
Chief Commissioner of the Unemployment 
Insurance Commission. Mr. McGregor 
succeeds R. G. Barclay, who retired recently. 

Mr. McGregor, 51 years old, began his 
career in the public service in 1942 as 
supervisor of the insurance branch in the 
Commission's Toronto local office. He 
moved to Head Office in 1946 as an insur- 
ance officer and the following year became 




James McGregor 

assistant to the Director of Unemployment 
Insurance. In 1954 he was appointed Chief 
Claims Officer. 

A native of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, Mr. 
McGregor came to Canada in 1927, settling 
in Edmonton. He worked there with the 
Commercial Life Assurance Company until 
1939, when he was transferred to Toronto. 
Three years later he moved to the UIC. 



N.B. Apprenticeship Chief 
On ILO Mission to Burma 

B. W. Kelly, Director of Apprenticeship 
in the New Brunswick Department of 
Labour, has been granted one year's leave 
of absence to act as technical adviser on 
apprenticeship to the Government of 
Burma. He left Fredericton at the end of 
last month to take up his new duties. 

The request for Mr. Kelly's services was 
made to the N.B. Department of Labour 
by V. C. Phelan, Canadian Director of the 
ILO, Hon. A. E. Skaling, Minister of 
Labour, said in announcing the temporary 
appointment. 



76839—2$ 



955 



Stelco and Steelworhers 
Sign Two-Year Contract 

A new two-year contract providing wage 
increases and fringe benefits worth an 
aggregate of 33i cents an hour over the 
term of the agreement was agreed to by 
the Steel Co. of Canada and the United 
Steelworkers in Hamilton at the end of 
July. 

Under the new agreement, which is retro- 
active to April 1, 1956, wages will be in- 
creased 10 cents an hour at the beginning 
of the first year, and 8 cents at the 
beginning of the second year, bringing the 
base rate at April 1, 1957, to $1,734. 
Employees in the highest job class at that 
time will be getting $3.22 an hour. 

The first instalment of retroactive pay 
under the co-operative wage survey for the 
period April 3, 1953, to April 1, 1955, was 
to be made on August 2. No date has 
been set for the second and third pay- 
ments. The average total amount of these 
retroactive wage payments, it was stated 
by a union spokesman, will be $750, and 
the highest amounts, paid in a few cases, 
will be more than $4,000. 

A new provision of the agreement is for 
a premium of 15 cents an hour for Sunday 
work. Shift differentials are to be increased 
one cent an hour. Pensions will be raised 
from the present $50 to $60 a month at 
65 after 20 years' service. The maximum 
will be $110 a month after 36f years of 
service, instead of $83.33 as at present. 

The company reckoned that although the 
total gain to the employees would be 33J 
cents the cost to the company would be 
36-3 cents, the difference being accounted 
for by vacations and statutory holidays paid 
for but not worked. 

The union's original demand had been for 
a "package" deal worth 48 cents an hour 
to the employees. The company had 
offered a 15|-cents-an-hour package. 



3-Year No-Strihe Pact 
Ends U.S. Steel Strike 

The United States steel strike was settled 
on July 27 when the steel companies and 
the United Steelworkers agreed to a three- 
year contract which the union reckoned 
brought total gains of 45-6 cents an hour 
for the workers over the period of the 
agreement. The strike began at midnight, 
June 30. 

The main provisions of the new contract 
are as follows: — 

Effective on the date of the agreement 
Job Class 1 to be combined with Job 
Class 2, job class rates to be increased 7*3 



cents an hour and increments between job 
classes to be increased from 6 cents to 6-3 
cents. Increases of 7 cents an hour to be 
given on July 1 of each of the two subse- 
quent years, with an additional 0-2 cents 
in the job class increments each year. 

A cost-of-living adjustment on each 
January 1 and July 1 during the term of 
the agreement, which can be reduced only 
if the fall in the cost of living warrants 
a reduction in the bonus of 2 cents an hour. 

Effective September 1, 1956, a premium 
of 10 per cent to be paid for Sunday work. 
On July 1, 1957, this premium to become 
20 per cent, and from July 1, 1958, the 
premium to be time and a quarter. The 
union reckoned that the 10-per-cent 
premium would be equal to an average of 
25 cents an hour, the 20-per-cent premium 
to 52 cents, and the time-and-a-quarter 
premium to 68 cents an hour. 

The overtime rate for holiday work to 
be double time and one-tenth effective 
July 1, 1957, and double time and one- 
quarter effective July 1, 1958. 

A supplementary unemployment benefit 
plan for employees with two years' con- 
tinuous service to provide 65 per cent of 
take-home pay (including state payments) 
for 52 weeks. (The parties are to negotiate 
all details of financing and other points.) 

Union shop, with no escape clause for 
new employees or present members. 

Substantial increases in insurance benefits 
and pensions. 

Good Friday to be added as a seventh 
paid holiday. 

Effective January 1, 1958, an additional 
half-week of vacation for employees with 
three to five years' service, those with 10 
to 15 years' service and those with more 
than 25 years' service. 

Shift differentials to be increased from 6 
cents to 8 cents for the afternoon shift, 
and from 9 to 12 cents for the night shift, 
effective July 1, 1958. 

Employees to be paid for wages lost due 
to jury duty. 

The main agreement and the subagree- 
ments will terminate on June 30, 1959; and 
the insurance and pension agreements on 
October 31, 1959. 

The union gained the largest wage and 
fringe benefit package in its history. The 
three-year no-strike contract is the first in 
the industry in 20 years. Previous two-year 
contracts provided for re-opening on wages 
at the end of the first year, when the union 
was free to strike. 

The strike had rendered idle 650,000 steel 
workers and was estimated to have caused 
the layoff of about 125,000 employees in 
other industries. 



956 



An increase in the price of steel aver- 
aging $8.50 a ton was announced shortly- 
after the settlement. 

The union's original demands included a 
"substantial" wage increase of unstated 
amount, double pay for Sunday work and 
time and a half for Saturday work, a 52- 
week supplementary unemployment insur- 
ance plan, and a company-paid insurance 
plan. 

The offer made by the companies was 
for a five-year contract with an increase 
in all standard hourly rates of 6 cents in 
each year, and an increase of 0-2 cents in 
increments between job classes above Job 
Class 2 in each year. Job Class 1 was to 
be abolished and all employees in this class 
were to be advanced to Class 2. 

Increases in benefits offered by the 
companies included: a 52-week SUB plan, 
with company contributions of 5 cents per 
hour per man; an improved insurance plan, 
with increased benefits for sickness and 
accidents and for hospitalization and 
surgery, and a life insurance plan; the 
addition of a seventh paid holiday, increased 
pensions, longer vacations with pay, in- 
creased afternoon and night shift premiums, 
and the establishment on July 1, 1959, of a 
premium for Sunday work equal to the 
night-shift premium. 

The union rejected the steel companies' 
offer, declaring that it would amount to 
only 5 cents an hour in take-home pay. 
The union's President, David J. McDonald, 
said that the proposed layoff benefit plan 
would be of little value because it was so 
arranged that a laid-off employee would 
receive 65 per cent of his after-tax weekly 
pay only for hours actually worked in the 
three months before the layoff. 

The industry then proposed an indefinite 
extension of contracts, with the union 
having the right to strike after 72 hours' 
notice, and the companies reducing their 
demand for a five-year contract to one for 
four years and four months, the benefits in 
their original offer being reduced propor- 
tionately. 

The union offered an extension of 15 
days if the companies would agree to make 
retroactive any settlement reached after 
June 30. The industry refused this offer, 
chiefly on the ground that the retroactivity 
provision would favour the union by leaving 
it in the position of having nothing to lose 
no matter how long the negotiations were 
prolonged. 



Australia Introduces 
New Conciliation Act 

A bill to amend the Conciliation and 
Arbitration Act recently introduced in 
the Australian House of Representatives 
provides for: the establishment of a 
Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitra- 
tion Commission; the appointment of 
conciliators associated with the Commission 
to exercise the conciliation functions of the 
Commission, but not to arbitrate; and the 
establishment of a Commonwealth Indus- 
trial Court consisting of a chief judge and 
not more than two other judges. 

The new Conciliation and Arbitration 
Commission is divided into a presidential 
section, consisting of a president and not 
less than two deputy presidents (these 
offices being at first filled by four of the 
seven judges of the present Arbitration 
Court), and a lay section which will consist 
of a senior commissioner and not less than 
five commissioners. These commissioners 
will in the first place be chosen from 
amongst the present Conciliation Commis- 
sioners. 

The presidential section will deal exclu- 
sively with the main arbitration cases, such 
as the basic wage, standard hours, long- 
service leave hearings, etc. The president 
will allot particular industries to the indi- 
vidual lay commissioners, each of whom 
will hear disputes arising in his particular 
industry. Provision is made for appeal to 
the Commission against the decision of an 
individual commissioner. 

The Industrial Court will be given all 
the powers to interpret and enforce awards, 
punish for contempt, deal with disputed 
elections in organizations and decide 
issues relating to membership of organiza- 
tions, which are now vested in the Arbi- 
tration Court. In the first instance the 
members of the court will be the remaining 
three judges of the present Arbitration 
Court. 

This new legislation has been prompted 
by two principal needs; to meet changing 
conditions and to deal with the difficulty 
which has arisen out of the decision given 
by the High Court in March 1956, which 
ruled that the present Commonwealth Con- 
ciliation and Arbitration Court cannot 
validly exercise the power to punish those 
who disobey its orders, in addition to 
exercising the power of arbitration. (An 
appeal to the Privy Council against this 
decision is still pending.) 

The present Conciliation and Arbitration 
Court will remain, but its functions will be 
curtailed so as not to interfere with the 
functions of the Commission and the new 
Industrial Court. 



957 



Engineer Shortage Slows 
Atomic Power Program 

The current shortage of engineers is 
having an effect on Canada's nuclear 
research program. Graduates with degrees 
in civil, mechanical and electrical engineer- 
ing must undergo training in nuclear physics 
before they can contribute to nuclear 
developments. 

W. J. Bennett, President of Atomic 
Energy of Canada Ltd., told a committee 
of the House of Commons last month that 
it takes two years for engineers to be 
trained in nuclear physics. 

The publicity given to the demand for 
engineers has overshadowed sizeable demand 
for graduates from other faculties, it is 
pointed out by J. K. Bradford, Director of 
the Placement Service at the University of 
Toronto. 

He reported that the demand for this 
year's graduates of the University, from 441 
companies requesting 4,587 individuals, in- 
cluded a sieable demand for Arts graduates 
as well as for graduates in Engineering and 
Commerce. 

"There is a growing awareness of the 
value of the broader training for admin- 
istration that stems from a good grounding 
in the humanities," he said. 



Two Companies Announce 
Engineer Training Plans 

Establishment of training plans designed 
to increase the supply of professional 
engineers has recently been announced by 
two Canadian firms. 

The plan announced by Canadian West- 
inghouse Co. aims to reduce from two years 
to one the time engineering graduates must 
spend in training with the company. The 
graduate is to be given special training in 
the particular engineering, manufacturing, 
sales or service division which fits in with 
his preference and aptitudes, rather than 
the more general training previously given. 
The newcomer will receive credit for any 
previous experience, time spent in training 
being reduced accordingly. 

Orenda Engines, Ltd., is establishing a 
plan which will give its technical personnel 
the chance to reach professional status at 
practically no cost to themselves, and with- 
out giving up their jobs to go to school. 
The plan, which is to start in September, 
provides lectures by Orenda engineers at 
the company's plant in Malton which will 
prepare candidates for the examinations of 
the Association of Professional Engineers 
of Ontario. Passing these examinations 
leads to recognition as a professional 
engineer. 



The scheme is to enable men now 
employed by the company in technical 
capacities to become professional engineers 
by the spring of 1960. The company will 
allow time off from work for those attend- 
ing lectures, and will lend money to pay 
examination fees. Candidates, who are 
required to have senior matriculation, will 
pay a fee of 50 cents a lecture, which will 
be refunded to them if they pass the 
examinations. 



Name Committee to Plan 
Conference on Engineers 

A committee of 13 leading Canadian 
industrialists has been named to plan a 
National Engineering Manpower Confer- 
ence to be held at St. Andrews by the Sea, 
N.B., on September 9, 10 and 11. 

The conference has been endorsed by the 
Dominion Council of Professional Engi- 
neers, representing 30,000 engineers in the 
10 provinces. 

Some 75 leaders in education, government, 
professional societies, labour and industry 
are being invited to assess and analyse the 
supply and demand of professional engi- 
neers and technicians with a view to making 
definite moves to end the current shortage. 

Members of the 13-man committee are: — 

James S. Duncan, President, Massey- 
Harris-Ferguson Ltd., Toronto. 

Dr. R. L. Hearn, P.Eng., Chairman, The 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario, Toronto. 

H. M. Turner, Chairman of the Board, 
Canadian General Electric, Toronto. 

E. H. Walker, General Manager, 
McKinnon Industries, St. Catharines. 

D. W. Ambridge, P.Eng., President and 
General Manager, Abitibi Power and Paper, 
Toronto. 

E. J. Durnin, P.Eng., President, Dominion 
Council of Professional Engineers, Regina. 

J. R. White, P.Eng., President, Imperial 
Oil, Toronto. 

A. H. Zimmerman, P.Eng., Chairman, 
Defence Research Board, Ottawa. 

J. R. Bradfield, President, Noranda Mines 
Ltd., Toronto. 

H. S. Wingate, President, International 
Nickle Co. of Canada Ltd., New York. 

A. E. Grauer, Chairman and President, 
British Columbia Power Corporation, 
Vancouver. 

Dr. O. M. Solandt, Vice-president, 
Research and Development, Canadian 
National Railways, Montreal. 

Robert Anderson, President, Ventures 
Ltd., New York. 

The conference is being sponsored by 
A. V. Roe Canada Ltd. 



958 



Alternative to GAW 
Suggested by Briton 

Longer notice for longer service, as a 
preferable alternative to the guaranteed 
annual wage, is put forward as a fifth pillar 
of industrial policy in an article entitled 
"Foundations of Industrial Security" by 
Viscount Chandos, published in the July 7 
issue of Saturday Night. 

The suggestion made by Lord Chandos, 
Chairman of Associated Electrical Indus- 
tries, Ltd., is that a worker who is entitled 
to a week's notice in case of layoff from 
the start of his employment, should, after, 
say, two years' service be entitled to an 
extra week's notice — with pay — for each 
year of service. 

Although he admitted that the plan 
would have its dangers, he thought that 
it was "psychologically wrong that a man 
who has been in your employment for 
ten years should be on a week's notice". 
He also agreed that under present circum- 
stances of employment "you would be 
giving very little to the workman which 
he has not got already". But, he said, 
"what you are doing is saying: 'If you are 
loyal to me I will be loyal to you, come 
rain or fine'." 

The writer rejected a guaranteed wage 
for a year as being "far too inflexible: 
certain stresses might break it down". 

The other four "main foundations" of 
industrial policy laid down by the writer 
were: to aim at continuity of employment 
for everyone on the books of the com- 
pany, to give a fair reward and good 
incentives for a good day's work, to make 
the career open to talent, and to see that 
the conditions under which people work 
should be "as light and cheerful as we can 
make them". 

He did not think highly of profit-sharing 
schemes as incentives to effort on the part 
of employees because "they are too remote 
from the work of the operative either to 
give him much more interest in the busi- 
ness than he would gain out of a piece- 
rate, or to give him that personal feeling 
of belonging to a society, or a company, 
or a team, which we want him to feel". 



Ofiio Approves Individual 
Income Security Plan 

Ohio, which in May ruled that workers 
in the state could not receive state unem- 
ployment insurance benefits and "motor- 
type" supplemental benefits at the same 
time, last month approved a company- 
financed individual income security plan for 
unemployed workers. 



The Ohio Bureau of Unemployment 
Compensation notified the Eaton Manufac- 
turing Company of Cleveland that pay- 
ments to its unemployed workers under its 
individual income security plan would not 
be deducted from unemployment benefits 
paid by the state. 

The company has set up a plan under 
which it pays 3i cents per hour for each 
hour worked into an individual account 
for each employee, who acquires a non- 
forfeitable interest in the account. If there 
is a layoff, the employee may draw from 
his account; if he terminates his employ- 
ment with the company, he may withdraw 
any balance remaining in his account; and 
if he dies while still in the company's 
employ, his estate will be entitled to what- 
ever balance remains. 



Ford of Canada and UAW 
Sign Two-Year Contracts 

Two-year contracts covering both office 
workers and hourly-rated employees of 
Ford Motor Company of Canada were 
signed during the month. The agreements 
were reached amicably, in contrast to the 
strike which preceded the signing of the 
previous contract. 

For the 9,000 hourly-rated employees, the 
new contract provides a 30-cents an hour 
increase in benefits and wages, including: 
company contributions of five cents an 
hour to a guaranteed annual wage fund; 
six-cent an hour pay raise immediately, plus 
cost-of-living increase of another two 
cents; another six-cent boost across the 
board in September 1957; higher bonuses 
for afternoon and night shifts; liberalized 
pension and life-insurance plans. 

The agreement between the company and 
its office workers, who, like the hourly- 
rated employees are represented by the 
United Automobile Workers, covers 750 
individuals. 

Salary adjustments include an increase of 
$10.40 a month, plus cost-of-living allow- 
ance of $3.47 per month. A basic salary 
increase of $10.40 a month would become 
effective September 1, 1957. 

In addition, the office workers get paid 
half-holidays on the days preceding 
Christmas and New Year's. Also instituted 
in the settlement is provision for a supple- 
mental unemployment benefit plan for 
employees in the bargaining unit, Local 240, 
of Windsor, Ont. 

Under the contracts, the company gains 
two years of freedom from strikes and 
generally happier relations all around. 



959 



Report Campaign Reduced 
Seasonal Unemployment 

Forty-two National Employment Service 
offices across Canada have been told by 
nearly 300 employers that more than 3,000 
workers who would normally have been 
laid off were retained last winter as a result 
of the NES-Department of Labour cam- 
paign against seasonal unemployment. 

Some of the workers, it was admitted, 
were kept on because of improved economic 
conditions but the campaign is believed to 
have resulted in many retentions and the 
employment of many normally out of work 
in the winter that were not reported to 
NES offices. 

The NES has estimated that more than 
8,000 workers normally laid off were kept 
on the job last winter. 



Senator Urges Doubling 
Of Limit on Annuities 

Doubling of the limit on government 
annuities to $2,400 has been urged by 
Senator David Croll. 

While Senator Croll admitted that gov- 
ernment annuities were subsidized, he 
justified the subsidy on the ground that 
in the long run the taxpayer will be saved 
money by a plan which encourages people 
to provide for their old age. 

The cost of administration of the govern- 
ment annuities plan last year amounted to 
only 10 cents per capita, the Senator said, 
and he contended that that was a small 
price to pay for encouraging Canadians 
to practise thrift. 

The limit should be raised to $2,400, he 
said, because the present limit of $1,200 
had been set in the thirties, and the decline 
in the purchasing power of the dollar since 
then had made that limit "out of line 
with real values which prevailed when the 
limit was set". 

Another view of government annuities 
was expressed about the same time by the 
Senate's Standing Committee on Finance. 

Noting that since their inception govern- 
ment annuities had been subsidized to the 
extent of $31 million, not including admin- 
istration costs of more than $11 million, 
the Committee recommended that the 
tables of rates for future annuities be 
revised to provide a revenue sufficient to 
maintain the fund on a self-supporting basis, 
including the cost of administration. 

It was the basing of old contracts on 
inadequate rates that has caused the deficit, 
the Committee pointed out. 

Originally designed to provide, for per- 
sons of modest means, a source of security 



not otherwise available at the time, gov- 
ernment annuities now are used largely 
by business organizations concerned with 
setting up pension funds for their employees, 
the Committee reported. In addition, "the 
advent of old age pensions and the entry 
by most insurance companies into the 
annuity field have served to remove the 
basis on which the Act was established," 
the Committee said. 

"Your Committee is concerned with the 
justification of continuing, in deficit, a fund 
which no longer serves its original purpose." 



Council Advises Extension 
Of U.S. Jobless Insurance 

Unemployment insurance coverage should 
be extended to employers of one or more 
persons, the United States Advisory Council 
on Unemployment Compensation has 
recommended. 

The tripartite Council also recommended 
that the definition of "employee" should 
be liberalized to allow broader coverage, 
that veterans should be given permanent 
coverage and that coverage should be 
extended to state and local government 
employees and to domestic service where 
an employer has four or more domestic 
servants in his employ. 



Study Characteristics 
Of insured Unemployed 

Nearly a third of the insured unem- 
ployed in the United States were found 
to be unskilled, although these workers 
constitute less than a tenth of the non- 
farm employees, in a study undertaken 
jointly by federal and state agencies and 
recently published by the U.S. Department 
of Labor. 

The report, first of a series on the 
characteristics of workers drawing employ- 
ment insurance, shows that at the middle 
of the first quarter of 1956 about 40 per 
cent of the 1,500,000 persons claiming 
unemployment benefits came from manu- 
facturing industries, nearly 25 per cent were 
construction workers and about 20 per cent 
came from trade and service industries. 

Clerical and sales workers, who repre- 
sent about 30 per cent of the non-farm 
employees, accounted for only 10 per cent 
of the insured unemployed. Three out of 
four of the insured unemployed were men 
— a somewhat higher proportion than that 
of males in the total non-farm labour force. 

About two-fifths of the unemployed were 
over 44 years of age, compared with about 
one-third over that age in non-farm 
employment. 



960 



The average duration of insured unem- 
ployment was 7-4 weeks. Among those 65 
years and over, one in four had been 
unemployed for more than 14 weeks, com- 
pared with one in ten when those of all 
ages were taken together. There was a 
tendency for women to be unemployed 
longer than men. 



389,000 in U.K. Share 
In Company's Profits 

Profit-sharing schemes being operated on 
a pre-arranged basis in the United Kingdom 
at the end of 1954 numbered 421. The 
schemes were operated by 408 concerns, 13 
of these concerns each having two schemes 
in operation. A total of roughly 389,400 
employees participated in the profit-sharing 
arrangements. 

These facts are given in an article, 
"Profit-Sharing and Co-P artnership 
Schemes", published in the British Ministry 
of Labour Gazette for May 1956. 

In addition, 132,672 workers participated 
in 130 profit-sharing arrangements of a 
less definite nature, there being no pre- 
arranged method of sharing the profits in 
these cases. 

In 1938, under the slightly more rigid 
definition of profit-sharing then in use, 404 
schemes were recorded with approximately 
261.000 workers participating in the 399 
undertakings concerned — five of the latter 
each having two schemes. 

Of the schemes operated on a pre- 
arranged basis, information regarding the 
amount received by the employees was 
available in 370 cases. In 349 of these 
schemes, where the profit-sharing applied 
to all employees, the average sum received 
by each employee amounted to 5-8 per cent 
of his earnings in 1954. In the remaining 
21 schemes, which applied only to "staff" 
or to a particular section of the employees, 
the average addition to earnings amounted 
to 10-1 per cent. 

In the 130 looser profit-sharing arrange- 
ments mentioned above the average addi- 
tion to earnings amounted to 7-4 per cent 
per employee during 1954. 

The definition of "profit-sharing" given 
in the article was "taken to refer to definite 
arrangements under which employees regu- 
larly receive, in addition to their wages or 
salaries, a share on some pre-determined 
basis in the profits of the undertaking, the 
sum allocated to employees varying with 
the level of the profits." 

(An article on profit-sharing plans in 
Canadian manufacturing appeared in the 
July Labour Gazette, page 896.) 



U.K. Engineering Union 
Elects New President 

By a record vote in a record ballot of 
the membership, William John Carron has 
been elected President of Britain's second 
biggest union, the 950,000-strong Amalga- 
mated Engineering Union. He will take 
over his new job in September this year 
when the present leader of the union, 
Robert Openshaw, reires. 

"Bill" Carron, as he is generally known, 
defeated a Communist opponent. 

Mr. Carron has held nearly all the trade 
union offices it is possible for him to hold. 
From the time he joined the union as a 
working engineer in 1924, he has been, 
successively, a shop steward, a branch 
secretary, a trades council delegate, a 
district president, and a divisional organ- 
izer. In 1950 he entered the national scene 
with his election to the seven-man full-time 
executive council of the AEU, and in 1953, 
after nomination by his union, he was elected 
by delegates at the annual Trades Union 
Congress to the TUC General Council. 

For his union he has had the respon- 
sibility of negotiations with the employers 
as a member of the National Joint Council 
of Civil Air Transport and of the Air 
Ministry Independent Whitley Council. 

The AEU has the most far-flung mem- 
bership of any based in Britain. In 
Australia there are about 80,000 members, 
in South Africa some 20,000, while in 
Southern Rhodesia, Malta and Gibraltar 
members of the AEU are also to be found. 
It is one of the few British unions to claim 
an international character, though in each 
separate country the membership operates 
for negotiation and administration as a 
separate unit. 

Essentially a craft union in origin, the 
AEU now recruits semi-skilled and women 
workers. 

Earlier this year a conference called by 
the AEU brought together representatives 
of some 20 unions to consider the possi- 
bility of closer unity. 

A history of amalgamation in engineer- 
ing goes back to the formation of the 
Amalgamated Society of Engineers in 1851 
and the creation of the Amalgamated 
Engineering Union in 1921. 

ICFTU Names C. H. Millard 

Director of Organization 

Charles H. Millard, a Vice-president of 
the Canadian Labour Congress and Cana- 
dian Director of the United Steelworkers 
of America, was appointed last month 
Director of Organization for the Interna- 
tional Confederation of Free Trade Unions. 



'6839—3 



961 



Although the position was established in 
1955, Mr. Millard is the first to fill it. 

He had previously been connected with 
the ICFTU as CLC representative on its 
regional activities fund committee. He was 
a CCL delegate to the founding congress of 
the ICFTU in London in 1949. 

Appointment of a successor to Mr. Millard 
on the CLC Executive and as Canadian 
Director of the Steelworkers is expected to 
be made this month. 

In his new position, Mr. Millard will be 
particularly responsible for the ICFTU's 
assistance to workers in under-developed 
countries. 

Born in St. Thomas, Ont., in 1896, Mr. 
Millard moved to Oshawa after service in 
the First World War. There he became 
the first President of the Oshawa local 
of the United Auto Workers. He partici- 
pated in the historic 1937 strike against 
General Motors that resulted in recogni- 
tion of the CIO. 

After the expulsion of the Canadian 
sections of the CIO from the Trades and 
Labour Congress of Canada, he was named 
CIO representative in Canada. In 1940 he 
was appointed Canadian Director of the 
Steelworkers Organizing Committee. In 
1942, when the SWOC became a self- 
governing section of the United Steel- 
workers of America, he was elected Cana- 
dian Director of the union and re-elected 
to that post at every subsequent election. 

A Vice-president of the Canadian Con- 
gress of Labour for many years, he was a 
member of the TLC-CCL unity committee 




and, at the CLC founding convention last 
April, was elected a Vice-president for 
Ontario in the merged organization. 

Mr. Millard served two terms — 1943-45 
and 1948-51 — as CCF member in the 
Ontario Legislature. 



I/.W. Carpenter Retires, 
BLE Elects O. J. Travis 

U. W. Carpenter, senior Canadian grand 
officer of the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, who announced his retirement 
at the 13th Triennial Convention of the 
Brotherhood held in Cleveland, Ohio, in 
mid-July, has been succeeded by Oscar 
James Travis of Allendale, Ont. 

Mr. Carpenter began working on the 
Canadian National Railways in 1904, 
became an engineer in 1914, and continued 
to work in that capacity until 1939, when 
he became union general chairman on 
eastern lines. He has been an Assistant 
Grand Chief Engineer since 1948. 

Mr. Travis is general chairman of the 
union on the Canadian National, Central 
Region and New England Lines. 

Two other Canadians re-elected as 
assistant grand chiefs are Harry E. Camp- 
bell of Ottawa and John Marshall of 
Winnipeg. 



K.C. Adams, UMW Editor 
For Many Years, Dies 

K. C. Adams, for many years editor of 
the United Mine Workers' Journal, died 
June 30 at the age of 69. Mr. Adams, 
known among his friends as "Casey", owing 
to failing health had been in semi-retire- 
ment since 1948. However, he had con- 
tinued to write editorials for the Journal 
until his full retirement in 1953. 

Mr. Adams served the United Mine 
Workers in various capacities for 40 years. 
His devotion to the Republican party, 
however, caused him to break with the 
union in 1936 when John L. Lewis, his 
close friend, supported the re-election of 
Franklin D. Roosevelt for a second term 
as president. He returned to the UMW 
in 1940 when Mr. Lewis broke with Mr. 
Roosevelt. 



C H. Millard 



Ellis More, one-time President of the 
Calgary Trades and Labour Council and 
former foreman of the Calgary waterworks 
department, died in Duncan, B.C., on 
June 26. 



962 



3 More Local Councils 
Complete Amalgamation 

The merger of local labour councils in 
three more Canadian cities has been com- 
pleted, and the principal officers of the new 
bodies have been appointed. 

The Peterborough Labour Council (CLC) 
has been formed by the merger of the 
Peterborough Trades and Labour Council 
(TLC) and the Peterborough and District 
Labour Council (CCL). The principal 
officers of the new council are: President, 
Alf Barber, former President of the CCL 
council; Executive Member, John McPhee, 
former President of the TLC council; 
Recording Secretary, Henry Nokes, former 
Secretary of the TLC group. 

In Winnipeg the new Winnipeg Labour 
Council (CLC) has been formed by the 
amalgamation of the Winnipeg and District 
Trades and Labour Council (TLC), the 
Winnipeg Labour Council (CCL) and the 
Winnipeg Central Labour Council (OBU). 
The President of the new council is Grant 
McLeod, formerly President of the TLC 
council; and the Secretary-Treasurer is 
J. A. Coulter, the former holder of that 
office in the CCL body. R. B. Russell, who 
was General Secretary of the OBU district 
council, is Executive Secretary. 

In Victoria a new council, called the 
Victoria Labour Council (CLC), has come 
into being by the union of the Victoria 
Trades and Labour Council (TLC) and the 
Victoria Labour Council (CCL). Jack 
MacKenzie of the International Wood- 
workers (formerly CCL) is President of 
the CLC council; Robert Barrie, President 
of the TLC council, is First Vice-president ; 
and George Leadbetter, President of the 
CCL council, is Second Vice-president. 
Percy Rayment, TLC Secretary, is 
Secretary-Treasurer of the new body. 

Some confusion over mergers of local 
labour councils that resulted when building 
and construction trades locals in this 
country received letters urging efforts to 
postpone such mergers has now been 
brought to an end. 

As a result of jurisdictional differences, 
presidents of AFL building trades unions 
had instructed their locals to defer action 
on merger of state and local councils. 
Letters carrying these instructions were 
received by Canadian locals. Although, 
because of the complete autonomy of the 
Canadian Labour Congress, the instructions 
were not applicable in this country, some 
confusion did arise. 

With the announcement of a plan (see 
below) by which the AFL-CIO hopes to 



settle the jurisdictional differences, the in- 
structions to defer mergers have been 
withdrawn. 

CLC Secretary-Treasurer Donald Mac- 
Donald later said that "present indications 
are that the great majority" of Canadian 
provincial labour federations and local 
labour councils will have amalgamated well 
before the end of the two-year period 
specified in the CLC constitution for such 
mergers to take place. 



AFL-CIO SeeUs Policy on 
Jurisdictional Problems 

A committee of six AFL-CIO Vice- 
presidents — three representing former AFL 
unions and three former CIO unions — has 
been named to frame a general policy on 
work jurisdiction problems affecting affili- 
ates of the AFL-CIO Industrial Union 
Department and the Building and Con- 
struction Trades Department. 

Those named by AFL-CIO President 
George Meany were: Walter P. Reuther, 
President of the Industrial Union Depart- 
ment and of the United Auto Workers; 
David J. McDonald, President of the 
United Steelworkers ; L. S. Buckmaster, 
President of the United Rubber Workers; 
Harry Bates, President, Bricklayers' Inter- 
national Union; Maurice Hutcheson, 
President, United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters; and Joseph Keenan, Secretary, 
International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers. 



Shipbuilding Unions Adopt 
Common Wage Policy 

CLC unions in the shipbuilding industry 
have adopted a common wage policy. 

At a meeting in Amherst, N.S., the 54 
delegates decided on four goals that will 
be sought during negotiation of 1956 
contracts: — 

1. A wage increase of 23 cents an hour. 

2. Additional statutory holidays to bring 
the total to nine. 

3. Two weeks' paid vacation after one 
year, and three weeks after 15 years' 
service. 

4. Payment by the operators of half the 
cost of health and welfare and pension 
plans. 

During June, accidents to federal govern- 
ment employees totalling 1,422 were 
reported to the Government Employees 
Compensation Branch of the Department 
of Labour. 



76839— 3£ 



963 



Radio, Television Unions 
In Canada Form Council 

A Council of Broadcasting Unions, repre- 
senting 20,000 employees and performers in 
Canadian radio and television, was formed 
July 6 in Toronto. The purpose of the 
organization is stated to be to promote 
co-operation and understanding among the 
member organizations in such matters as 
organization, collective agreements, griev- 
ances and arbitration, and to help the CLC 
in all matters relating to radio and TV 
broadcasting. 

The member organizations, which are all 
affiliated with the CLC, are: the Associa- 
tion of Radio and Television Employees of 
Canada, the Canadian Council of Authors 
and Artists, the Canadian Federation of 
Musicians, the Canadian Wire Service 
Guild, the International Alliance of Theat- 
rical Stage Employees and Motion Picture 
Operators and the National Association of 
Broadcast Employees and Technicians. 

The principal officers of the new organ- 
ization are: President, Eldon Wilcox, 
ARTEC Secretary; Vice-president, Neil 
Leiw, CCAA President; and Secretary- 
Treasurer, Timothy O'Sullivan, international 
representative of NABET. 



National Secretary-Treasurer of the CIO 
group, will become international repre- 
sentatives. 



Barbers in CIO and AFL 
In One Union Again 

The first consolidation of a former CIO 
union with its former AFL counterpart 
occurred last month when the Barber and 
Beauty Union (formerly CIO) re-affiliated 
with the Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, 
Cosmotologists and Proprietors' Union 
AFL). 

In a vote taken amongst the Barber and 
Beauty Culturists Union's 6,000 members, 
93 per cent showed themselves in favour 
of uniting with the other union. Ernest 
Hebert, National President of the former 
CIO union, said that as a result of the 
vote integration would become effective 
immediately, the members having only to 
approve an action already recommended by 
their executive board. 

He emphasized that what was being done 
was a re-affiliation and not a merger, since 
the CIO group had split off from the AFL 
and formed a new industrial union in 1939. 

The reunited organization will retain the 
name of the AFL union, which claims to 
have a membership of 80,000 in the United 
States. Canadian membership in 1955 was 
about 1,700. 

William C. Birthright, President of the 
AFL group, will head the expanded union. 
Mr. Hebert and Miss Lilyan Moscowitz, 



Public Employees 9 Unions 
In U.S. Agree to Merge 

Agreement on a merger formula has been 
reached between the leaders of the 
American Federation of State, County and 
Municipal Employees (formerly AFL), 
with a membership of 115,000, and the 
Government Civic Employees Organizing 
Committee (formerly CIO), whose mem- 
bership is 30,000. 

The merger, however, will not take effect 
until it has been ratified at a national 
conference of the Committee's locals. No 
further action is necessary on the part of 
the Federation. 

The Federation had one local in Sarnia, 
Ont., with 125 members, in 1955. Other- 
wise the members of the two unions are 
all in the United States. 

The American Federation is to add an 
administrative Vice-president and two 
general vice-presidents to its present 13- 
member executive board to provide posts 
for officials of the Organizing Committee. 
Arnold S. Zander, now President of the 
Federation, is expected to head the merged 
organization and Milton Murray, now 
Secretary-Treasurer of the Committee, is 
expected to become Administrative Vice- 
president. 

1 \G Will Limit Contracts 
To Two-Year Duration 

A proposal to amend the constitution to 
limit future contracts between publishers 
and locals of the American Newspaper 
Guild to a duration of two years, except 
with permission of the Guild's International 
Executive Board, was unanimously approved 
by the 250 delegates attending the ANG's 
23rd annual convention, held in Toronto 
from July 9 to 13. 

The amendment, said William J. Farson, 
Executive Vice-president, would assure 
Guild locals "the opportunity to bargain 
regularly for a fair share of the industry's 
increased income". He added that "too 
many of our members are getting increases 
of $2 or less in the second year of two- 
year contracts." 

It also appeared that the Guild will 
eventually attempt to limit the duration 
of contracts to one year. The convention 
unanimously accepted a report by the 
collective bargaining committee which 
declared: "The move must be to contracts 
of one-year duration. To negotiate a con- 
tract every year may be tough, but not 



964 



to negotiate every year may mean gradual 
death by hardening of the union arteries". 

Goals of higher pay and a shorter work 
week were set by the convention, but no 
specific wage figures or hours of work were 
mentioned. However, Guild officials said 
that the current wage goal of a $150- 
minimum for experienced employees in 
key positions is already in effect on many 
publications, and that about a third of the 
union's membership is covered by contracts 
providing for a 35-hour week. 

The delegates voted against having a 
paid, full-time elected president, thus 
remaining unique in this respect among 
international unions. At present the Guild 
president is a newspaperman, while a 
secretary-treasurer and an executive vice- 
president are paid to work full time at 
headquarters in Washington. 

The convention voted in favour of 
setting up a special committee to investi- 
gate the plan of holding biennial rather 
than annual conventions. A series of 
seminars is proposed for the off years. 

The executive board was instructed to 
look into the possibility of spending up to 
$50,000 of the Guild's defence fund "on 
the purchase directly or acquisition of an 
option on newsprint, such newsprint to be 
held actually in warehouses or in news- 
print brokerage account". This newsprint 
reserve would be for the use of union 
newspapers in case of strikes. 

Guild membership in April had increased 
to 27,941, President Collis announced in his 
report to the convention. 



Three U.S. Groups Study 
Employment of Oldsters 

Nearly three-fourths of the citizens of 
the United States over the age of 65 have 
no income of their own or less than $1,000 
a year, it was found in a study by the 
Twentieth Century Fund. 

Fifty-two per cent of all the aged are 
women. The proportion is greater among 
persons aged 70 and over. Most of these 
women, and one-third of the men, are 
widowed, divorced or single. 

Thirty-three per cent of persons 65 or 
over receive social securit}' benefits or 
related assistance. Thirty per cent are at 
work or are the wives of wage-earners. 

Twenty per cent receive public assist- 
ance. Another 12 per cent receive income 
from personal savings, insurance, invest- 
ments, relatives or veterans' benefits. Five 
per cent are in public or private homes, 
hospitals and other institutions. 

Although social security and other bene- 
fits provide income for a large number of 



older persons, employment provides the 
larger share in terms of dollars and cents. 

Unemployment creates the greatest hard- 
ship on the older people, and two main 
causes for this unemployment are replace- 
ment of human skill by machines and the 
relocation of plants. Once unemployed, 
older workers remain out of work longer 
than younger workers. 

The chief barrier to employment of older 
workers seems to be the widely held belief 
that once they have reached a certain 
arbitrary age they are not going to make 
good workers, regardless of the fact that 
individual abilities vary greatly. 

Fifty-six per cent of retired persons 
surveyed in this study said that employer 
policies compelled them to retire. 

Last spring, chiefly on the initiatice of 
the U.S. Departments of Labor, and 
Health, Education and Welfare, an inter- 
departmental group on aging was estab- 
lished at sub-Cabinet level. 

Among other things, this group is com- 
pleting an inventory of all programs and 
activities within the federal Government 
that relate in any way to aging. This will 
be used as a basis to identify gaps in 
existing programs. The group is also work- 
ing on the development of an over-all 
statement of principles in the field of 
employment and utilization of older 
workers. 

The Department of Labor has developed 
a program on employment aspects of the 
aging for the present fiscal year, and a 
number of special research studies are also 
under way. 

Fields to be covered in the studies are: 
productivity and performance of older 
workers; impact of pension costs on hiring 
policies; analysis of collective bargaining 
provisions affecting the employment and 
retention of older workers; employment 
patterns, policies, and practices in seven 
major metropolitan areas; and the recruit- 
ment and training of mature men and 
women to meet labour shortages in such 
fields as teaching, white-collar occupations 
and health services. 

A recent study made by the Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company showed that 
employment is at a maximum for men 
between the ages of 25 and 54, when all 
but 5 per cent of them are working. 

At the older ages, particularly after 65, 
employment falls off. However, 56 per 
cent of all men between the age of 65 to 
69 are still working. And even in the 70- 
to 74-year bracket almost 40 per cent are 
gainfully employed. Not until the years 
past 75 does the proportion of employed 
drop below 20 per cent. 



965 



More Disabled Persons 
Receiving Allowance 

The number of persons in Canada 
receiving allowances under the Disabled 
Persons Act increased from 26,027 at March 
31, 1956, to 27,757 at June 30, 1956. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$1,660,418.53 for the quarter ended June 30, 
1956, compared with $1,609,660.64 in the 
preceding quarter. Since the inception of 
the Act, the federal Government has con- 
tributed $7,744,864.02. 

At March 31, 1956, the average monthly 
allowance in the provinces ranged from 
$33.05 to $39.32. In all provinces the 
maximum allowance paid was $40 a month. 



Fewer Recipients of 
Old Age Assistance 

The number of persons receiving old age 
assistance in Canada decreased from 93,023 
at March 31, 1956, to 92,630 at June 30, 
1956. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$5,169,085.46 for the quarter ended June 30, 
1956, compared with $5,193,018.30 in the 



preceding quarter. Since the inception of 
the Act, the federal Government has con- 
tributed $88,650,626.12. 

At June 30, 1956, the average monthly 
assistance in the provinces paying a 
maximum of $40 a month ranged from 
$33.82 to $37.81, except for one province 
where the average was $27.70. In New- 
foundland, which pays a maximum of $30 
a month, the average was $29.38. 



Rlind Persons Allowances 
Recipients Increase 

The number of blind persons in Canada 
receiving allowances under the Blind 
Persons Act increased from 8,230 at March 
31, 1956, to 8,270 at June 30, 1956. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$743,071.85 for the quarter ended June 30, 
1956, compared with $739,641.81 in the 
preceding quarter. Since the inception of 
the Act, the federal Government has con- 
tributed $13,168,518.44. 

At June 30, 1956, the average monthly 
allowance in the provinces ranged from 
$38.04 to $39.57. In all provinces the 
maximum allowance paid was $40 a month. 



Proceedings of Parliament of Labour Interest 



Housing 



June 25 



House building in 1956 will be at a high 
level, the Minister of Public Works stated 
in replying to a question by George H. 
Hees (Broadview). 

In centres of 5,000 population and over, 
housing starts for the first five months of 
1956 exceeded starts in the same period of 
1955. Up to the end of May this year, 
30,687 units had been started as against 
29,669 last year. Completions at 35,322 
exceeded those of the same period last 
year, which numbered 33,064. 

Unemployment Assistance 

June 27 

The Minister of National Health and 
Welfare moved the introduction of a 
measure to provide for federal contribu- 
tions to unemployment assistance costs in 
the provinces. Bill received first reading. 

June 28 — Bill passed on third reading. 

July 11 — Given royal assent. 



Public Service Superannuation Act 

July 2 

During the debate on the proposed 
amendments to extend application of the 
Public Service Superannuation Act and 
make changes in administration, Hon. 
George A. Drew appealed for an upward 
adjustment of pensions of retired public 
servants, members of the armed forces and 
the RCMP. 

July 17 

Bill received second reading. 

The Leader of the Opposition, the Hon. 
George A. Drew, again urged that steps 
be taken to provide for an increase in the 
amount of pension, particularly for those in 
the lower brackets. He was joined in his 
appeal by Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg 
North Centre). 

July 19 

Asked by Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg 
North Centre) if the Government is aware 
of the growing demand for an increase in 



966 



the amount of pensions paid under federal 
legislation, the Prime Minister made the 
following reply: 

The Government is aware that there are 
a great many demands which the amounts 
that can be raised through taxation are 
insufficient to satisfy. The Government has 
no intention of introducing at this session 
any general legislation to increase the amount 
of pensions that are paid from the federal 
treasury. 

Imports of Coal from U.S. 

July 5 

Clarence Gillis (Cape Breton South), 
during consideration of the Department of 
Mines and Technical Surveys estimates, 
urged a curb on imports of coal from the 
United States, so that there would be 
markets for coal produced in Canada. 

Work Week in Veterans' Hospitals 
July 10 

The Minister of Veterans Affairs, reply- 
ing to questions concerning requests for 
the five-day 40-hour week in veterans' 
hospitals, said that following the survey 
made by the Civil Service Commission of 
the situation in civilian hospitals, the 40- 
hour week was granted in those localities 
in which it was found to be the general 
pattern. In the other localities where DVA 
institutions exist and where the survey did 
not reveal that the pattern in other 
hospitals was to have a 40-hour week, the 
matter was postponed. It is, however, said 
the Minister, being looked into again at 
the present time. 

Criminal Law 

July 11 

Third report of the special joint com- 
mittee on capital and corporal punishment 
and lotteries tabled. 

Imports of Motor Vehicles and Parts 

July 12 

Asked by Michael Starr (Ontario) if he 
had received communications from the 
United Automobile Workers contending 
that the increasing number of United 
States-made motor vehicles and parts being 
imported into Canada is becoming a 
threat to the livelihood of workers in the 
industry in Canada and, if so, what action 
is contemplated by the Government, the 
Minister of Trade and Commerce replied 
that he had received communications from 
individual members and that the matter 
was being looked into. 



Unemployment Insurance 
July 13 

C. W. Carter (Burin-Burgeo) inquired 
what progress is being made by the inter- 
departmental committee on the question of 
extending unemployment insurance benefits 
to fishermen. 

The Minister of Labour replied that the 
subject has been receiving consideration for 
some time; that the question is now before 
the Government but at the moment he was 
not in a position to make any further 
comment than has already been made. 

Civil Service Commission 
July 16 

The Secretary of State, replying to an 
inquiry from Mrs. Ellen L. Fairclough 
(Hamilton West) concerning the appoint- 
ment of a woman to the vacancy on the 
Civil Service Commission, said "when an 
announcement is ready it will be made in 
due course in the House". 

Welfare 

July 16 

The Minister of National Health and 
Welfare, in response to a request from 
F. S. Follwell (Hastings South), tabled 
statistics on old age security and old age 
assistance payments. 

July 18 — Similar information on blind 
pension payments was tabled. 

Industrial Relations 

July 16 

Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg North 
Centre) introduced a bill to provide for 
at least eight statutory holidays with pay 
each year for all employees in Canada who 
come under the jurisdiction of Parliament. 
The bill provides also for additional pay 
at overtime rates for work done on 
statutory holidays. 

This is a companion bill to Bill No. 211, 
Mr. Knowles explained. "Taken together, 
they provide each year a minimum of two 
weeks' vacation with pay and a minimum 
of eight statutory holidays with pay for 
all workers in Canada who come under 
federal labour jurisdiction." 

July 20 

The Minister opposed the bill on the 
ground that it would be "to some extent 
an intervention in the collective bargaining 
process of a fairly serious nature in some 
industries" and that it went "beyond what 
labour law administrators in the provincial 
or federal jurisdiction consider to be a 
basic standard". 



907 



LABOUR DAY 

Message from the Hon. Milton F. Gregg 
Minister of Labour 



Reviewing the position of organized 
labour and of the individual worker on this 
eve of another Labour Day, we Canadians 
can find much reason for satisfaction. 

This year more than 1,351,600 trade 
union members will celebrate Labour Day 
in Canada, almost four times the strength 
of the labour movement in 1939. Organ- 
ized labour now represents 33 per cent of 
all paid workers compared with 16 per cent 
back in 1946, and the formation of the 
Canadian Labour Congress, which brought 
together the Trades and Labour Congress 
of Canada and the Canadian Congress of 
Labour, with a combined membership of 
more than a million workers, has strength- 
ened its voice immeasurably. 

Paralleling this striking growth in the 
trade union movement has been the sub- 
stantial increase, particularly since the end 
of World War II, in the over-all standard 
of living and general economic security of 
all Canadians. 

Assessed from any point of view, Cana- 
dians as a whole are now enjoying a very 
high standard of living. With one million 
new houses built since World War II, and 
construction continuing at a high rate, 
Canadians today are among the best housed 
people on earth. Employment is at an 
all-time high. Average weekly earnings in 
Canadian industries are also at record levels, 
having just about doubled in the postwar 
period. Through collective bargaining with 
employers and otherwise Canadian workers 
are now enjoying longer annual vacations 
after shorter periods of service, as well as 
more paid statutory holidays than at any 
previous time. For example, the proportion 
of manufacturing employees in plants where 
it is policy to grant a paid vacation of at 
least two weeks has risen since 1947 from 
57 to 92 per cent, and the proportion of 
those who work in establishments granting 
six or more paid statutory holidays in a 
year has risen during the same period from 
36 to 80 per cent. Standard weekly hours 
of work are lower than ever before ; over 
four-fifths of industrial employees are now 
on a five-day week, and most of them are 
working 40 hours or less. In addition to 
all this there has been a very substantial 
increase in the coverage of industrial 
pension and welfare plans. 

There never was a period in our industry 
when more goods and services were being 



acquired and enjoyed by Canadians. 
Furthermore, these goods and services are 
of such quality and advanced design that 
many similar things produced only after a 
few years ago now seem modest by com- 
parison. The technological advances of 
industry, which have resulted in greater 
productivity and permitted the introduction 
of shorter hours and higher real wages, have 
also found their way into the home, where 
labour-saving appliances with automatic 
features have meant an increase in leisure 
time. Meanwhile, our new plants and office 
buildings give clear indication that they are 
designed, not merely to house machines, 
but also to provide safe and pleasant work- 
ing conditions for men and women. All 
our modern means of production, distribu- 
tion and merchandising point up in dramatic 
fashion the rise in our standards which has 
taken place in slightly more than a decade. 

We have proved that we can maintain a 
high standard of living and at the same 
time man our armed forces, support the 
large military defence production which is 
necessary, and fulfil our other international 
commitments to the cause of peace and 
the economic development of less fortunate 
areas of the world. 

No one can safely forecast the long-term 
future but, among business and industrial 
leaders, there is a sober confidence that 
augurs well for economic conditions gener- 
ally in the foreseeable future. 

We should not, however, take our present 
growth and well-being for granted. The 
health of an economy, like that of an 
individual, requires constant care and 
watchfulness. As we enter this autumn of 
1956, one of the chief threats to our 
economic health is inflation, a condition 
resulting from the insistent pressures that 
are produced by the type of buoyant 
prosperity we have been enjoying in recent 
months. To meet this threat, this old 
problem of keeping supply and demand in 
balance, and to ensure a steady continuing 
rise in employment and real income, it is 
important that Canadians in all walks of 
life make every effort to achieve still higher 
levels of productivity. In the meantime, 
all of us should practise moderation and 
restraint in determining policies and pro- 
grams that are likely to place additional 
demands on the available supply of goods 
and services. 



968 



As we prepare to enjoy the last official 
holiday weekend of the summer, we Cana- 
dians cannot help but be conscious of the 
fact that winter is again coming. And like 
the coming of snow itself, we can anticipate 
that with winter's arrival we will again 
experience the usual seasonal lull in some 
economic activities across the country, and 
a consequent temporary reduction in over- 
all employment. 

Last winter, with the endorsation and 
active co-operation of the major labour 
and employer organizations and several 
other national bodies, including many 
women's groups, and with liaison established 
with appropriate provincial government 
departments, j'our federal Department of 
Labour and National Employment Service, 
in conjunction with the National Employ- 
ment Advisory Committee, organized a 
nation-wide program specifically designed to 
increase employment for those out of work 
because of seasonal factors. 

In varying degrees, every town and city 
where there was an employment office saw 
an attempt to increase winter job oppor- 
tunities. In some centres community 
enthusiasm, co-operation and over-all organ- 
ization were remarkable. In many of these 
centres, organized labour and employers 
played leading roles in these community 
campaigns. 



It is difficult to assess fully the results 
of last winter's campaign from a national 
point of view, but there is no doubt that 
in many areas it was a real success. Reports 
have been received from individual locali- 
ties where campaigns were undertaken to 
prove that employment can be maintained 
at a relatively high level when house- 
holders and businessmen are encouraged to 
undertake during the winter whatever work 
they can schedule, in preference to timing 
it for spring and summer — particularly jobs 
of renovation, decoration, maintenance and 
general clean-up. This was particularly true 
in those local communities where sections 
of industry rearranged holidays, eliminated 
overtime or took other steps to even out 
employment the year round. 

Here is a program in which all of us can 
help, for as householders alone we could 
greatly increase the demand for. goods and 
services this winter if we were to have done 
those household jobs which can be done 
just as easily in the cold months as in the 
spring. 

Although this appeal is directed at all 
Canadians, this being a message for 
Labour Day, I wish to ask for the con- 
tinued support of all sections of labour in 
these efforts to level out employment 
between the seasons. Your support is essen- 
tial if seasonal unemployment is to be made 
less and less a factor in the Canadian 
economv. 



Statement by Claude Jodoin 

President, Canadian Labour Congress 



This Labour Day has a particular mean- 
ing for the members of most Canadian 
unions; once again we are united in one 
organization. Since we last celebrated 
Labour Day the two largest central groups 
have merged to form the Canadian Labour 
Congress, an organization of more than a 
million members dedicated to the welfare 
of organized labour and our country as a 
whole. 

We recognize the responsibilities we face. 
With the families of our members, those 
we represent constitute at least one-quarter 
of our country's population. Obviously the 
interests of such a large group cannot be 
divorced from the interests of all Cana- 
dians. Thus, we have one ambition — to 
build a better Canada for all. 

We are proud of the strides our country 
has made, particularly in recent years; but 
we recognize that opportunities for the 
Canadian people have been by no means 
fully developed. Our social legislation has 
been improved but there is still far to go, 



and still serious gaps remain; outstanding 
among these is health insurance. It is the 
intention of the Canadian Labour Congress 
to press through every means at its disposal 
for the implementation of this long- 
overdue measure. Protection in time of 
sickness ranks in importance with protec- 
tion against fire and violence which is 
already provided by public services. 

The shuffling back and forth of this 
responsibility between the federal and 
provincial governments must end. Indi- 
vidual Canadian families are already paying 
the major part of the bill for a national 
health insurance plan and they are entitled 
to it now. If one may draw a comparison, 
a demonstration between the federal and 
provincial governments of something of the 
spirit and goodwill which brought together 
separated factions of the labour movement 
would be of great service to the Canadian 
people at this time. 



969 



We look forward to continued expansion 
in our country. We are just now beginning 
to realize the full potentialities within our 
boundaries and we are anxious to see that 
these are developed to the advantage of all 
our people. Parallelling the development 
of these resources — some in isolated parts 
of Canada — is rapid technological change 
in our factories and offices. These 
changes, many of which fall under the 
general heading of "automation", offer new 
opportunities for a better standard of living. 
Their introduction presents a challenge to 
management, labour, and government. The 
Canadian Labour Congress renews its offer 
of complete co-operation with the other 
two parties so that technological changes 
can be introduced without disruption and 
suffering. 



When we celebrate this holiday in honour 
of Labour it is fitting that we should think, 
too, of our fellow workers throughout the 
world, many of whom are deprived of the 
freedom we enjoy. I would suggest to the 
membership of the Canadian Labour Con- 
gress that when they take part in Labour 
Day celebrations they pause to think of the 
workers of Poznan who, only a few weeks 
ago, were shot down in the streets of a 
Polish city because they dared to lay down 
their tools and ask for bread. 

The responsibilities of the Canadian 
labour movement are by no means restricted 
by our boundaries. In our united and 
strengthened organization we hope to make 
a greater contribution to Canada and to 
our fellow workers throughout the world. 
This, we hope and pray, may be a con- 
tribution to peace, bread and freedom for 
all. 



Message by J. G. McLean 

Chairman, National Legislative Committee, International Railway Brotherhoods 



It is indeed a pleasure to extend on behalf 
of the National Legislative Committee, 
International Railway Brotherhoods, 
fraternal greetings on this Labour Day, to 
our affiliates and to all labour organizations, 
and to all Canadian workers. 

This being Labour Day, trade union 
organizations will parade, hold special 
meetings and picnics throughout Canada. 
The event was inaugurated by the Knights 
of Labour, a body long since deceased, in 
1882, but it was not until 1894 that Parlia- 
ment voted the first Monday in September 
a statutory holiday in Canada. It is the 
trade unions which take active interest in 
the holiday. 

This year, while celebrating, trade unions 
will rejoice that the Trades and Labour 
Congress and the Canadian Congress of 
Labour have been united in the Canadian 
Labour Congress. To this Congress we 
extend our heartiest congratulations for the 
unity shown at their first Constitutional 
Convention and the principles set forth in 
the resolutions endorsed by that conven- 
tion. 

Also, we express our support to the 
International Confederation of Free Trade 
Unions, which is assisting the workers in 
what is termed "backward countries" to 
establish bona fide free and democratic 
trade unions. 

Railway workers across the nation on 
Labour Day will be providing transporta- 
tion and for them it will be a busy work 



day. They will have the satisfaction in 
recalling that their international railway 
brotherhoods as early as 1863 established 
locals in Canada; and that their rapid and 
almost complete unionization within limited 
jurisdiction won relatively good pay and 
working conditions very early in their 
existence. The railway brotherhoods are 
presently highly concerned over the loss 
of jobs to "automation," particularly under 
central traffic control, conversion of the 
steam locomotive to the diesel-electric 
engine, office computers and other techno- 
logical changes. 

We are appreciative of the social security 
legislation, such as the provincial Work- 
men's Compensation Acts, acts implement- 
ing old age assistance, Mothers' Allowance 
Act and Disabled Person Act; and, in the 
federal jurisdiction, of the Old Age Security 
Act, Family Allowance Act, Unemployment 
Insurance Act, with particular reference to 
the amendments thereto, enacted in the past 
year. We are hopeful that there will be 
further social security laws enacted at an 
early date covering medical care, sickness 
benefits, maternity benefits and survivor 
benefits. 

We are particularly appreciative of the 
purity of the Salk Vaccine, manufactured 
in Canada, which means so much to the 
children of the nation in lessening the 
dreadful disease of poliomyelitis. 



970 



Message from Gerard Picard 



General President, Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 



Labour Day will, no doubt, be celebrated 
enthusiastically this year as it was last. 
On the one hand, it is a holiday by which 
all workers benefit. On the other hand, 
however, it is not l.ike other holidays for 
organized labour. As a matter of fact, a 
great many trade unionists devote part of 
it to demonstrations of solidarity and part 
to reflection. 

Demonstrations of solidarity are neces- 
sary to remind us not only that labour 
organizations are more powerful than they 
have ever been, but also that they have 
become democratic institutions conscious of 
their role in the life of the nation and 
prepared to discuss seriously all problems 
of interest to them. 

Moments of reflection are also essential. 
New problems are coming up in the world 
of labour. There is no use denying them. 
There is no use looking back regretfully on 
the time when they did not exist. One of 
these problems, which has been of very 
present interest for some time, is automation. 

Automation is not something which you 
can accept or refuse to accept. It has 



already been established in certain plants 
and it will be in others. This is, without 
doubt, a serious problem, but it must be 
contemplated with serenity. Reasonable 
solutions are already being discussed and 
others will be suggested. It is up to the 
labour organizations to examine them all. 
This is not the time, in this message, to 
attempt to analyse the problem, but there 
are two simple ideas which can be expressed 
without delay. The first is that the prob- 
lem of automation should be approached 
objectively, albeit with the vitality which 
is characteristic of our economy. The 
second is to insist that important decisions 
which might have economic and social 
repercussions should not be made until 
governments, employers' associations and 
labour organizations have consulted. It is 
in the interest of all of us to be in agree- 
ment. 

And now I wish all members of the 
CCCL, all members of other labour organ- 
izations, all workers in general, and their 
families, a happy, restful Labour Day and 
a Christian one. 



"Profits" Is Subject of PAI Study Meeting 



Four specialists in economic and social 
questions dealt with the idea of profits in 
private enterprise at a study meeting held 
by the Professional Association of Indus- 
trialists at Three Rivers in June. 

Rev. Father Louis Lachance, o.p., Vice- 
dean of the Faculty of Philosophy at the 
University of Montreal, discussed the 
moral aspects of profit. 

"Because it is a reward for the spirit 
of initiative, for the ability to assume 
responsibilities and to make decisions," said 
Father Lachance, "profit goes by right to 
the owner — in the first place because of 
the right of ownership, in the second place 
because it falls to the person who has 
found the means to attain it, and finally 
because it belongs to the one who has 
undertaken technical and moral responsi- 
bility for the means thus used." 

He added that this applies also to those 
who have done nothing but supply capital 
for a concern. 

The economic and financial aspects of 
the problem were examined by Jacques 
Melangon, Montreal economist. Having 
explained the development of the idea of 
profit in the concern, he pointed out that 



profits, which have hitherto usually repre- 
sented a source of reinvestment, some- 
times become insufficient, especially in the 
case of small or medium-sized concerns. 

"I believe," said Mr. Melangon, "that 
if we wish to protect the economy of the 
province of Quebec in such an economic- 
social-political atmosphere, a great many 
of our best-developed concerns will have 
to undergo a transformation which will 
enable them not to lag behind the changes 
taking place before our eyes. On the one 
hand, the structure of our family-type 
concerns, which are most threatened by 
these changes, will have to be thought out 
anew; on the other hand, means will have 
to be sought to create for ourselves public- 
type concerns capable of making maximum 
use for the general good of the savings of 
the nation which are now accumulating 
more and more in the hands of the 
consumer." 

Andre Bisson, Professor in Laval Uni- 
versity's Faculty of Commerce, dealt with 
the technical and administrative aspects of 
the problem, emphasizing in particular the 
fact that profits are often very small. 
(Continued on page 1068) 



971 



Ontario Labour Relations Act Criticized 

Committee established by Ontario Federation of Labour conducts 
public hearings in province's main industrial centres, gathers criticisms 
of the Act and its administration and suggestions for its improvement 



Criticism of a number of sections of 
the Ontario Labour Relations Act, and 
particularly of the administration of the 
entire Act, was voiced at a series of public 
hearings held at industrial centres in the 
province during June and July. 

The hearings were conducted by the 
Committee on Labour Relations created 
by the Ontario Federation of Labour at 
its 10th Annual Convention, held in 
Toronto in November 1955. Chairman of 
the special committee was Ted Goldberg, 
United Steelworkers of America Research 
Assistant. 

Most frequently criticized section of the 
Act throughout the hearings was the one 
dealing with conciliation procedure. Union 
spokesmen appearing before the committee 
condemned the delays that are occasioned 
on every conciliation case. 

Among the other items criticized were: 
the practice of using judges as conciliation 
board chairmen; the greater difficulty in 
having a union certified than decertified; 



the permitting of the legal profession to 
get involved with cases under the Act; 
and Section 78 of the Act respecting 
municipal employees. 

With Mr. Goldberg on the Committee, 
which held meetings in Toronto, St. 
Catharines, London, Windsor, Hamilton, 
Kitchener, Peterborough, Cornwall, Kings- 
ton, Cobalt, Timmins and Port Arthur, 
were: — 

Henry Rhodes, Western Director, Cana- 
dian Labour Congress; Richard Courtney, 
International Representative, United Auto 
Workers; Jack Piper, Retail, Wholesale and 
Department Store Union; Eamon Park, 
United Steelworkers of America; Bill 
England, CLC General Representative; 
William Punnett, United Rubber Workers 
of America. 

Dave Archer, OFL Executive Secretary, 
and Russell Harvey, Ontario Director of 
the CLC, acted as advisers to the 
Committee. 



Toronto Hearings 



At Toronto, 27 individuals representing 
political parties, the legal profession, major 
Canadian unions, universities and church 
groups submitted their criticisms of the 
Act and offered suggestions to make the 
Act acceptable to those it affects. 

OFL Surveys 

Gordon Milling, Research Secretary of 
the OFL, placed before the Committee 
figures obtained in two surveys on con- 
ciliation cases made in 1953 and 1955. The 
figures, he told the Committee, proved 
incontrovertably that every case to go 
before a conciliation board in 1953 and 
1955 had consumed more time than the 
legal limit allowed before a decision was 
reached. 

In 1953, Mr. Milling told the Committee, 
36 cases, chosen at random, were studied. 
In 1955, 61 cases were studied. 

The survey showed that in 1953 it took 
an average of 23 weeks and in 1955 an 
average of 28 weeks from the application 
date until the conciliation board's report 
was handed down. 

The Act provides that the conciliation 
procedure be completed in 10 weeks, i.e., 
70 days. In both the 1953 and 1955 surveys 



it was found that in no instance among the 
cases studied had the conciliation procedure 
been completed within 10 weeks. Only 14-3 
of the 36 cases studied in 1953 had been 
dispatched in 11 to 15 weeks and only 1-6 
of the 61 cases studied in 1955 had been 
handled completely in that time. In every 
instance it required closer to 15 weeks than 
11 to complete the cases. 

"Conciliation time is getting greater and 
greater, and the odds now are decidedly 
against quick settlement of any case that 
goes to conciliation. This, in turn, proves 
that the legal time limit set by the Act is 
constantly ignored," Mr. Milling declared. 

Eamon Park asked at this point if Mr. 
Milling's group thought that extending the 
time limit established in the Act to 90 days 
would make any difference, providing that 
the Act were amended to allow either side 
in a dispute to take economic action if the 
conciliation board report was not ready 
within that period. 

Mr. Milling approved the suggestion, 
pointing out that it was not so much the 
number of days but rather the uncertainty 
involved that perplexes and annoys the 
union involved. 



972 




Ontario Federation of Labour Committee on Labour Relations (from left): William Punnett, United Rubber 
Workers; Eamon Park, United Steelworkers;Dave Archer,OFL Executive Secretary; Ted Goldberg, Steelworkers 
(chairman); Dick Courtney, United Auto Workers; Jack Piper, Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union 



"We feel that 70 days is an adequate 
period of time for the handling of a con- 
ciliation case. However, I am quite sure 
that 90 days would be acceptable, providing 
that there would be absolutely no loop- 
hole through which the period could be 
extended beyond that time to prevent 
either party in the dispute from taking 
economic action," he said. 

He thought that 70 days was enough to 
handle any case provided someone had the 
authority to put the proper amount of 
pressure on the persons involved to make 
them meet the time limits specified in the 
Act. 

Mr. Milling believed that conciliation 
cases could be dealt with in 50 to 55 days, 
"if each step of the procedure was attended 
to in a reasonable length of time". 

John J. Wintermeyer, MPP 

John J. Wintermeyer of Kitchener, 
Member for Waterloo North in the Ontario 
Legislature, told the Committee that he 
did not believe judges make good con- 
ciliators. He thought that experts should 
be developed in the field — men who would 
make conciliation their only business. 

Suitable individuals should be chosen and 
sent to college for special courses, if 
necessary, to make them competent to deal 
with labour and management issues in 
conciliation eases, he suggested. 



He proposed that these expert con- 
ciliators be paid by the government but 
should operate independently and not be 
subject to the control of any political, 
management or union group. 

Asked what he thought of a 90-day time 
limit for the disposition of conciliation 
cases, Mr. Wintermeyer said that seemed 
to be "about the right amount" of time. 

He thought that at the end of 90 days, 
however, if that was the time limit set, 
some ministerial authority should be avail- 
able and brought to bear, and be made 
responsible for seeing that no delays beyond 
that period occurred. 

The problems of delay in conciliation 
"must be treated seriously," Mr. Winter- 
meyer said. "We are facing automation 
and other technical improvements which 
are creating new problems all the time. 
These items make a pool of expert con- 
ciliation officers more essential all the time. 

"I think the government could afford to 
educate men from the labour groups to 
fill jobs as expert conciliators," he said. 
When the Committee Chairman asked if 
the conciliators would be civil servants, 
Mr. Wintermeyer replied: "I'd prefer they 
were not. I would not want them to be 
responsible to any government or minister. 
They should be completely independent." 



973 



Prof. B.S. Keirstead 

Prof. B. S. Keirstead, political economy 
professor at the University of Toronto, 
thought that "on the whole the training 
of judges and lawyers unfits them for good 
conciliation". 

Members of the legal profession, appear- 
ing before the Committee, agreed with 
Prof. Keirstead that judges as a group do 
not make the best conciliation board 
chairmen. 

The Committee then wanted to know 
where conciliation board members should 
be obtained if not from the judicial group. 
Members of the clergy and college pro- 
fessors could be pressed into service after 
a minimum of training, it was suggested. 

Prof. Keirstead said that, in his opinion, 
conciliation by three-man boards is desir- 
able. He supported legal compulsion to 
submit to conciliation before a strike or 
lockout but did not subscribe to the 
compulsory acceptance of a board's 
recommendations. 

"Experience shows that skilful concilia- 
tion is beneficial to weak unions, need not 
be harmful to strong unions, is in the public 
interest in that it prevents unnecessary 
work stoppages, and is also in the long-run 
interest of management," he stated. 

Because wage and industrial disputes 
involve conflicts of interests, not conflicts 
of rights, "the judicial process, which is 
appropriate in arbitration of a dispute 
arising over the interpretation of a con- 
tract, is definitely inappropriate in the 
collective bargaining over the negotiation 
of a contract," Prof. Keirstead asserted. 

Repeating that conciliation in the latter 
case is not a judicial process, he declared: 

The chairman of a board, assisted by the 
two nominees of the parties to the dispute, 
must regard his duty to be to assist the two 
parties to a workable agreement. He does 
not aim to get a "just" award; he tries to 
get a mutually acceptable contract. 

My experience is that the board and the 
chairman can, if they function in this way, 
help the two parties to come to an agree- 
ment. Though I admit there are exceptions 
to this observation, I think that on the 
whole the training of lawyers and judges 
unfits them for good conciliation. Judges, as 
chairmen, tend to be judicial; and no juris- 
prudence exists, or should exist, in the reso- 
lution of conflicts of interests. 

Lawyers, representing one or both parties, 
also tend to make the proceedings formal and 
courtlike. The ideal board consists of an 
experienced conciliator as chairman, an 
experienced union man from a union other 
than the party to the dispute and a business 
man, also not representative of the party to 
the dispute. The two nominees should, how- 
ever, have the confidence of the two parties 



and should be able to explore with the chair- 
man suggestions for a mutually acceptable 
agreement. 

His support of compulsory conciliation 
depended on the conciliation's being well 
done, he explained. "If the administration 
of the law can be reformed so that, in the 
main, we get good boards, then I think we 
should prefer to retain our present system," 
he said. "If, however, we are to have 
ineffective boards, which simply hear formal 
argument, make a quasi- judicial decision 
and utter a 2-to-l report, I suspect they do 
little good and, from labour's point of 
view, some harm. 

"I urge, however, that we concentrate on 
reform of administration, not on amend- 
ment of the legislation," the professor 
stated. "If the former is impossible, the 
latter may become necessary." 

Prof. Keirstead, pointing out that the 
clauses in the Act designed to prevent 
undue delay are frequently disregarded with 
the consent of the Department of Labour, 
listed some of the reasons delays occur: 

(1) the difficulty in choosing a chairman; 

(2) the chairman, once selected, has to 
arrange his own schedule and then get two 
busy colleagues to fit their time to his; 

(3) the parties themselves occasion delay 
by being unable to meet at times con- 
venient to the board. 

These delays are welcomed by some people 
who think they permit what is called 
"cooling-off". This is nonsense. They are 
frustrating and annoying. With weak unions 
they sometimes do result in frustration to 
the point where the members will no longer 
hold together for a strike. Thus "cooling-off" 
— when it works — simply means weakening 
the union's bargaining position. Usually, how- 
ever, the frustration makes people angrier 
and more difficult to bring together than 
they would otherwise have been. 

It also adds difficulties to the settlement 
in the form of retroactive benefits. It can 
also mess up the question of the contract's 
period. Altogether such delay is undesir- 
able from the point of view of the union 
and of the chairman of the board. I think 
it is undesirable from the point of view of 
management and I find the more far-sighted 
management representatives agree with me. 

Delay need not be accepted, he continued. 
He had found it possible "by tact, and 
sometimes by fairly forceful persuation," to 
avoid delay. All board members must 
agree to set aside time to see the case 
through and if a member cannot, "he should 
resign in favour of a nominee who can 
attend board hearings within the statutory 
period," Prof. Keirstead said. The Depart- 
ment of Labour, too, should be rather more 
severe in insisting on the statutory time 
limits, he added. 



974 



He then pointed out that there was a 
difference between delay and "the patient 
use of time". 

The chairman, to be successful, must not 
be distracted by a feeling of haste, a feeling 
that he has to wind up the hearings today 
or tomorrow in order to keep some other 
appointment. He must be able to spend the 
time and the patience necessary for pro- 
tracted negotiations. If the Department 
does not like the expense of this, it had 
better give up the Act, for successful con- 
ciliation takes time and patience (and the 
involved expense) and unsuccessful concilia- 
tion is a complete waste of time, patience 
and money. 

Prof. Keirstead also believed that chair- 
men should have far greater power in 
dealing with the parties to the dispute in 
order to get quicker action. In answer to 
questions from the Committee, he explained 
how the Deputy Minister of Labour selected 
board chairmen but could not explain why 
labour representatives are never chosen. 

Robert W. Macaulay, MPP 

Robert W. Macaulay, Member for River- 
dale in the Ontario Legislature, who is a 
lawyer, told the Committee that several 
portions of the Act were objectionable. 
"The Act was well conceived," he said, 
"but there are omissions to be filled in and 
amendments to be made." 

Making it clear that the opinions he 
expressed were his own and not the pro- 
vincial government's, Mr. Macaulay agreed 
that with few exceptions judges were not 
fitted to serve as conciliators or concilia- 
tion board chairmen. He also felt that 
union criticism over delays in conciliation 
procedure was fully justified. 

He believed two things would offset 
delays in conciliation: stricter enforcement 
of the provisions of the Act, and sending 
applications for conciliation direct to the 
Labour Department rather than to the 
Labour Relations Board or to the Min- 
ister. He thought the government should 
make a greater effort to train conciliators 
to be expert, and he was sure the govern- 
ment could do so. 

Mr. Macaulay spoke against automatic 
certification of unions, contending that a 
vote on all certification cases was "the best 
conclusive way of determining whether 
people want something or not". 

He supported labour's contention that 
where a vote is necessary the majority of 
those voting should determine the out- 
come, instead of, as the Act now provides, 
the majority of those eligible to vote. 



He was opposed to the use of ex parte 
injunctions in labour disputes. He believed 
that a court should not issue an order 
affecting two parties unless both were made 
aware of the order in advance. 

Speaking about unfair practices, Mr. 
Macaulay said that offences under the Act 
should be tried by the Labour Relations 
Board, instead of by the courts. 

United Steelworkers of America 

The submission of the United Steel- 
workers of America was presented by 
Murray Cotterill, Director of Publicity. 

While the Ontario Labour Relations 
Board "is by and large doing a con- 
scientious job," he said, there have been 
exceptions. As an example he cited the 
union's application to represent the office 
workers at the Canada Works of the Steel 
Company of Canada, "where prolonged 
delay by the Board in deciding the issue 
of the bargaining unit was a contributing 
factor in weakening the union". 

Mr. Cotterill said his union wondered if 
the Board hadn't gone beyond the intent 
of the Legislature in the practices it has 
adopted to determine the meaning of 
"member of the union" as used in the Act. 
He cited the change in the Act from 
"member in good standing of the union" 
to "member of the union," during debate 
on which it was said that the purpose of 
the change was to make it easier for unions. 
But, said Mr. Cotterill, the rules were 
tightened up. 

"This observation leads to the point that 
there is a major discrimination against 
unions in the Act," he asserted. "It is 
much more difficult for workers to get 
their union certified than it is to get the 
union decertified." 

The union did not have too strong feel- 
ings on the requirement that 55 per cent 
of the workers in the bargaining unit must 
demonstrate with a payment of money that 
they are members of the union to gain 
certification without a vote, and that 45 
per cent must demonstrate union member- 
ship to obtain a certification election. 

"We do feel strongly, however," he went 
on, "that the voting procedure which 
requires that an applicant union must get 
a majority of those eligible runs counter 
to all democratic procedures. A simple 
majority makes sense in union elections as 
in other types of elections." 

Because the intention of the Act should 
be to stabilize labour relations in the prov- 
ince, the brief continued, the period for 
decertification or for entertaining an 
application from another union should be 
limited to the 60 days prior to the expiry 



975 



date of an agreement or to the eleventh 
and twelfth month of the agreement. An 
extension of the period beyond the twelfth 
month or the termination date of an agree- 
ment invites applications for conciliation in 
order to apply "closure" on another organ- 
ization rather than for "genuine" concilia- 
tion reasons. 

Mr. Cotterill then quoted a resolution 
passed at the union's latest policy confer- 
ence, which expressed the view that con- 
ciliation procedures should embody: 

(a) an optional system of conciliation 
which protects the interests of small locals 
as well as large; 

(b) provision for the exemption of specific 
industries such as the construction industry 
from the procedures; 

(c) flexibility which permits collective 
bargaining contracts negotiated on an inter- 
provincial, national or international basis to 
be exempted from the requirements of 
provincial statutes; 

(d) clearly set-out time limits which 
permit the use of economic action once those 
time limits have been exhausted; 

(e) expansion of conciliation and media- 
tion machinery outside of the judiciary by a 
conscious government policy of training of 
skilled personnel in the field; 

(f) a public policy which asserts the prin- 
ciple that settlements negotiated through 
the conciliation system should be retroactive 
to the date of expiry of the previous agree- 
ment. 

The most unsatisfactory sections of the 
Act are those dealing with conciliation, the 
brief continued, and the major defect has 
been the "completely inefficient adminis- 
tration" of the conciliation procedures. 

The Steelworkers suggested that provi- 
sion be made in the Act for either or both 
parties to a dispute to waive conciliation 
and also that, where negotiations are 
being carried on internationally or inter- 
provincially and the parties are making 
use of procedures under some other juris- 
diction, Ontario should not require com- 
pliance with the Ontario procedures. "We 
have been able to make reciprocal arrange- 
ments with other provinces in the operations 
of the Workmen's Compensation Act," Mr. 
Cotterill pointed out. "We should be able 
to do it with the Labour Relations Act." 

A major defect in conciliation is that 
"the present system makes for delays," the 
brief continued. "Timing is often a key 
to collective bargaining situations and con- 
ciliation procedures can be used — and are 
used — by either party to delay and throw 
timetables out the window." 

What is needed is a fixed and realistic 
period of time in which the conciliation 
procedures must be completed. The present 
Act talks about a 65-day period and actually 
consumes more than six months on the aver- 
age. We would be happy to set the time 



at 90 days, provided that was the end of 
it except with the mutual consent of the 
parties. In that 90-day period, we suggest 
the parties should have at their disposal 
either the conciliation officer or the concilia- 
tion board services, or both if useful, but 
at the end of 90 days, if government inter- 
vention has been unable to effect a settle- 
ment, the parties should not be longer barred 
from the next step in collective bargaining, 
which is economic action. 

The brief also suggested that the gov- 
ernment look to other groups than judges 
(university professors and clergymen were 
mentioned) for conciliators. "The long- 
range answer, however, is in training skilled 
people through specialized courses at our 
universities. Provincial government aid in 
promoting such training in our universities 
would be a worth-while investment in future 
industrial peace." 

The union criticized the use of injunc- 
tions in labour disputes. Injunctions should 
be restricted to civil disputes, it contended. 

"Certainly the practice of issuing ex parte 
injunctions is a malicious breach of the 
principle of justice that ensures that a 
man shall be given an opportunity to meet 
his accusers, and violates the precept that 
a person is innocent of an offence until 
proven guilty," Mr. Cotterill said. 

The laws could be revised to do much 
to avoid trouble on picket lines, the brief 
suggested. As a union is compelled to go 
to conciliation before they have a legal 
right to strike, a worker "is entitled to 
some protection when he does strike". He 
should have a "property right" in his job 
just as the employer has a property right 
in the factory. 

Where a legal strike takes place, an 
employer should be forbidden to hire outside 
strike-breakers to take the strikers' jobs. 
If he can persuade some of his regular 
employees to return, that is part and parcel 
of the economic tug-of-war between him and 
his workers. But the hiring of outside 
strike-breakers is the theft of a man's job. 
It should be outlawed as other forms of 
theft are outlawed. 

Gordon Milling 

Taking the floor for the second time 
during the Toronto hearings, Gordon 
Milling, Research Director for the Ontario 
Federation of Labour, made a classification 
of the delays that occur in conciliation. 
He said there were three categories: (1) 
statutory or mandatory delays, e.g., seven 
days after receipt of a board report; (2) 
procedural delays, i.e., delays resulting from 
the nature of the procedure, for example, 
mailing time, necessary postponements in 
reaching mutually agreeable dates; and 



976 



(3) contrived delays. He could add, he 
said, delays through neglect arising from 
oversight or inefficiency of individuals. 

"Because procedural delays are expected 
in a process involving so many different 
individuals," he said, "and because this 
type of delay is not amenable to rigid 
time limits, they tend to operate as 
camouflage for contrived delays." 

Contrived delay is a tactical device used 
by one party to gain time. In most cases 
the other party stands to lose something as 
a result. Delay necessarily works to the 
disadvantage of the party which desires 
changes in the contract; delay stands to 
benefit the party opposing such changes. 

I suggest that any change in approach or 
procedure which does not cope with the 
problem of delay will probably prove 
unpopular with both labour and manage- 
ment before long. As long as delays are 
possible they are inevitable. 

If government intervention is to be 
retained, it should be in the form of media- 
tion designed to help two parties reach an 
amicable settlement and should involve a 
minimum of coercion and require not more 
than a reasonable amount of public expense 
for the results obtained, Mr. Milling 
continued. 

There is no justification for its use in 
postponing an inevitable strike, he main- 
tained. "A cooling-off period does not cool 
anvone off if it lasts too long." 

Two possible methods of limiting delays 
were suggested: (1) enforcement of strict 
legal time limits — which could be better 
defined in the Act — and (2) establishment 
of one over-all statutory time limit for the 
entire process, after which either party 
would be free to take economic action. 

The first method would require, Mr. 
Milling said, the use of "expeditors" in the 
Department of Labour to ensure that each 
person involved in the procedure carried 
out his obligations within the required time. 

Bakery and Confectionery Workers 

John Reid, International Vice-President, 
Bakerv and Confectionery Workers' Inter- 
national Union of America, said there are 
far too few conciliators in Ontario, with 
the result that the same ones appear over 
and over. "Invariably it seems," he said, 
"a poor conciliator always gets a big case 
to handle, that is, where more than 100 
employees are concerned, while a topnotch 
conciliator seems to get a small group 
involving 10 or 12 employees. The result 
of this, in my experience, has been that 
the big groups lose 100 per cent of their 
cases, while the little groups win 100 per 
cent of theirs." 

His union called the seven-day "cooling- 
off period" provided in the Act "an insult 



to labour people". It should be removed 
from the Act because, he declared, it does 
more to heat up people than cool them 
down. 

Mr. Reid thought the Act should contain 
a clause making retroactive pay compulsory 
in all conciliation cases. Regardless of 
when a wage dispute case is settled, the 
wages would date back to the time con- 
ciliation services were applied for. The 
same should apply in arbitration cases. His 
union believes such a procedure would help 
speed up the handling of conciliation cases. 

Ontario CCF Trade Union Committee 

Speaking on behalf of the Ontario CCF 
Trade Union Committee, Ken Bryden, 
CCF Executive Secretary for Ontario, 
raised five fundamental objections to the 
Ontario Labour Relations Act. These 
were: — 

1. Its failure to provide adequately, 
particularly because of unsatisfactory 
enforcement procedures, for the protection 
of the basic right of workers to organize 
and bargain collectively. 

2. Unfair and undemocratic rules govern- 
ing the certification and decertification of 
unions. 

3. Lack of provision for union security. 

4. Conciliation procedures that make a 
travesty of the creative role that the state 
ought to play in the settlement of labour 
disputes. 

5. Discrimination against certain classes 
of workers. 

"Any of the foregoing defects," said Mr. 
Bryden, "is serious enough to indicate a 
lack of comprehension of the true nature 
of labour relations on the part of the gov- 
ernment which sponsored the Act. 

"When all are added together, there is 
no escaping the conclusion that the Labour 
Relations Act of Ontario is not based on a 
healthy and realistic understanding and 
acceptance of the role of trade unions in 
a democratic society." 

Before he described the procedure that 
his committee thought should be estab- 
lished, Mr. Bryden outlined the principles 
that they regarded as basic to the sound 
enforcement of unfair labour practices 
provisions. These were: 

(1) There should be unified administra- 
tion, guaranteeing uniformity in decisions 
and decisiveness in action. The present divi- 
sion of authority between the Minister and 
the commissioners inevitably leads to con- 
fusion and indecisiveness. . . . 

(2) All parties affected by the investiga- 
tion of an alleged unfair practice should be 
guaranteed a fair hearing: but at the same 
time procedural technicalities should be 
eliminated. . . . 



977 



(3) Investigations should be conducted 
exclusively by specialists in the judicial and 
quasi-judicial aspects of labour relations 
problems. . . . 

(4) These specialists should be in a posi- 
tion to act in an independent and objective 
manner . . . should have no personal interest 
in the disposition of the matters coming 
before them (and) should be quite inde- 
pendent of the executive branch of govern- 
ment. . . . 

Mr. Bryden suggested that the Labour 
Relations Board was the "logical" agency 
for administering the unfair practices sec- 
tions of the Act. 

Mr. Bryden recalled that when the bill 
was before the Legislature in 1950, the CCF 
Members attempted to defeat it because it 
violated "the sound principles of labour 
relations by denying the application of 
fundamental democratic principles in voting 
procedures, by establishing complicated and 
inflexible conciliation machinery that is 
likely to create industrial unrest and by 
ignoring the principle of union security". 

While the Act purports to outlaw the 
more obvious unfair labour practices — inter- 
ference by an employer in the affairs of a 
union; dismissal for union activity; dis- 
crimination, coercion and intimidation; 
yellow dog contracts; refusal to bargain in 
good faith — it is "silent" with regard to 
other unfair practices, he said. As examples 
he mentioned labour espionage, threaten- 
ing to move or close a plant during the 
course of a labour dispute, and manipula- 
tion of wages and other working conditions 
while union organization is in progress. 

His group's major objection, however, 
was to the "tortuous and indecisive" pro- 
cedures established for enforcing the unfair 
practices sections of the Act. The chief 
criticisms of the procedure were: (1) that 
the quasi-judicial functions assigned to 
the Minister of Labour were not functions 
properly to be performed by a member of 
the executive branch of government; (2) 
that the insertion of conciliation as a 
necessary first stage in the procedure was 
"ill-conceived"; (3) that the investigation 
of complaints was undertaken purely on an 
ad hoc basis, so that there is no continuity 
in decisions; (4) that the commissioners 
appointed by the Minister were almost 
always judges, who bring a "court-room 
atmosphere" to investigations. 

Because the Board was even now over- 
loaded, he suggested the establishment of 
a network of regional offices with a senior 
officer — "examiner" — in charge to receive all 
complaints of unfair practices emanating 
from the region. This officer, after investi- 
gation and, if found necessary, a hearing, 
could issue a remedial order in the name 



of the Board. The Board could overrule 
an examiner either on its own motion or on 
the application of one of the parties. 

"The work of the examiners would ensure 
speedy disposition of the vast majority of 
cases, while the supervisory activities of 
the Board would ensure uniformity of 
application of the provisions of the Act," 
Mr. Bryden asserted. 

He added that, even if the Board were 
not assigned jurisdiction in regard to unfair 
practices, the establishment of a regional 
system to deal with certification applica- 
tions would eliminate most of the com- 
plaints about delays. 

Turning to certification and decertification 
procedures, Mr. Bryden said that "the con- 
ditions governing certification are unduly 
onerous while the conditions for initiating 
decertification proceedings are too easy". 

Four important defects in the certifica- 
tion and decertification provisions of the 
Act were listed by Mr. Bryden. 

1. The Act permits the Board to take 
into consideration only employers "who are 
members of the trade union". The only 
relevant question is: How many employees 
want the union to represent them in collec- 
tive bargaining? "If some or all of the 
employees want to be represented by a 
union of which they are not members, that 
is their business," he said. "If the union 
is willing to represent employees who are 
not members, that is its business. In 
neither case is the matter one which should 
concern the Board." Membership in the 
union should not be the only evidence 
accepted, Mr. Bryden proposed. 

2. The requirement that 45 per cent of 
the employees must be members of the 
trade union before a vote will be con- 
ducted calls for "an unduly high" percent- 
age. "To require a sign -up that is only 5 
per cent less than the figure needed to win 
a vote is clearly more than is necessary to 
meet the need for eliminating frivolous 
applications," he said. He suggested that 
a vote should be mandatory if the applica- 
tion is supported by authorizations from 
35 per cent of the employees and discre- 
tionary where between 25 and 35 per cent 
have signed. 

3. The provision that a union is eligible 
for certification only if it obtains votes 
from a majority of those eligible to vote, 
not from a majority of those voting, does 
not apply anywhere in the democratic 
world. Mr. Bryden suggested that a vote 
should be considered nugatory if less than 
a majority of the eligible employees par- 
ticipate but, when a majority cast ballots, 
the matter should be determined by the 
majority of those who actually vote. 



978 



4. Application for decertification should 
not be entertained if supported only by 
one or more employees or by a "round 
robin"' petition, he declared. The applica- 
tion should be supported by separate, 
witnessed statements in which the employees 
individually indicate that they no longer 
wish to have the union as their bargaining 
agent. Those supporting the application 
should also have to give a reasonable 
explanation of the source of the funds they 
are using to advance the application, just 
as a union seeking certification has to 
prove that it is a bona fide trade union. 

Mr. Bryden then suggested that the Act 
make provision for the voluntary revocable 
check-off of union dues, because "an 
employer who is unwilling to grant some 
measure of security to the union has not 
fully accepted that union and in the back 
of his mind has the idea that some day he 
can get rid of it. The result is bound to 
be instability in labour relations." 

Criticizing the Act as a "masterpiece of 
formality and inflexibility" when the utmost 
informality and flexibility is required in 
conciliation procedures, Mr. Bryden then 
suggested the establishment of a corps of 
good conciliators. 

We deplore the fact that the work of the 
conciliation officer has been reduced to a 
mere stage in a labyrinthine procedure. A 
corps of good conciliators ought to be 
regarded as the backbone of the whole 
conciliation service, because they are par- 
ticularly well suited to deal with labour 
disputes. They are in a position to intervene 
at a moment's notice. They are not bound 
by procedural forms or predilections of any 
kind. They are entirely free to use their 
experience, intelligence, resourcefulness and 
good will in any way that may benefit the 
parties. In short, they are mobile — physically 
and intellectually — and mobility is the key^ 
to successful conciliation. Yet, in Ontario* 
their usefulness is reduced by the almost 
irresistable tendency of the parties to wait 
and see what the next stage might bring. 

Mr. Bryden said his group was of the 
opinion that the "whole complicated pro- 
cedure in the Ontario Act ought to be 
scrapped and a fresh start made". 

To supplement the work of the full-time 
conciliation staff, the Department should 
build up a panel of mediators, consisting of 
prominent citizens who are not employed 
full time in conciliation work but are quali- 
fied to undertake it. These mediators would 
be used in special cases — where there appears 
to be need for a fresh approach or for a 
person with prestige in the community or 
both. They would also be available to serve 
as board chairmen from time to time. 

In addition, full recognition should be 
given to the vital, indeed indispensable, role 
that conciliation boards have to play in 
many cases. They should never be placed in 



the position where they are regarded as 
either the last hurdle to be jumped or the 
last ditch of delay. Their prestige should 
not be frittered away in cases where other 
types of service are preferable. They should 
be reserved for the complicated cases where 
a tri-partite board (with a distinguished 
citizen as chairman) is more likely than a 
single conciliator or mediator to impress and 
gain the confidence of the parties. And they 
should be introduced in such cases speedily 
and decisively, as soon as the need has 
become apparent. 

There should be no attempt to make the 
three types of service interlocking. Each 
type should be used wherever and whenever 
it is required — whether or not some other 
type has been used previously. The Depart- 
ment should be constantly assessing every 
dispute that comes to its attention and 
deciding which type of service has the best 
chance of success. Every case should be 
judged on its merits. There should be no 
pre-determined pattern. 

The brief presented by Mr. Bryden then 
dealt with the Act's "discrimination" against 
public employees. Provincial government 
emploj-ees are excluded and civic employees, 
and employees of municipal boards and 
commissions, may be excluded by declara- 
tions of the municipal councils concerned. 
The government should not exempt itself 
from meeting the same obligations it 
imposes on employers, the brief declared. 

John H. Osier 

John H. Osier of Toronto, who described 
himself as "a lawyer whose experience has 
been on the side of labour," outlined some 
flaws he has encountered in the Ontario 
Labour Relations Act in the course of his 
practice. 

He objected to the Act's compelling a 
lawyer in an unfair practices case to present 
his full case twice, once before the Labour 
Relations Board and, if he gains approval 
to continue the case, again before a court 
of law. 

A far more satisfying method could be 
devised, patterned after the Taft-Hartley 
Act provisions, where officers of the labour 
relations board deal with such a matter and 
issue a "desist order", which is filed with 
the court and becomes a full court order 
ipso facto. That way only one process is 
required, which results in the saving of a 
great deal of time and money, he said. 

Mr. Osier emphasized that a union is not 
interested in getting an employer who 
engages in unfair practices into court and 
having him fined SI. 000, but rather "in 
making him stop his illegal actions". 

Mr. Osier agreed that judges as a group 
do not make good conciliation board 
chairmen. 



979 



Eamon Park, pointing out that not too 
many complaints were received about sec- 
tions of the Act handled by the Labour 
Relations Board but many about the 
portions handled at the ministerial level, 
wondered why the Board was not allowed 
to handle all parts of the Act. Mr. Osier 
replied that the Board could not handle 
any more work than it is now doing unless 
it were enlarged. "If it were enlarged, that 
would detract from the character of the 
Board," he said. 

Norman L Mathews, QC 

Norman L. Mathews, QC, of the Indus- 
trial Relations Section, Ontario Bar Asso- 
ciation, thought arbitration boards should 
be given the right in the Act to administer 
oaths and issue subpoenas; conciliation 
boards have that right. 

Other recommendations by Mr. Mathews 
were: — 

There is some doubt, under Section 11, 
as to how long the duty to bargain con- 
tinues. It is my submission that this should 
be clarified by specifying that it shall con- 
tinue until the conciliation procedure pro- 
vided by the Act has been exhausted. 

It is my submission that conciliation is 
a part of bargaining and that Section 12 
should be clarified in this regard. 

In view of the uncertainty as to when 
the Minister has received the report of the 
conciliation board, the seven days specified 
in Section 49 (2) should run from the time 
the Minister has forwarded the report to 
the parties. 

A new section should be added after 
Section 51 to read as follows: "No person 
shall picket a place of employment unless 
a lawful strike is in progress or unless a 
strike could legally occur at such place 
under the provisions of Section 49". 

The Act should provide that all awards 
of arbitration boards should be filed with 
the Minister of Labour and be made avail- 
able to all interested parties. It would not 
seem too much to ask that the Department 
of Labour should publish these. 

Provisions should be incorporated in the 
Act providing that all decisions of arbitra- 
tion boards should be forwarded to the 
Minister of Labour and should be pub- 
lished in an official publication of the 
department, "which could be patterned after 
the federal Department of Labour's publi- 
cation, the Labour Gazette". 

Toronto and Lakeshore Labour Council 

The Toronto and Lakeshore Labour 
Council had had a brief prepared by a 
Toronto law firm on the use of injunctions 



in labour disputes, the Committee was told 
by Harry Waisglass, Chairman of the 
Council's legislative committee. The brief 
was turned over to the Committee. 

The brief began with a definition of an 
injunction, the legal history of injunctions, 
and an explanation of the various types of 
injunctions. 

"The present law appears to be that the 
court may grant an injunction if it is 
convinced by a preponderance of evidence 
that there is a strong probability that 
damage will be done to the plaintiff or his 
property if an injunction is not granted and 
that the nature of the damage is such that 
it is not easily compensated by a monetary 
award," the brief explained. 

Pointing out that injunctions originally 
were not granted to prohibit actions that 
could be dealt with by the criminal courts, 
the brief continued: 

However, at least in labour matters, the 
courts no longer appear to exercise such 
restraint and now seem to take the position 
that if the conduct of people is unlawful, in 
the sense that it is prohibited by a statute 
or has a criminal character, the court will 
do what it can to prevent the continuation 
of such conduct at the request of the party 
being damaged. 

The brief then outlined the procedure 
followed in the granting of an injunction, 
concentrating on ex parte in injunctions, 
and pointed out the effect of an injunction 
order. 

"Once an order has been made," it 
explained, "it is likely to place the conduct 
of the strike under a very grave handicap." 
And, it warned, "such orders must be 
implicitly observed at the risk of being 
committed to jail for contempt of court if 
they are broken." 

The conduct that, generally speaking, has 
been prohibited by injunctions in the last 
two or three years, the brief said, has been : 

(1) the intimidation of, molestation of, or 
interference with other employees seeking 
entrance to or exit from the struck plant; 

(2) interference with customers or other 
persons on lawful business seeking to enter 
or leave the plant; (3) attempts to induce 
other persons — customers, suppliers, etc. — 
to break contracts they may have with the 
employer; (4) physical obstruction or other 
interference with trucks and truckers seek- 
ing to remove material from or take 
material into a struck plant; and (5) 
attempts to commit any of the above acts 
or induce others to commit them. 

"Occasionally an injunction will also 
prohibit picketing with more than a set 
number of persons at each entrance and, 



980 



in the case of unlawful strikes, an injunc- 
tion may prohibit all picketing," the brief 
added. 

Under the heading, "Changes in the Law," 
the brief stressed that it must be kept in 
mind that the injunction is only a method 
of enforcing existing rights and does not 
confer any rights on anyone nor take away 
any existing rights. It continued: 

The question can be tackled from the point 
of view of adjusting the machinery in order 
to make certain that in giving recognition 
to the rights of the employer the court does 
not excessively curtail the rights of the 
strikers 

As to the machinery, we think that a very 
strong case can be made for the proposition 
that no injunction should ever be granted 
ex parte except perhaps when there is 
evidence that the intended defendents are 
deliberately hiding themselves so as to avoid 
service of the notice or something of that 
kind. 

Pointing out that normally in court 
actions a notice which originates something 
must be served seven days before the hear- 
ing of the motion and that, in the inter- 
mediate stages of action, a notice must be 
served two days before, the brief suggested 
that at least two days' notice of motion 
must be given when an employer is seeking 
an injunction in a labour dispute. "If such 
motions had to be made on notice," it 
explained, "it would at least give the in- 
tended defendants an opportunity to prepare 
a defence and it would eliminate the present 
very unfortunate situation where a defen- 
dant has his first opportunity to be heard 
after the order has been made." 

In the present state of affairs, it is up to 
the defendants to convince the court that 
an existing order should be discontinued or 
removed , the brief said. This is very 
different from being given an opportunity 
to argue that the order should never be 
made at all. 

Because it might be impossible to per- 
suade any government to prohibit an 
employer from enforcing his existing rights, 
"it might well prove more practical in the 
long run to propose that, under certain 
circumstances, certain additional rights 
should be granted to trade unions and to 
employees engaged in a legal strike," the 
brief suggested. 

The employees' right to strike has already 
been hedged around with many restrictions 
and it cannot be exercised until all the pro- 
cedure laid down in the Labour Relations 
Act has been exhausted. In return for this 
curtailment of his rights, should he not be 
given the assurance that, if he does find it 
necessary to withdraw his labour and go on 
strike in order to secure adequate and fair 
working conditions, his job will be protected 
and no other person will be permitted to fill 
that job until the strike has been concluded? 



The brief concluded with suggested 
amendments to the Act that would imple- 
ment the two suggestions made. 

Mr. Waisglass then presented his group's 
views on the check-off of union dues, con- 
ciliation and bargaining in good faith. He 
told the Committee that "by passing legis- 
lation providing for the check-off of union 
dues, the Government of Ontario would be 
further strengthening the structure of collec- 
tive bargaining within the province". He 
suggested a typical clause that might be 
incorporated in the Ontario Labour Rela- 
tions Act. 

Mr. Waisglass told the Committee it was 
understood that it is a difficult matter to 
write into the laws of the province provi- 
sions that would compel bargaining in good 
faith but, "nonetheless they are essential to 
the whole process". 

Turning to compulsory conciliation, Mr. 
Waisglass said that if it is to be retained, 
"the Department of Labour must assure an 
adequate supply of skilled conciliators to 
meet the demand and should enforce the 
statutory delay limits more strictly". 

American Newspaper Guild 

The brief of the Toronto local of the 
American Newspaper Guild consisted of 
answers to the questionnaire sent out by 
the Committee prior to the opening of the 
hearings. It was presented by R. H. 
Buchanan, Executive Secretary of the 
Toronto Newspaper Guild. 

The Guild thought that the requirement 
of a union membership amounting to 55 
per cent of the bargaining unit for certifi- 
cation without a vote was reasonable but 
that the percentage required to gain the right 
to a vote should be reduced to 33^. In 
a vote, it believed that the majority of 
those voting rather than a majority of 
eligibles should determine the outcome. 

It did not think separate bargaining 
units should be required for office or tech- 
nical employees but such units should be 
permissible. 

In decertification proceedings, the appli- 
cants should amount to 10 per cent of the 
unit, the Guild proposed. 

The "no-strike" provisions of the Act 
should not apply to conditions that are not 
caused by the collective agreements; a 
union should be free to strike legally where 
the issue in dispute is not covered by the 
agreement and where the agreement does 
not provide for arbitration of such disputes. 

Provision for the voluntary revocable 
check-off should be included in the Act; 
tighter forms of check-off should be a 
matter for bargaining, the Guild's brief said. 



981 



Time limits established in the Act for 
conciliation are reasonable but should be 
strictly enforced and conciliation board 
hearings should be open to the public, it 
was suggested. 

Because the spread of organization will 
create a further heavy call for conciliation 
services, "steps must be taken to build up 
a body of competent men available for 
such assignments and the government 
should assist by encouraging courses in 
higher education to prepare men for such 
positions as a career," the Guild said. 

Others Who Appeared 

Douglas Hamilton, Vice-President of the 
Toronto and District Trades and Labour 
Council, thought that the greatest fault in 
the Act lies in its administration; that 
there are too many lawyers dealing with 
its provisions; and that certification pro- 
ceedings are far too difficult and decertifi- 
cation proceedings far too easy. 

Asked by Mr. Goldberg if he felt the 
conciliation step in the Act should be 
eliminated, Mr. Hamilton said he thought 
not, since it is always useful to small 
unions and often helpful to the big ones. 

Rev. W. E. Mann, Executive Secretary, 
Diocesan Council for Social Services, 
Church of England, speaking to the 
Committee on the proposal that churchmen 
might make good conciliation board chair- 
men, said the church might be encouraged 
to develop men whom they would train 
in economics and other necessary fields to 
fill jobs as conciliators and board chairmen. 
He thought the average churchman at 
present "could not qualify to fill the job" 
unless he received special training. 

Mel Kerr, International Representative 
of the American Federation of Technical 
Engineers, told the Committee that his 
group, a small one, was particularly con- 
cerned with the provisions of the Act 
dealing with certification and decertifica- 
tion, and gave several examples of unhappy 



experiences the group had encountered in 
trying to organize units. The Act should 
be reworded so that organization attempts 
could not be made to fail through acts of 
intimidation, he suggested. 

S. A. Little, Director of Organization, 
National Union of Public Service 
Employees, put special emphasis on his 
group's dislike for the section of the Act 
that permits a municipality to declare that 
the Act shall not apply to it in its rela- 
tions with its employees. 

He told the Committee that municipal 
workers are subject to all the hardships 
but few of the benefits of the Act. He 
suggested deletion of the offending section, 
"thus allowing municipal employees of this 
province the same rights and privileges 
enjoyed by all other industrial and craft 
employees". 

Other speakers heard by the Committee 
at Toronto were: — 

Jack Kellythorne, International Repre- 
sentative, Building Service Employees 
International Union; S. E. Dinsdale, Chair- 
man of Ontario Sub-section, Canadian Bar 
Association, and member of the Law Society 
of Upper Canada; Frank J. Barrett, 
Canadian Vice-President, International 
Brotherhood of Bookbinders; Bert Groves, 
President, Ontario Federation of Printing 
Trades Craftsmen; Purdy Churchill, 
Secretary-Treasurer, Ontario Federation of 
Printing Trades Craftsmen; Rev. E. H. 
Toye, Executive Secretary, Religion Labour 
Foundation ; Rev. D. F. Summers, Secretary, 
Provincial Board of Directors, Religion 
Labour Foundation; Rev. S. B. Coles, 
Minister of Knox Presbyterian Church, 
Oshawa, and President, Oshawa Chapter, 
Religion Labour Foundation; Larry Ryan 
and George Hartwick, representing Oshawa 
Trades and Labour District Council; Ross 
Russell, Director of Organization for 
Canada, United Electrical, Radio and 
Machine Workers of America; and William 
Walsh, UE's Hamilton Area Representative. 



Cornwall Hearings 



At the meeting of the Ontario Federation 
of Labour Committee on Labour Relations 
in Cornwall on June 27, briefs were pre- 
sented by the Ottawa, Hull and District 
Labour Council and by the Textile Workers 
Union of America. 

Those present at the meeting included 
Allan Schroeder, President of the Ottawa, 
Hull and District Labour Council; John 
Whitehouse, Education and Publicity 
Director, Textile Workers Union of 
America ; Ralph Carrara, Chairman, Greater 



Cornwall Joint Board, Textile Workers 
Union; Wilfred Oliver, Ralph Mclntie, and 
President George Harrop of the Cornwall 
Trades and Labour Council. 

Ottawa, Hull and District Council 

The brief submitted by the Ottawa, Hull 
and District Labour Council, read by Allan 
Schroeder, President, took the form of a 
reply to the questionnaire circulated by the 
Committee. 



982 



Recommendations made in the brief in- 
cluded the following: — 

Present requirements of the Act calling 
for not less than 45 per cent of the 
employees in the bargaining unit to be 
union members before a certification vote 
will be taken should be changed to 25 per 
cent. Certification should be granted with- 
out a vote if 50 per cent are members. 

Both office employees and technical 
employees should be able to belong to the 
same local union, with separate bargaining 
units, or separate contract provisions, to 
cover particular conditions. 

The "bargaining in good faith" provision 
of the Act is not strong enough, and has 
been ineffective. The Act should define 
such expressions as "good faith" and 
"reasonable effort". At present the Board 
seems to interpret them to mean that if 
the employer meets the union and says 
"No" to every proposal he has done what 
he is required to do. 

Besides requiring the parties to meet 
within 15 days after the giving of notice 
by either party, it might be well that they 
should be obliged to meet a certain 
number of times within the 35-day period 
which must elapse from the giving of notice 
until conciliation services can be applied for, 
unless both parties agree otherwise. 

Section 53 of the Act, which prohibits 
the altering of wages or other terms of 
employment during negotiations without the 
consent of the other party, should be 
strengthened, clarified and enforced. 

Compulsory check-off should be provided 
for in the Act, and also union shop after 
a certain percentage of the employees have 
voted in favour of it. 

Conciliation should be prompt and 
compulsory at the conciliation officer stage, 
and there should be no conciliation board 
unless both parties ask for it. 

Conciliation officers should be given more 
prestige by being adequately paid, and by 
being required to undergo special training. 
The position should be raised to profes- 
sional status, with the same standards of 
fairness, impartiality and justice required 
as those expected of judges. 

Conciliation boards might be useful in 
some cases, but their effectiveness would 
be almost directly proportional to the 
calibre and qualifications of the chairman. 

Setting up of a panel of chairmen, with 
the idea of developing a profession, might 
be considered. 

An officer or board should conciliate only, 
and should not report "findings and recom- 
mendations" to the Minister, unless asked 
to arbitrate. 



The Act should provide for the conver- 
sion of a conciliation board into an arbi- 
tration board, if both parties were willing. 

The union should have a choice of arbi- 
tration or a strike on such matters as 
speed-up or production standards. 

Capable and qualified arbitrators should 
be developed in the same way a con- 
ciliators. An alternative would be to try 
to retain a single arbitrator for the life of 
the agreement, which would give him a 
chance to become familiar with the working 
conditions he might be asked to rule on. 

The company should be required to 
implement an award within some definite 
period, and there should be no appeal to 
the courts. 

The unfair practices provisions of the Act 
should be defined in the same way as in 
the Saskatchewan Trade Union Act. 

In this case, partly owing to the question- 
and-answer form of the brief, a good deal 
of discussion was interjected during its 
reading. 

On the question of "good faith" the 
chairman pointed out the difficulty of 
precise definition, and this led to a discus- 
sion of what constituted good faith. Most 
agreed that an unwillingness to budge on 
either side was inconsistent with bargaining 
in good faith. 

Mr. Schroeder thought that if the union 
submitted proposals the company should 
at least submit counter-proposals, and not 
simply content itself with rejecting the 
union's submissions. This would at any 
rate keep discussion open. 

The chairman asked what was thought 
of a suggestion that the parties should 
be obliged to meet at least five times 
during the required five weeks of bargain- 
ing before conciliation services could be 
applied for. Most present seemed to favour 
this. 

Henry Rhodes mentioned a case in which 
a company representative had argued that 
the obligation on the company to bargain 
in good faith ceased seven days after the 
conciliation board had rendered its report. 
He asked whether the requirement to 
bargain in good faith really ended at any 
stage. There was considerable discussion on 
this question, but no definite conclusion 
was reached. 

The question of how conciliation officers 
or conciliation board chairmen could be 
developed was discussed. Several thought 
that it was not necessary for such men 
to understand the particular industry they 
were dealing with, but that they needed to 
be men of the right type who were willing 
to work hard to bring about an agreement 
between the parties. 



983 



Several were of the opinion that if a 
conciliation board failed to effect a settle- 
ment it should simply report failure in- 
stead of making recommendations. 

Textile Workers Union of America 

"It is our considered opinion that con- 
ciliation, that is an effort to effect a 
voluntary settlement, is in practice con- 
fined to the conciliation officer; this 
principle is relegated to a position of 
secondary importance by conciliation 
boards," said the Textile Workers Union 
of America in its brief. 

The union said further that the useful- 
ness of conciliation board reports was 
"highly debatable". It cited two cases in 
which a conciliation board report and its 
sequel raised "serious doubts concerning not 
only the boards' conciliatory function, but 
also their more dubious function as 'fact- 
finding' bodies". 

In many instances within its experience, 
the union claimed, "the board recom- 
mendations drove the negotiating parties 
farther apart, and paved the way for 
strikes". In other cases, the brief alleged, 
the board's proceedings had had the effect 
of obstructing negotiation. 

The primary function of a conciliation 
board is not to present an imposing report, 
the union said, but rather to try to bring 
about a settlement; and any move that 
would help to induce boards to act in this 
way "would re-establish 'conciliation' as a 
primary function of the boards." 

The brief was critical of "the category 
of personnel utilized as board chairmen", 
and it "deplored the lengthy and cumber- 
some procedure" set out in the Act which 
caused "frustrating and unwarranted delays". 

It was also alleged that boards often 
deliberately caused delay in order to 
prevent or postpone strikes. Such delays 
weakened the union economically and were 
liable to create bitterness and frustration 
that led to wildcat strikes. 

Amendments to the Act were urged to 
remove the loopholes that gave opportuni- 
ties for procrastination. 

The difficulty of obtaining competent 
chairmen for conciliation boards applied 
just as much to arbitration boards, the 
brief said. The weaknesses of legal men as 
board chairmen were pointed out and the 
need for men who had had training and 
experience in industrial and human rela- 
tions was emphasized. 

The brief mentioned a resolution passed 
at the last biennial Canadian conference 
of the union which had urged the estab- 
lishment of a Canadian Arbitration Asso- 
ciation in order to develop a competent 
panel of arbitration board chairmen. 



The union complained that some 
employers were taking advantage of the 
union's legal inability to strike in arbi- 
tration cases to refuse to abide by arbitra- 
tion awards. An appeal by union or 
company usually results in the arbitration 
board award being quashed by the courts, 
the brief stated, yet under the Act the union 
could not strike. 

The union demanded that arbitration 
awards be made final and binding on 
companies during the life of an agreement 
or that the Act be amended to give back 
to labour the right to strike at any time. 

The brief demanded the amendment of 
the Act to protect the rights of employees 
in case of the re-incorporation of a com- 
pany. It also asked for amendments to 
the provisions of the Act regarding the 
certification of unions, and in particular 
urged that in a certification vote the 
required majority in favour should be 50 
per cent of those voting, instead of 50 per 
cent of all eligible to vote as at present. 

The procedure adopted by the Labour 
Relations Board with regard to interven- 
tion was complained of. Whereas a petition 
for intervention against a union, signed by 
a group of employees, was entertained by 
the Board, the brief stated, a union was 
obliged to present formal evidence of 
membership in the shape of signed and 
countersigned union cards, accompanied by 
the payment of at least a dollar, for at 
least 45 per cent of the bargaining unit, 
before a vote was granted. 

The union asked for the elimination of 
the section of the Act that allows munici- 
palities to exclude their employees from 
the operation of the Act. 

Finally, the brief said: "It is deplorable 
that Ontario should lag behind six other 
provinces with respect to legislation pro- 
viding for the check-off." 

The Textile Workers' brief was read by 
John Whitehouse, Education and Publicity 
Director of the union. After the reading 
was finished, in reply to questions by the 
committee, Mr. Whitehouse expressed his 
opinion on a number of matters. 

The suitability of present time limits in 
conciliation board procedure depended 
mainly on what use the board made of the 
time, he thought. If the time was used to 
good advantage the board should not be 
unduly pushed. He thought that the chief 
cause of complaints was not so much the 
delays as the attitude and methods of the 
boards. 

With reference to the textile industry, 
he thought conciliation board chairmen 
were sometimes loath to recommend wage 



984 



increases because they feared that they 
might be held responsible if a mill later 
shut down. They were prone to consider 
themselves as "the saviours of the indus- 
try," even in cases where the company 
could well afford to pay. 

He said that judges were qualified to 
interpret an agreement, but were not well 
qualified to decide practical matters out- 
side the agreement, such as questions 
regarding work loads. Judges were not well 
qualified to act as conciliation board 
chairmen. 

The government should sponsor some 
kind of adult colleges where training in 
labour relations could be given, Mr. 
Whitehouse said. But he added that labour 
should itself take a hand in furthering the 
scheme. 

He agreed with the opinion which had 
been expressed earlier by Allan Schroeder 
that conciliation board reports were not 
usually much use to labour, except some- 
times where it might help union or com- 
pany to save face. 

He felt that the handing down of a 
report was not the proper function of a 
conciliation board; that when a report had 
to be made the board was inclined to con- 
centrate on the report rather than on 
getting a settlement. He said that reports 
were little help to labour even in their 



effect on public opinion. His experience 
was that the union's ability to gain its ends 
depended on its bargaining strength. The 
companies cared little for public opinion, 
but were influenced only by their estimate 
of the strength of the union's bargaining 
position. 

The main cause of delays by conciliation 
boards undoubtedly lay with the members 
of the boards themselves, Mr. Whitehouse 
said. It was often difficult for the three 
members of a board to get together at a 
meeting, such men being usually busy 
people who had a number of other engage- 
ments. 

Several of those present agreed that 
settlements should be retroactive to the 
expiration date of the agreement; or, in 
the case of newly certified unions, to the 
date of certification. It was thought that 
this would spur employers to get on with 
negotiations. 

The chairman mentioned a suggestion 
that he had heard that conciliation boards 
should be made up by the Minister from 
lists of nominees submitted by labour and 
management, of persons to act as chair- 
men, labour representatives and manage- 
ment representatives. From such lists 
permanent panels would be made up, with 
the same three men remaining together on 
each board. 



Peterborough Hearings 



United Packinghouse Workers 

The difficulty of bargaining on a country- 
wide basis for plants situated in almost 
every province of Canada, each plant being 
under provincial labour jurisdiction, was the 
subject of the submission of the United 
Packinghouse Workers at the Peterborough 
meeting of the Committee. 

Bargaining on a national basis with the 
"Big Three" packers, Canada Packers, 
Burns, and Swift Canadian, first began in 
1944 under the War Measures Act of the 
federal Government, the union said. When 
in 1947 full jurisdiction over labour in the 
industry was returned to the provinces, the 
union, it was stated, found itself in a "most 
untenable situation" in that while it was 
bargaining on a national scale it had 
recourse to no single government authority 
which could assist in bringing about a 
settlement. 

In an attempt to remedy this situation 
provision for mediation of disputes before 
a strike vote was taken had been incor- 
porated in the agreements with two of the 
"Big Three" companies, the brief said. The 



'6839—4 



success of this arrangement, however, had 
not yet been tested. The third company 
had consistently opposed any form of 
intervention. 

In 1954 the two companies had co- 
operated with the union in trying to get 
one conciliation board set up. This had 
been done by using the Ontario Act as a 
basis. The attempt had been only partially 
successful, because two provinces had 
refused to co-operate, as had one of the 
companies. A drawback to this plan, it 
was pointed out, is that it requires the full 
co-operation of the companies, and when 
negotiations break down such co-operation 
is not usually forthcoming. 

"We believe the Ontario Act should 
provide for transferring its powers to the 
federal Government in such cases," the 
brief said. "On the whole the present legal 
system of provincial arbitration and con- 
ciliation is incompatible with constructive 
bargaining on a national scale." 

At present, the union said, the companies 
are under no pressure to make concessions 
to reach an agreement because they know 

985 



that the union cannot legally use its 
economic strength and cannot comply with 
the provincial laws without seriously 
jeopardizing its bargaining position. 

The union admitted that there were 
constitutional difficulties to a solution of 
the question, but it said that some of the 
provinces had already included in their 
labour acts provisions for dealing with this 
type of dispute, and it believed that the 
federal and provincial governments together 
could work out a practical arrangement 
which would prevent work stoppages with- 
out shackling the employees in the industry. 

In discussion after the reading of the 
submission it was suggested that the 
provincial acts should be modified to allow 
the jurisdiction of the province in which 
negotiations were taking place to apply in 
each case. 

Peterborough Labour Council 

The Labour Relations Act should be 
amended to provide that if more than 50 
per cent of the votes cast in a representa- 
tion vote were in favour of a union the 
Board should be required to certify the 
union as bargaining agent. Peterborough 
Labour Council's brief stated. 

Referring to the need for definition of 
the phrases "bargaining in good faith" and 
"reasonable effort" the brief suggested two 
points: — 

"Refusal to meet the union and seek 
agreement after certification should be 
deemed not to be 'bargaining in good faith' 
and should be the subject of disciplinary 
action by the Board. 

"If persons representing employers in 
negotiations make commitments on their 
behalf, such commitments shall be binding 
on the company, and not subject to subse- 
quent repudiation on the grounds that their 
representative is no longer employed by 
them or was not vested with power to enter 
into such agreement." 

The conciliation of industrial disputes 
requires special training and understanding, 
the union said, and it "cannot be adequately 
handled as a side-line of any other profes- 
sion". It urged provincial governments and 
universities to consider the question of 
providing special training for such work. 

Concern was expressed at the long delays 
which often occurred during the concilia- 
tion procedure. 

The Council thought that the Act should 
be amended to place the granting of con- 
ciliation services in the hands of a desig- 
nated official of the Department of Labour, 
that all reference to a conciliation board 
should be removed from the Act, and that 
the powers now held by conciliation boards 
should be given conciliation officers. 



It also said that the government would 
strengthen the conciliation services if it 
took means to attract well-qualified persons 
in sufficient numbers. 

The rates of remuneration for chairmen 
and members of arbitration boards should 
be fixed by the Act, the brief suggested. 
To obviate the delays caused by the 
absence of appointed members, the Act 
should provide for substitute members, it 
was also suggested. 

The Council complained of the growing 
tendency of some companies to disregard 
the findings of an arbitrator appointed 
under the Act. Such employers were taking 
advantage of strikes being outlawed under 
the Act for the duration of an agreement. 
If this practice could not be stopped, the 
brief said, the unions should be given back 
the right to strike during the term of the 
agreement. 

Another complaint was that the Minister 
of Labour was apparently making it his 
policy under no conditions to issue orders 
implementing the recommendations of 
commissioners appointed under the Act. 
In several recent instances, it was 
asserted, where dismissed employees had 
been ordered to be reinstated, the Minister 
had neglected or refused to issue the 
necessary orders. 

Provision should be made in the Act, 
the brief said, for transfer of a union's 
bargaining rights in case of a merger. 
Provision should also be made to protect 
the employees' seniority and other rights 
when a change in the corporate entity of 
a company took place. 

The Council protested against "the grow- 
ing disregard of Section 69 of the Act, 
wherein decisions, directions, orders, declar- 
ations or rulings of the Board are stated 
to be without question or review in any 
court. The terms of this section must be 
observed and responsibility for upholding 
it should rest with the Labour Relations 
Board." 

The brief drew attention to "the inequi- 
ties" resulting from Section 78, which 
allows a municipality to remove its 
employees from the authority of the Act. 

Finally the Council complained of "the 
ease with which a union can be decertified 
compared with the difficulty a union has 
in proving its union membership." It 
suggested that "the conditions for inter- 
vention or decertification should be made 
similar to those required in certification," 
and that a round-robin petition should be 
accepted as evidence of support in the same 
way as it was accepted as evidence of 
opposition. 



986 



Rev. Gilbert Smith 

Rev. Gilbert Smith, Religion Labour 
Foundation, gave his opinion on some 
questions put to him by the Committee. 
"When asked whether he thought that 
members of the clergy would be suitable 
to act as conciliation board chairmen, he 
said that certainly not all clergymen were 
suitable. Generally speaking they were not 
the best type of men for the work. In 
many cases they would be inclined to reflect 
the views held by their congregations. 



Mr. Smith agreed that all settlements 
should be made retroactive to the termina- 
tion date of the agreement. He thought 
that Canada was showing herself politically 
immature in having separate labour juris- 
diction in each province. Labour matters 
should all be under federal jurisdiction, he 
contended. 

With reference to the Packinghouse 
Workers' submission, he said that master 
agreements are absolutely essential in many 
industries and thaft legislation should be 
amended accordingly. 



Kingston Hearings 



Of the three briefs submitted at the 
Kingston hearings June 28, two were by 
professors from Queen's University and the 
third by the Kingston Labour Council 
(CCL). 

Prof. J. C. Cameron 

Prof. J. C. Cameron, professor of indus- 
trial relations at the University, submitted 
a written brief; he was not present at the 
hearings. 

In it he dealt with government- 
supervised strike votes, decertification, 
compulsory arbitration and the conciliation 
procedure. 

"The adoption of government-supervised 
strike votes would not improve matters," 
Prof. Cameron stated in his brief. "I am 
afraid that it might hasten the advent of 
government-supervised votes on other 
collective bargaining issues. This might 
undermine rather than improve employer- 
employee relations." 

He believed that "there is little ground 
for the use of compulsory arbitration as 
anything other than an emergency device". 

Prof. Cameron thought there was too 
much talk about a "lengthy conciliation 
process"; that many of the complaints 
about long periods of bargaining should not 
be taken too seriously; and that many of 
the troubles can be corrected by the parties 
themselves. 

Prof. C. H. Curtis 

A reminder that the Ontario Labour 
Relations Act affects several groups with 
diverse interests was given in the opening 
remarks of Prof. C. H. Curtis, assistant 
professor of industrial relations at Queen's. 
Therefore, he added, it is likely to be 
subjected to continuous criticism by the 
various groups interested in it. 

"If any group is to succeed in amending 
the statute effectively, that group must 
establish that its amendments serve some- 



thing more than its own particular in- 
terests," he then declared. To be enforce- 
able, they must have "the sanction of a 
sufficiently broad element of public 
opinion," he pointed out. "No significant 
changes can be made in the Act without 
first convincing the public that such 
changes are desirable." 

Prof. Curtis gave a brief summary of the 
provisions of the Act and at its conclusion 
said: "Although the Act enjoins all to 
observe its terms and declares non- 
observance an offence, there is no authority 
empowered to undertake the prosecution of 
an offender." 

He believed that trade unions had 
benefited from the provisions of the Act 
that provide for certification, as they now 
gain recognition by a process much less 
difficult and costly than the organizational 
strike. 

The public, too, has gained because "the 
elimination of organizational strikes is 
generally a good thing". 

Many employers, however, "no doubt feel 
that the statutory requirement that they 
deal with a certified union is a serious 
infringement of their rights to run their 
own businesses," Prof. Curtis said. 

The effect of the restriction of strikes 
and lockouts and the requirement to con- 
ciliate is more difficult to appraise, Prof. 
Curtis said. The fact that conciliation is 
in the offing undoubtedly affects the 
approach of the parties to negotiations. 
And, he declared, conciliation does impose 
delays on unions and employers which 
neither of them is particularly anxious to 
have. 

While he was unable to reach a conclu- 
sion on the net effect of conciliation on 
unions and employers, he was certain that 
"the provisions of the Act are sufficiently 
broad and their administration sufficiently 
flexible to enable the parties involved to 



76839—4* 



987 



exercise a good deal of control over the 
nature and over the duration of the process 
and, so, over the effects of the process. 

'Thus, the 'defects' in the system are, to 
some extent, made by the parties them- 
selves and the remedies are, to some extent, 
in their own hands," he said. 

It is open to either party to prolong or 
expedite the time taken by the proceed- 
ings, he pointed out in explanation. 
Manoeuvres made by either party to 
prolong or expedite proceedings are not 
"crimes" but examples of the flexibility of 
the process, Prof. Curtis declared. 

"I do not think that either unions or 
employers would gain anything by intro- 
ducing into the statute strict and specific 
provisions that would speed up conciliation 
if those provisions destroyed the flexibility 
of the process," he said. 

Delays in the conciliation procedure that 
cannot be attributed to the parties them- 
selves and that do not serve their pur- 
poses should, he thought, be minimized. 
The appointment of a single conciliator 
rather than a board was one of the ways 
he suggested for shortening the process. 
But, he warned, "the fact that the single 
conciliator would have no colleagues to 
consult would necessitate the exercise of 
great care in selecting him." 

In answer to later questioning by the 
Committee, Prof. Curtis said he thought 
the ideal would be a single conciliator 
assisted by a technical adviser nominated 
by each party. The conciliator could listen 
to the expert advice of the two advisers 
and then reach a decision; he would not 
have to be an expert himself. 

Prof. Curtis made one further suggestion 
in his brief: that those who act as chair- 
men of conciliation boards be brought 
together from time to time to discuss the 
procedures followed and the objectives 
sought. "I think chairmen would develop 
better procedures and practices and gener- 
ally undertsand their functions better if 
they had the opportunity to exchange 
views among themselves," he explained. 

In the discussion that followed the read- 
ing of his brief, Prof. Curtis said he believed 
that access to the courts should not be 
closed because it prevented "bad awards," 
a bad thing for both sides. To a sugges- 
tion that enforcement authority be given 
to the Labour Relations Board, he replied 
that enforcement was the duty of the 
courts. "Why bring the Board into what 
is primarily a private affair," he asked, 
citing as an example an arbitration award 
for reinstatement of a dismissed employee. 



Kingston Labour Council 

While the Ontario Labour Relations Act 
has succeeded in some instances in smooth- 
ing the way for management and labour, 
in other important matters it fails com- 
pletely. This was the statement made in 
the brief submitted to the Committee by 
the Kingston Labour Council (CCL). It 
was presented by Dwight M. Storey, Council 
Secretary. 

One place where the Act has failed, the 
brief declared, is in the matter of union 
security. "It is not enough for the Act to 
grant recognition to a union," it stated. 
"Real recognition comes only when proper 
union security is accepted by management." 
The brief then recommended: 

The Kingston Labour Council believes that 
the Act should be amended to provide that 
where a majority of the workers in a 
bargaining unit decide by a secret ballot 
vote, conducted by the Ontario Labour Rela- 
tions Board, that they want union security, 
then it should be compulsory for all workers 
to become members of the union and 
authorize dues deduction, so long as the 
union is the legal, certified bargaining agent. 

The Kingston Council also believed that 
the Act does a "serious disservice" to both 
management and labour where long-term 
contracts are concerned by providing that 
conciliation services are not to be granted 
and that strikes and lockouts are to be 
prohibited during the life of a collective 
agreement. The Council predicted an in- 
crease in the number of long-term agree- 
ments with open-end wage clauses. There- 
fore, the Council contended, "the Act 
should be amended to provide that con- 
ciliation services may be used in long-term 
contracts, and the right to strike guaranteed, 
concerning monetary matters" in those 
contracts. 

Criticizing the delays that occur in the 
conciliation process, the Council asserted 
that conciliation, to be effective, should not 
create additional issues between the parties 
but should conciliate the differences "in a 
speedy and forthright manner". The brief 
then suggested amendments to provide: 

1. an optional system of conciliation in 
all disputes; 

2. a system that clearly sets out minimum 
time limits for the procedure, with the right 
to strike when the time limits have expired, 
regardless of whether or not a conciliation 
report has been received; 

3. for the exemption from conciliation of 
industries where the operation is of short 
duration, for example construction industry; 
exemption from provincial statutes of indus- 
tries where national negotiations are prac- 
tical or desirable; 



988 



4. a government program of training 
personnel from all walks of life to act as 
conciliation officers and board chairman; 

5. a policy that all settlements be retro- 
active to the expiry date of the previous 
agreement. 



The Council also recommended that 
when corporations merge, the new entity 
should be required to assume the collective 
bargaining responsibilities of the old just as 
it assumes other responsibilities. 



Other Centres 



At St. Catharines the Committee heard 
a brief prepared by the Peninsula Labour 
Council, urging that the Act be amended 
so that it would outlay company unions, 
and make it more difficult for employers 
to obstruct union attempts to organize a 
plant. 

Frank Hutnik, of the Carpenters' Union 
at Windsor, told the Committee he did not 
think the Labour Relations Board should 
make available to an employer results of 
a vote on certification, while James Dowell, 
Vice-President of Local 195, UAW, sug- 
gested that the Ontario board "obviously 
is of the opinion that organized labour is 
a detriment to society in the province". 

The Hamilton and District Labour 
Council proposed that regional conciliation 
offices be organized and that conciliation 
officers be stationed in industrial centres 
throughout the province to cut down delays 
in conciliation procedures. 

Conciliation officers could also investigate 
complaints of discharges due to union 
activities and take evidence of union 



membership for certifications. The assist- 
ance to new bargaining units would be 
particularly helpful to the building trades, 
who are rarely on one construction job 
long enough to negotiate a contract with 
the present procedure. 

The Hamilton Building Trades Council, 
at the same hearing, requested the with- 
drawal of the building trades from the 
Ontario Labour Relations Act because of 
the certification and conciliation delays. 
Often, when an agreement is obtained 
following such procedure, the company 
sublets unfinished work to a non-union 
contractor. 

Since conciliation is the responsibility of 
the Ontario Labour Relations Board, con- 
ciliation officers should be directly respon- 
sible to it, the labour council asserted. At 
present, officers are responsible to the 
Department of Labour. 

The recruitment and training of chair- 
men of conciliation boards as members of 
the provincial civil service was also pro- 
posed by the labour council. 



CMA's 85 th Annual Meeting--!! 



Four speakers participate on each of two panels, on health insurance 
and on grievances arising under collective agreements. The Rt. Hon. 
Vincent Massey, Governor General, is guest speaker at annual dinner 



The last two panel discussions of the 
three that made up the Employer-Employee 
Relations Conference at the 85th annual 
meeting of the Canadian Manufacturers' 
Association were on health insurance and 
grievances arising under collective agree- 



ments. Four speakers participated on each 
panel. 

Addresses given during the first panel 
discussion, on the guaranteed annual wage, 
were summarized in last month's issue 
(page 814). 



Health Insurance 



Dr. George F. Davidson 

"Health Insurance in Relation to Our 
National Social Security System" was the 
title of the address by Dr. George F. 
Davidson, Deputy Minister of Welfare. 
Pointing out that the title was one he did 



not suggest himself, he said it seemed to 
assume that we have in Canada a national 
social security system. 

There are some who might be inclined to 
argue about such an assumption, taking the 
view that what we have is not a "system" 
at all but a conglomeration of programs; 
some introduced under federal auspices, some 



989 



under provincial; some applicable in all 
parts of Canada, some operative only in a 
limited number of provinces 

Whether or not this all adds up at this 
stage of our development to what can 
properly be labelled a national social 
security system, Dr. Davidson was not 
prepared to argue; but the total aggregate 
of measures and programs, he said, reflects 
the stages of time and changing attitudes 
and social security concepts through which 
we have passed. 

The reason why the separate programs, 
such as mothers' allowances, unemployment 
insurance, family allowances, old age 
security, to mention only a few, are different 
in kind and based on different sets of prin- 
ciples is that they were introduced by 
different governments, at different jurisdic- 
tional levels, at different stages of time, 
and when the prevailing economic and social 
climates were greatly different. 

Accordingly, health insurance, if and 
when it comes, will to a considerable 
degree reflect in its form and substance, 
its underlying philosophy and its financing, 
the social security concepts prevailing at 
the time the program comes into actual 
operation, said Dr. Davidson. 

Obviously, one of the governing factors 
in relating any health insurance program 
to our national network of social security 
measures, Dr. Davidson noted, is the con- 
stitutional problem. This requires that 
health insurance be a matter of provincial 
jurisdiction and administration. 

The reports of the Rowell-Sirois Commis- 
sion, the Marsh Report, the Green Book 
Proposals of 1945 may in one case or another 
have advocated transfer of responsibility for 
unemployment insurance, old age insurance or 
some of the other social insurance programs 
to the federal Government; but in all these 
reports, and in all other reports and studies 
carried out by either federal or provincial 
governments in Canada, there has been 
unanimous agreement and, in fact, insistence 
that health insurance, whatever the ultimate 
disposition of the other insurance programs, 
remain with the provincial governments. 

While under our constitution health 
insurance is a matter for the provinces and 
there is almost complete unanimity that it 
should remain so, it does not follow, said 
Dr. Davidson, that there is no national or 
federal interest or responsibility in the 
matter. The problem is to determine the 
proper nature and extent of that interest 
and responsibility, "the channels through 
which it can best be expressed, the proper 
timing and phasing or staging of the 
program, and the limits within which it has 
a responsibility for providing both financial 
assistance and technical guidance, leader- 
ship and consultation to the provinces". 



With these considerations in mind, the 
federal Government, said Dr. Davidson, has 
consistently taken the position that the 
initiative and the responsibility for deter- 
mining a course of action with respect to 
health insurance in any province must 
remain with that province. "Each province 
must decide for itself, in the light of its 
own position and resources, if it wants 
health insurance or if it does not." 

If, said Dr. Davidson, only one or two 
provinces want it, then, according to the 
federal Government, it cannot be regarded 
as a matter of nation-wide interest. "You 
cannot justify taxing all the people of 
Canada to assist the people of only one 
or two provinces in meeting the costs of 
their health care." 

On the other hand, where a majority of 
the provinces, representing a majority of 
the people, indicate their desire or readiness 
to go ahead with health insurance, or some 
agreed phases of it, there would be fairly 
general agreement, Dr. Davidson thought, 
that in such circumstances the national 
interest is involved and that the federal 
authority has some responsibility to assist 
the provinces, "within prudent and reason- 
able limits, to achieve the objectives in 
the health insurance field which they have 
set for themselves". 

This, he said, was the position taken by 
the federal Government when it met with 
the provincial governments at the confer- 
ence of October 1955. 

One other basic factor in the federal 
Government's position that should be 
mentioned, Dr. Davidson added, is that 
health insurance, as and when it comes to 
be adopted by the provinces, should be 
implemented in stages. 

It has recognized the dangers and particu- 
larly the administrative difficulties of any 
attempt to act precipitately, to aim too high, 
to move too fast or too far, or to attempt 
to introduce health insurance on a holus- 
bolus basis. It has been conscious of the 
difficulties which attended such an under- 
taking in the United Kingdom, to mention 
only one example; and there, the difficulties 
of attempting too much at one time developed 
despite the fact that the United Kingdom 
had had in operation a nation-wide system 
of health insurance for its wage-earners 
extending back over more than 25 years. 

Dr. Davidson concluded with a summary 
of the federal Government's proposal to 
the provinces as presented to the confer- 
ence of the provincial Ministers last 
January and later outlined by the Minister 
to the House of Commons Committee on 
Estimates on March 15, 1956. 



990 



The limitation of the proposal to the 
area of hospital insurance and diagnostic 
services should be noted, he said, as 
reflecting the judgment of both federal and 
provincial governments that health insur- 
ance in Canada can best be implemented 
by stages and that these are the stages 
where it is now most likely to be feasible. 

J. C. Broafch 

When speaking of health insurance it is 
important to make sure that we are all 
talking about the same thing, J. C. 
Broatch, Manager, Industrial Relations 
and Personnel Department, Canadian 
Fishing Company, Limited, Vancouver, 
said. "Hospitalization and medical insur- 
ance can be, and should be, kept separate, 
because they are two separate things," he 
pointed out. 

Speaking on "Experience under the British 
Columbia Health Insurance Scheme," Mr. 
Broatch first gave some details of the plan. 

Every person who has been a resident of 
British Columbia for one year is entitled to 
receive hospitalization under the provincial 
hospitalization insurance scheme. Origi- 
nally, the scheme required fixed contribu- 
tions by the residents of the province, but 
this proved unsatisfactory since a large 
percentage of the population refused to pay 
premiums. In April 1954, the premiums 
were discontinued and were replaced by an 
increase in the provincial government's sales 
tax from 3 per cent to 5 per cent. 

The benefits provided by the scheme are 
very complete. In general, all costs inci- 
dental to hospitalization, except doctors' 
bills, are covered. Room and board, drugs, 
special diets, X-rays, laboratory costs and 
the like, are all provided. The difference 
between the ward room rate and the semi- 
private and private room rates is not 
covered, and bedside telephones and other 
"luxuries" are not covered. There is no 
limit to the number of days' _ stay in the 
hospital, except that once a patient has been 
defined as a "chronic" case, he ceases to be 
covered. 

There is a "co-insurance" charge of a 
dollar a day, which must be paid by the 
patient for each day's stay in the hospital. 

The scheme, said Mr. Broatch, makes it 
unnecessary for an employer to provide any 
type of hospitalization benefits for his 
employees in the province of British 
Columbia. 

Hospitals in Canada have always been 
requesting and receiving government 
money, Mr. Broatch said, so it would seem 
inevitable that governments should get into 
the hospital business. In British Columbia, 
he said, the scheme has been well received 
and, now that it is established, "it could 
not be taken away from the people of the 
province". 



But this does not mean that there was 
not a great deal of discontent and a great 
deal of unnecessary furore and adjustment 
required in order to achieve the plan we now 
have. Faulty administration hampered the 
program initially. Those in control ignored 
industry, ignored the employer, and had the 
attitude that because it was compulsory 
people had to pay. The people did not pay. 
Thus the need for the sales tax. Those in 
authority did not realize that the mechanics 
of the accounting system had to be sold. 
They ignored the experience and personnel 
of the voluntary plans which were already 
set up and they did not take into account 
that many thousands of people would have 
been happy to continue with their own plans 
which had the costs shared voluntarily by 
industry and the worker. 

Mr. Broatch said he could not stress too 
strongly the need for relating services and 
facilities to cost and the need of an experi- 
ence rating system. You cannot make 
people realize by lecturing that as they use 
the service so will the costs be reflected; 
the most effective means is through the 
pocketbook. 

In order to get results, a hospitalization 
plan needs to be localized to effect individual 
pocketbooks, or at least a small individual 
group, so that the social pressure of the 
group keeps the cost in line. The element 
of competition is also necessary in order to 
create efficiency and pride of achievement. 
Voluntary contribution and effort is lost 
when a local hospital loses its identity. 

Passing on, then, to medical insurance, 
Mr. Broatch described the Medical Services 
Association plan in operation in British 
Columbia. 

The plan, a non-profit, prepaid one, was 
started 15 years ago when a group of 
doctors put up the initial funds to under- 
write it. More than 325,000 persons are 
covered, he said, which, along with other 
insurance carriers, means that 50 per cent 
of the people in British Columbia are 
covered for medical insurance. The plan 
is a partnership between industry, workers 
and doctors, each having representation on 
the board of directors. 

It is the accepted thing in industry, with 
the cost shared between the employer and 
employee. The contract, which is signed with 
the employer, is geared to industry and 
labour agreements, with trustee plans which 
cover the whole industry where desirable. 
There is an experience rating formula which 
sets up the plan on a cost basis with adequate 
reserves. This, plus reasonable administra- 
tive expenses, has enabled the plan to attain 
the strength which it now has. It is a service 
contract which provides complete service, 
with free choice of doctor. The # doctor is 
paid the going rate, which eliminates the 
possibility of the subscriber receiving sub- 
standard care. Transfer agreements are in 
effect with other plans in Canada and the 
United States whereby individual partici- 
pants in the plan may be taken care of 



991 



without loss of coverage when they change 
their place of residence. Extended health 
benefits are available for the groups which 
desire them. 

He had described the Medical Services 
Association plan, Mr. Broatch said, because 
it should be understood that agencies are 
already established which are doing a more 
than adequate job of providing health 
insurance. "Labour, industry and the 
workers themselves, not to mention the 
doctors, would resist any attempt to remove 
this plan, which is their own creation. 
These agencies should be encouraged and 
coverage through them could be extended 
to all who desire it, by the government 
taking the place of industry as the signator 
to the contract when there is not an 
employer available." 

He expressed fear of "the creeping 
socialism" inherent in a compulsory plan. 
We have already accepted some socializa- 
tion of medical care, such as in the case 
of tuberculosis, the insane and the veteran. 
"What is important, and where the danger 
lies, is the extent to which socialization 
goes and this means: Where do we stop?" 

He was not, he said, saying that govern- 
ment should not be interested in the welfare 
of the people but he thought there is much 
to be done in the way of research into the 
cause and cure of many illnesses, such as 
cancer, heart and mental illnesses. "Is this 
not the field in which the government could 
do the most? This, coupled with the assis- 
tance to and the co-ordination of the 
voluntary prepaid plans in each province, 
would supply the answer to one of the most 
vital problems before the Canadian people 
today," he concluded. 

Col. W. Wallace Goforth 

Like most Canadian citizens and econ- 
omists, said Col. W. Wallace Goforth* of 
Gilbert Jackson and Associates, Toronto, 
he believed governments have a vital role 
to play in public health and hospitalization. 
"The question before us, however, is 
whether or not a general compulsory 
hospitalization scheme is desirable on 
economic and social grounds." 

The question is crucially applicable to 
Ontario, he stated, "for without this prov- 
ince's participation the general scheme will 
not proceed". 

Today 3,750,000 persons in Ontario, about 
70 per cent, are covered by some form of 
private, group, industrial or co-operative 
health insurance scheme. This raises several 
vexed questions, both for governments and 
industrial management, he said. "With a 



*Col. Goforth died in Toronto on July 6. 



70 per cent population coverage, which in 
most respects gives better coverage for 
individuals, is it politically wise or expedient 
to proceed with a compulsory, universal 
scheme at all?" he asked. For one thing, 
it would involve complicated renegotiation 
of industrial contracts, some jointly con- 
tributory and others paid for by the 
employer alone. 

Another problem concerns a vital 
feature just appearing in industrial con- 
tracts, underwritten by insurance companies, 
that of coverage against the family sickness 
"catastrophe," Col. Goforth pointed out. 
One such recent contract, he said, provides 
catastrophe coverage up to $5,000 per 
family. While the present federal-provincial 
plans provide for standard ward care for 
the whole duration of an illness, it would 
meet only part of the catastrophic problem 
created by a lengthy illness; hospital costs 
over and above standard ward care rates, 
together with medical and surgical expenses, 
would still be a very real problem. 

Referring to the "cumulative tax burden" 
as mainly one of defence and health and 
welfare, he said no one will question either 
the wisdom of our high peacetime defence 
expenditures or most of what is now spent 
on health and welfare. "What we can ques- 
tion seriously is the wisdom of adding 
further to the public welfare and health 
cost load we already carry." 

Are we warranted in going well over 
half-way towards state medicine in view 
of the cost involved, Col. Goforth asked. 
Will it give as much value received in 
terms of national health as would a much 
more moderate program of expanded 
supplemental health service by govern- 
ments. These he listed as: 

1. A government-sponsored plan of health 
and hospital insurance for the older age 
groups. 

2. An expanded system of public health 
clinics concentrating mainly on preventive 
medicine. 

3. Moderately increased scales of subsidy 
to indigent out-patients and in-patient ser- 
vices of existing hospitals, including tuber- 
culosis and mental as well as the general 
hospitals. 

4. Special subsidies for expanding medical 
and particularly dental schools in Canadian 
universities. 

5. New personal income tax exemptions to 
cover at least part of the medical catas- 
trophic problem. 

Finally, said Col. Goforth, there is the 
unanswered question as to the relative 
quality of health and hospital services 
under a compulsory public insurance 
scheme. 



992 



Prof. Malcolm Taylor 

Speaking on "Health Insurance in Per- 
spective," Prof. Malcolm G. Taylor, of the 
University of Toronto, stated that in 1954, 
excluding British Columbia and Saskat- 
chewan, where government plans are in 
operation, less than half the people of 
Canada had protection against the cost of 
hospital care. What is even more alarming, 
he said, is that the annual rate of increase 
in enrolment is so small. In that year it 
was only one per cent. 

For surgical expenses, 65 per cent were 
unprotected, Prof. Taylor continued, and 
75 per cent had no protection against 
medical bills. 

As everyone with experience in the field 
of insurance will testify, the easiest part 
of the task has been accomplished — the 
insuring of people through pre-formed 
groups, the most notable being the employee 
group, he said. 

To insure the remainder of the population 
is incomparably more difficult. It is for this 
reason that, in attempting to place the issue 
of national health insurance in perspective, 
I must ask you to raise your sights from the 
general title of this symposium, "Showing 
the Way in Labour Relations," and consider 
that the need for an administrative mech- 
anism for financing the costs of sickness goes 
far beyond the boundaries of employer- 
employee relations. 

Every individual, from birth to death, is 
subject to unpredictable need for medical 
care, said Prof. Taylor. While the achieve- 
ments of medical and hospital care have 
progressed immensely, the costs of such 
services have increased commensurately, 
with the result that only a small propor- 
tion of Canada's citizens can, without the 
device of insurance, meet the costs of a 
serious illness. 

The situation whereby only half the 
population outside Saskatchewan and British 
Columbia has protection has developed 
chiefly, Prof. Taylor said, from four factors : 
(1) a serious financial problem that needed 
to be solved for everyone; (2) astute 
merchandising by prepayment plans and in- 
surance companies of a desirable product 
on a group basis; (3) pressure by unions; 
and (4) enlightened employer participation. 

Of these, Prof. Taylor noted, pressure by 
unions is probably the most important. 
But, he added, one possible criticism of 
the labour movement in Canada is that 
"in seeking to solve for their own members 
an economic problem that is common to all 



Canadians, they have pursued a solution 
that ignores the legitimate needs of their 
fellow citizens". 

As a matter of fact, if we take into 
account the developing pattern in which the 
cost of the employee's health insurance is 
paid in part or in full by the employer and 
passed on to the consumer, we are arriving 
at a situation whereby the uninsured not 
only have no protection for themselves but 
are forced to help pay for the health insur- 
ance of those who do have it. 

Mentioned as a further inequity by Prof. 
Taylor is that under the provisions of the 
Income Tax Act premium payments for 
health insurance are not allowable as deduc- 
tions when paid by an individual but are 
allowed as deductions from corporation 
income tax when paid on the employee's 
behalf by his employer. This, said Prof. 
Taylor, has the effect of a government 
subsidy and, again, for a favoured group. 

"The independent individual, like the 
self-employed and the farmer, is the for- 
gotten man in the field of health insur- 
ance," he declared. 

Discussing the costs of a national hospital 
insurance program, the net additional cost 
to the Canadian people would be only the 
increases resulting from the additional ser- 
vices received by those needing hospital- 
ization but who are not now receiving it, 
and from higher costs resulting from an 
improved standard of service, Prof. Taylor 
said. "Moreover, in appraising costs, let 
us not forget that society bears the costs 
of sickness whether people are insured or 
not." 

Prof. Taylor was of the view that there 
is need for broader coverage. 

The present pattern of insurance coverage 
places a heavy premium on getting into 
hospital, because so many more people have 
hospital benefits than have medical or other 
benefits. As a result we have created an 
artificial demand for the most expensive type 
of health care — the active treatment general 
hospital. People who could get laboratory 
and radiology tests in doctors' offices or out- 
patients' departments, patients who are con- 
valescing, patients who should be in chronic 
care facilities, or patients who could be 
cared for at home are thronging our general 
hospitals, simply because this is the one part 
of the health care package that is most 
frequently insured. 

It is unfortunate, said Prof. Taylor, that 
the federal proposals do not include a 
home-care program. "As leaders of the 
community, you can make a great contribu- 
tion by stressing the importance of a 
broader approach to insurance benefits and 
by spear-heading the provision of auxiliary 
facilities," he suggested. 



76839—5 



993 



Grievances Arising under Labour Contracts 



Douglas R. Brown 

"The grievance procedure clause is not 
usually considered as one of the attention- 
getters as compared with the seniority or 
wage rate clauses," said Douglas R. Brown, 
of Canadian General Electric Company 
Limited, Peterborough, Ont. Mr. Brown 
was discussing "Drafting Grievance Pro- 
cedure Clause and Prearbitration Handling 
of Grievances by Management". 

It is, however, in many respects one of 
the most important clauses in the agree- 
ment, he said, because "what we do with 
a grievance can build employee confidence 
or can lead us into increasing trouble". 

The basic point in regard to drafting a 
grievance procedure, he said, can be 
expressed as: "provide for the bona fide 
use but protect against the abuse". To 
fulfil this basic point, the specific wording 
of a grievance procedure clause should 
provide for: — 

1. A discussion between the employee and 
the first line supervisor. 

2. Participation of the steward when 
requested by the employee. 

Mr. Brown cautioned against inclusion of 
any provision attempting to define what is 
or what may be made the subject of a 
grievance. This, he said, should not be 
confused with denning the necessary restric- 
tions on arbitration. Grievance procedure 
and arbitration, while related, are definitely 
two different things and in many cases 
should have different approaches. "The 
action taken under a grievance procedure 
by management is on a basis of manage- 
ment's own decision ; in arbitration, matters 
are being submitted to a third party," he 
explained. 

Speaking then on the attitude of man- 
agement, Mr. Brown reminded his listeners 
that, while the words of the clause are 
important, they are but a means to an end 
and not the end itself. "The way manage- 
ment representatives conduct themselves 
and the purpose for which they strive 
determine the gain or loss in the hand- 
ling of grievances." 

In the processing of grievances, "even as 
annoying and unreasonable as they some- 
times can be," said Mr. Brown, "manage- 
ment must keep certain fundamentals in 
mind or it may win the grievances but lose 
the employees' confidence and respect. 

In summary, he advised: 

Draft your grievance procedure so that it 
provides for bona fide grievance processing 
but protects against abuses. 



Take a positive rather than a defensive 
or legalistic approach to grievances and use 
it as an opportunity to increase understand- 
ing and to build confidence and respect. 

F. C. Burnet 

Discussing "Drafting Arbitration Clause 
and Arbitration Procedure," F. C. Burnet, 
of Canadian Industries Limited, Montreal, 
at the outset gave his definition of arbitra- 
tion. 

"Arbitration," he said, "is a process for 
the adjudication of disputes by a third 
party and its distinguishing characteristics 
are twofold: first the arbitrator is the agent 
of the parties, possessing only that power 
or authority which is specifically delegated 
by them and second, his decision shall be 
final." 

In the labour relations field, Mr. Burnet 
said, arbitration is sometimes used to 
determine or establish the terms of the 
agreement itself. Much more commonly, 
however, it is confined to questions arising 
during the term of the agreement con- 
cerning matters of interpretation of its 
provisions. 

Arbitration of this kind of dispute is a 
legal requirement in most provinces, arising 
from the legislative provision that while the 
parties may use strikes or other economic 
force to compel agreement, they may not 
strike or use economic force during the 
term of an agreement; enforcement of the 
terms of an agreement is, therefore, to be 
accomplished by arbitration of any dispute 
concerning its interpretation, violation, appli- 
cation or administration. In other words, 
arbitration is intended simply as a means of 
assuring that both parties live up to the 
agreement. 

Mr. Burnet then discussed the functions 
of an arbitrator in a grievance dispute, 
describing what he referred to as the 
"mediation" approach and the "judicial" 
approach. 

There may be particular industrial situa- 
tions, he said, where the mediation approach 
is useful; but among the majority of 
management people the judicial approach 
is the desirable one, because it is the only 
one that fulfils the true purpose of arbi- 
tration — to assure that both parties live 
up to their bargain whatever the conse- 
quences to either side. 

The mediation approach, on the other 
hand, tends ultimately to discredit the whole 
arbitration process, particularly because so 
few arbitrators, however well-intentioned or 
public-spirited, have either the mediation 
skill or detailed knowledge of the business to 
assume properly the responsibility for the 
promotion of their particular concept of 
good industrial relations. 



994 



Management's first problem, therefore, in 
drafting its arbitration clause and pro- 
cedures is to secure that arrangement which 
will confine the arbitrator's jurisdiction 
purely to questions of interpretation or 
violation, Mr. Burnet said, and which will 
forestall any attempt to adopt a mediation 
approach. 

After discussing some of the problems 
surrounding the drafting of the arbitration 
clause and procedure, Mr. Burnet summar- 
ized his three major points: 

First, the arbitration provisions should be 
drafted in such a way that the basic pur- 
pose of arbitration will be served — to require 
both parties to live up to their bargain. 

Second, the arbitration process is being 
misused by unions, in order to enlarge on 
the bargain, to keep the membership con- 
vinced of the necessity of union protection 
and sometimes for tactical reasons in bar- 
gaining. This calls for certain safeguards 
by management such as careful restriction of 
arbitral authority, precise wording in all 
clauses of the agreement, and the use of 
such mechanical devices as time limitations, 
separate and specific arbitration submis- 
sions, ad hoc arbitration cost-sharing arrange- 
ments, etc., as will forestall abuse. 

And my final point is that continued 
acceptance and respect for the arbitration 
process demands that criteria be firmly- 
established to guide and confine the arbi- 
trator. The decision in arbitration cases 
must not be dependent on the particular 
philosophy of the arbitrator, so that the 
process will cease to be regarded by unions 
as a gamble, out of which they may derive 
benefits which were not part of the bargain. 

Norman L. Mathews 

In discussing the "Preparation and 
Presentation of Arbitration Cases," Norman 



L. Mathews, QC, of Mathews, Stiver, Lyons 
and Company, Toronto, using the term 
arbitration to refer to the arbitration of a 
grievance arising out of the interpretation 
or alleged violation of an agreement, listed 
the points he considered important for 
management to keep in mind: — 

1. Preparation of arbitration case : 
importance of investigation at earliest 
opportunity and thoroughness of investiga- 
tion; interviewing of witnesses prior to 
arbitration. 

2. Presentation of case : outline customary 
procedure; make preliminary objections 
that may properly be made; action in 
regard to witnesses; objections to evidence 
considered inadmissible. 

3. Presenting evidence of your own 
witnesses. 

4. Argument after evidence completed. 

R. V. Hicks 

In an examination of "Jurisdiction of 
Arbitrators and Enforcement of Awards," 
R. V. Hicks, of Tory, Miller, Thomson, 
Hicks and Company, "Toronto, outlined 
what he considered the broad principles 
governing the powers of arbitrators. 

First, the basic rule, their authority to 
make an award must be found within the 
confines of the collective agreement. 

They can decide only the issue before 
them and none other. 

The award must not be contrary to 
established legal principles. 

The award must be capable of being 
implemented. 



Banquet and Luncheon Speakers 



The Governor General 

Three views regarding the sort of pre- 
liminary training most likely to fit men for 
responsible positions in business were exam- 
ined by His Excellency the Rt. Hon. 
Vincent Massey, Governor-General of 
Canada, in an address at the CMA's annual 
dinner. 

First, His Excellency said, there was "the 
old tradition, and a fine one in its way, 
that a business man is born — not made; 
that because industrial kingdoms have been 
created by men trained in the school of 
experience, formal education is not only 
unnecessary but a positive handicap." This 
tradition, he said, is to be found in the 
professions as well as in business. It is 
the view that "theory kills practice and a 
feeling that if learning refines, it must also 
weaken". 



A second "more powerful and increas- 
ingly popular school takes a very different 
view," he continued. This school seeks to 
apply that precision in method and tech- 
nique, which has proved its value in 
business and manufacturing, to administra- 
tive procedures also. 

By the proponents of this view "increas- 
ingly the young man who looks forward 
to a career in business is led to or directed 
to the doors of a school of business admin- 
istration, an institute of accounting or, 
more grandly, a college of commerce," Mr. 
Massey went on. "He comes out with two 
great advantages: for the many who now, 
far from scorning education, worship blindly 
at the altar of the university degree, he 
wears a halo; for those who still remember 
that the degree matters less than the studies 



'6839—5; 



995 



which have earned it, he is master of certain 
tried and true procedures — he has 'the 
know-how' ". 

The third school of thought on the 
subject, described by the Governor General 
as "the most promising" for Canadian busi- 
ness, is somewhat of a compromise between 
the two already outlined. It places a high 
value on a liberal education as a founda- 
tion, with the special training required in 
any particular line of business acquired by 
learning on the job and in study after hours. 

Mr. Massey quoted as follows from an 
article reporting words spoken by A. J. E. 
Child that was published in Office Equip- 
ment News. 

I have seen many men reach responsible 
operating or technical positions, but fail to 
become executives because of a deficiency in 
educational background and a lack of breadth 
of outlook. . . . This has led us within the 
last few years to seek out, for the accounting 
and administrative end of our company, 
university graduates in honour arts or in 
commerce. ... So long as we judge that a 
young man has the personal qualities suited 
to our business we welcome the graduates in 
classics, English, history, mathematics and 
the like. It is the personal experience of 
many of us here that specialized business 
techniques can be learned on the job, plus 
the after-hours study which any ambitious 
young man will seek out for himself. 

Many experienced businessmen want 
young persons of liberal education, nour- 
ished in the humanities or in mathematics, 
because "they are seeking men with 
disciplined minds who have learned the art 
of clear thinking and precise expression — 
and, may I add, economy in the use of 
words — and for those very qualities of 
imagination and courage which today are 
so hard to come by," Mr. Massey said. 
"These were not hard for our fathers and 
grandfathers who lived excitingly and 
dangerously. They are hard today for 
young people reared in security, in comfort, 
surrounded, almost muffled, by safety 
devices and rules of health." 

Although there was no sure "formula" 
for developing imagination, the most 
promising way was "an education in the 
humanities, the liberal arts or in man's 
second language, mathematics," the Gov- 
ernor General said. 

Thomas E. Dewey 

Thomas E. Dewey, former governor of 
New York State, who was one of the 
luncheon speakers at the meeting, expressed 
gratification at having been able to join 
Prime Minister St. Laurent in the cere- 
monies marking the beginning of the 
St. Lawrence Seaway Project. 



He noted that his fellow citizens in the 
United States had been sharply divided for 
a good many years over the project but 
that he personally had always seen it as 
"a project characterized by fundamental 
inevitability". 

The march of progress, Mr. Dewey 
noted, "is erratic but it is also inexorable. 
Anything that would open up the central 
portion of our continent to the oceans of 
the world would be an achievement of 
dramatic economic importance. I made a 
fair number of enemies in supporting it 
but the actual launching of the project and 
the vision of the glory of its achievement 
is a source of considerable gratification." 

Mr. Dewey went on to say that the new 
artery of world commerce combined with 
the surge of new hydro-electric power would 
add even more impetus to the development 
of both Canada and the United States. 

Referring to the progress Canada has 
made since the end of World War II, Mr. 
Dewey noted that the gross Canadian 
product is now officially reported to be 
S26 billion, more than six times as great 
as it was 25 years ago. 

"Manufacturing," he said, "has grown to 
the point where it accounts for more than 
half of all Canadian production. Canada 
has already become the seventh largest 
manufacturing nation in the world and we 
should be grateful to the men who have 
made such massive contributions. We 
march side by side in thrilling progress, 
your country and mine, through an almost 
unique system of private initiative and free 
enterprise." 

Mr. Dewey drew to the attention of his 
audience that Canada and the United States 
are each other's best customer. "No other 
two countries in the world," he stated, 
"exchange such a great volume of goods." 

He reminded his listeners that communism 
was still a threat to the Western World, 
even though the Russians are now actively 
condemning the actions of the late Joseph 
Stalin. 

We agree with them that Stalin was the 
worst menace of our time. The Russians 
are in a unique position, too. They are able 
to give more facts to prove the point. 

The difficulty is, of course, that all the 
present denouncers were part of Stalin's 
board of directors. These members of the 
board have not yet repudiated the objec- 
tives of Stalin. They simply say he was too 
hard on the Russians. They complain that 
he killed rather more than was customary 
for a Czar, even a hereditary Czar, or a 
modern communist Czar. 

The activity of Russia in the Far East 
countries was recalled by Mr. Dewey. He 
emphasized that poor, underprivileged 



996 



people can be easily swayed and that 
Russia was taking full advantage of that 
situation wherever possible. 

He strongly urged the Western nations 
to build up the Far East nations before 
Russia can get to them. He concluded: 

It will take the most extraordinary and 
skilful combination of government and busi- 
ness partnership to fill this vacuum before 
the Communists fill it. Obviously we cannot 
afford to let them fill it. If they should 
win this race, then we would be a small 
minority in a world led by an expansionist 
aggressive communist dictatorship. 

To fill the vacuum will take people- 
hundreds of thousands of people — trained in 
all the arts of modern finance, industrial 
management and development. It will also 
take capital and risk. I hope the help will 
come from all the free nations. . . . 

Admiral Ben Moreell 

"Modern socialism in its several varieties 
is the culmination of the dreams of count- 
less men and women during the past 
century and a half," Admiral Ben Moreell, 
Chairman of the Board, Jones & Laughlin 
Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa., said in a 
luncheon address, "What Price Socialism?". 
He traced the history of modern socialism 
from the coining of the word "socialist" in 
1827. 

The terms "social ownership" and "owner- 
ship in common" are deceptions, he said, 
because society, meaning all of us, cannot 
act as a whole to own and control prop- 
erty; it must act through its enforcement 
agency, government. "In actual practice, 
therefore," he declared, "a socialist society 
is one in which the vast majority of men 
are controlled by the tiny minority that 
has the political power to direct their 
economic activities. The socialist dream is 
based on the delusion that men's other 
freedoms will be enhanced if their economic 
freedom is curtailed." 

Karl Marx, "whose influence has so 
powerfully shaped the world we live in," 
was not the founder of socialism, but 
claimed that his socialism was "scientific" 
in contrast to earlier "utopian" socialisms, 
Admiral Moreell declared. 



Marxian socialism was, I believe, based 
on the concept that man and society could 
be refashioned, not in the image of God, but 
in the image of the men who wielded 
political power. People were conceived of 
as being only natural products of the natural 
world, mere fragments of the landscape, and 
as such they could be levelled off to fit the 
blueprint of a master plan with as little 
compunction as we level off a hill with a 
bulldozer. 

Socialists may speak of controlled pro- 
duction as their method of operation, but 
production cannot be controlled except by 
controlling people. If men as producers are 
to be controlled, it means that they will be 
told what jobs they are to work at, where 
they will work and how long they will work. 

It is unfortunate, said Admiral Moreell, 
that we have forgotten the old adage: 
"Who so controls our subsistence controls 
us." Political control of economic life does 
not control production and exchange, he 
declared, it controls persons. 

"No fair-minded person would deny that 
our currently popular 'middle-of-the-road' 
policy operates to place all citizens under 
the yoke of excessive taxation and thus 
puts enormous amounts of money at the 
disposal of the political agency," he said. 

The politicians then disperse the tax fund 
as subsidies to favoured groups in the nation, 
with the result that society is broken up 
into three principal groups. First, there is 
the group on the receiving end — the people 
who get back more in subsidies than they 
pay out in taxes. They get something for 
nothing. Secondly, there are those who pay 
more in taxes than they get in subsidies. 
They get nothing for something. Third, there 
are the people who comprise the political 
agency, who produce no wealth but who have 
the power to forcibly transfer wealth from 
one set of pockets to another. 

"It is of utmost importance that we 
understand that socialism is based on 
coercion and on the control of some men 
by other men," Admiral Moreell said in 
conclusion. "It is equally important that 
we become expositors of the philosophy of 
freedom. When the alternatives — freedom 
versus socialism — are understood, then men 
are confronted with a clear-cut distinction 
on which to base their choice." 



Is Management Ready for Tomorrow? 



F. R. Deakins 

Speaking on "Industrial and Scientific 
Research," F. R. Deakins, President, RCA 
Victor Company, Ltd., Montreal, stressed 
the need for more fundamental research 
in Canada, "whether by industry, govern- 
ment or the universities". 

The place of research in Canada is no 
longer questioned, he said. 



With others, Mr. Deakins was concerned 
with the shortage of scientists and engi- 
neers coming up through the schools and 
universities. 

If our future production depends on 
scientific research and development then it 
surely depends on having properly qualified 
men to staff our laboratories in future. This 
problem, linked as it is with the shortage 
of good teachers, particularly in the high 



997 



schools, is a difficult one to solve. Perhaps 
we can alleviate it a little by doing our 
very best as individuals and organizations 
to encourage the youngsters we know to 
adopt a scientific career. We are beginning 
a series of plant tours which will show high- 
school and university students the fine oppor- 
tunities available in research, development 
and production in our industry. 

Dr. Sidney E. Smith 

Dr. Sidney E. Smith, QC, President, 
University of Toronto, spoke on "University 
Education from the Viewpoint of the 
Educator". 

Referring to the theme of the annual 
meeting — "Is Management Ready for 
Tomorrow?" — Dr. Smith said as far as the 
educational aspects are concerned, manage- 
ment is not even ready for today. 

Dr. Smith took as the text of his address 
a statement by Herbert H. Lank, President 
of Du Pont Company of Canada : "Business 
gifts to education should be regarded by 
the donors not as charitable donations but 
as an essential cost of doing business and 
staying in business." He then made this 
appeal : 

When you employ a university graduate — 
arts-man, scientist or engineer — you are 
purchasing the services of a person whose 
education beyond secondary school has cost 
anything from $2,000 to $50,000. He did not 
pay that much for it, but that is what it 
has cost. You have employed him because 
you need him for your operations. He is 
(although I dislike dehumanizing metaphors) 
essential equipment. The salary you pay 
him could be called his maintenance cost. 
But what about your capital investment in 
him? What about the heavy cost of train- 
ing him so that you may profit from his 
vision and his skill? You are not required 
to pay that when you employ him. That has 
already been paid, partly by him and his 
parents, mostly by the university he attended. 
What the Canadian universities are asking 
industry to do is to repay some part of that 
initial cost. We are not mendicants asking 
for handouts, or travelling salesmen trying 
to interest you in the "luxury goods" of the 
intellect. We are the institutions, and the 
only institutions, who can furnish certain 
needs of yours. We cannot meet your 
present needs, let alone your future needs, 
without your help. 

Our chief concern, said Dr. Smith, is 
professors' salaries ; they have risen in some 
centres but not in all, and not enough in 
any. We must also provide better working 
conditions, he said, to give our staff the 
tools for their job. "It is hard to believe 
this but classroom buildings, libraries and 
laboratories have not yet recovered from 

the pinch of depression And now we 

anticipate the greatest wave of applicants 
in our history." 

In more than one sense, their support 
of education should be thought of as an 



essential cost of doing business and staying 
in business, Dr. Smith told the conference, 
and their interest in education should 
include not only the quantity of it but 
also the quality. He was, he said, not 
pleading merely for the sake of those who 
will go on to higher education but also 
for the establishment and development of 
junior colleges and technological institutes. 
"There is no better investment on the 
financial page of any paper than our invest- 
ment in youth," he concluded. "Young 
men and women are worth more than all 
our mines and forests. They are more 
crucial to the country than all our com- 
munications networks. They are more worth 
developing than the St. Lawrence Seaway. 
They have more potential power than 
Niagara, Kitamat and Chalk River. They 
must rely on us for the present, but we 
must rely on them for the future. We 
must develop their powers to the full, for 
their own sake and for the sake of the 
country and the world in which we live." 

H. H. Kerr 

Speaking on "Technical Education from 
the Viewpoint of the Educator," E. H. Kerr, 
Principal of Ryerson Institute of Tech- 
nology, Toronto, explained the purpose of 
the "Ryerson type" of education as being, 
first and foremost, the training of engineer- 
ing technicians. 

"Engineering technician" is a compara- 
tively new term, Mr. Kerr said. It was 
adopted by the European and United 
States Engineers' Conference in Geneva a 
little more than a year ago and subse- 
quently approved by the Conference of 
Commonwealth Engineering Institutions. 
In part, the definition is: "One who can 
apply in a responsible manner proven 
techniques which are commonly understood 
by those who are expert in a branch of 
engineering, or in those techniques especi- 
ally prescribed by professional engineers. 
The techniques employed demand acquired 
experience and knowledge of a particular 
branch of engineering combined with the 
ability to work out details of a task in 
the light of well established practice". 

In Europe, the role of the technician has 
been long and favourably known, said Mr. 
Kerr, but only during the past few years 
on this side of the Atlantic have the 
capabilities of the engineering technician 
become recognized. 

For the past 50 years, the engineering 
faculties attached to many of our universities 
have offered excellent courses on both the 
under-graduate and graduate levels. We 
have also had various good schemes for the 
training of our skilled craftsmen but the 



998 



training of the technician has been neglected, 
probably because it was not until recently 
that Canada evolved an industrial economy. 
After its establishment in 1948, however, the 
growth of the Ryerson Institute of Tech- 
nology has helped to direct attention to his 
training and his potential value to a com- 
pany. Since that date, moreover, there has 
developed a great shortage of professional 
engineers, and employers generally have 
turned to this new source for assistance to 
fill their engineering needs. 

We are busy building automatic and 
automated machinery, Mr. Kerr said, 
which, while producing goods better and 
more cheaply, does release manpower. But, 
he pointed out, "unfortunately for the 
present shortage, the manpower is being 
released at the lower end of the scale of 
skills, rather than at the engineering level. 
Conversely, the complexity of our present 
day machines and the processes they entail 
demand more and better-trained engineers 
and engineering technicians than they did 
in the past." 

It would appear, therefore, that because 
of the high academic ability required, the 
ratio of graduate engineers to the total 
population cannot be greatly increased. 
Other solutions to the endemic shortage must 
be sought and one solution is the training 
of more engineering technicians. The engi- 
neer should be employed in creative work, 
such as design, development and manage- 
ment, but it is generally recognized that a 
great many are being used on less creative 
and important tasks. The technician can and 
should relieve him of most of the routine 
work and free him to perform those duties 
for which he is especially trained. 

It must not be assumed that engineering 
technicians should be graduated by the 
thousands, Mr. Kerr said. An acceptable 
ratio for Canada, he thought, would be 
two technicians to one engineer. Engi- 
neering graduates from Canadian universi- 
ties for 1956 number about 1,800, he noted, 
which means that institutions ©f the 
Ryerson type should be graduating 2,700 
to 3,600 technicians. Actually, the number 
is less than 300. 

Canada has every reason to be proud of 
its vocational schools, Mr. Kerr commented. 
In most provinces, there are government- 
operated trades schools offering apprentice- 
ship courses and short courses for skilled 
and semi-skilled crafts and occupations that 
are playing an important part in our 
economy. 

"But," he said, "the Ryerson Institute of 
Technology is unique in its field in this 
country. Automation and increased indus- 
trialization will need more and more of its 
competent young graduates, whose thor- 
oughly practical and theoretical training 



enables them to step into responsible posi- 
tions in factories and laboratories." 

Crawford Gordon, Jr. 

Speaking on "Education from the View- 
point of the Industrialist," Crawford Gordon, 
Jr., President and General Manager, A. V. 
Roe Canada, Limited, expressed alarm at 
the acute shortage in the fields of teach- 
ing, engineering, medicine and research. 
The western world, he said, is training less 
than half the number of scientists and 
engineers required for industrial and defence 
purposes. 

"There is cause for alarm everywhere," 
Mr. Gordon added, "for there is a shortage 
of educated people everywhere. And if we 
haven't the educated people to meet 
present demands, how on earth can we 
expect to meet the demands of the future 
unless there is a substantial improvement 
in the source of supply." 

High schools, particularly, are a key 
factor, Mr. Gordon commented. "Indica- 
tions are that interest in high schools in the 
sciences and mathematics, which are the 
backbone of engineering, is on the decline." 
Something is seriously wrong, he said, when 
almost one-third of our high school students 
quit some time before graduation. 

A lot of good professional material must 
be going to waste in the one-third of the 
students who quit high school before gradu- 
ation and in the one-third who graduate but 
cannot afford to go on to university, he 
declared. "As a growing industrial nation, 
we cannot afford for them not to be able 
to afford to go," he added. 

The matter of technicians is a very 
critical area, Mr. Gordon said. "We 
desperately need technicians to free engi- 
neers for more demanding work." 

Related somewhat is the matter of an 
adequate apprenticeship scheme, Mr. 
Gordon observed. "I know there are some 
formidable problems to overcome here with 
the Canadian trade union movement but 
we've got to tackle it some day if we ever 
hope to solve the problem of a plentiful 
supply of skilled craftsmen." Referring to 
the British apprenticeship system as "one 
of the pillars of their industrial machine," 
he asked: "If it can work over there, why 
can't it work here?" 

A natural development of this might be 
something similar to the British National 
Certificate system, which has produced some 
of the finest" creative engineers in the world. 
Many of the top engineers with our com- 
panies, including one vice-president of engi- 
neering, came up this way. 

On universities Mr. Gordon said he had 
only two comments, finance and a few 



999 



general observations. Under the latter, he 
discussed financial aid - to students who 
cannot afford to go on to university, the 
shortage of capable and adequate teaching 
staffs and the urgency of "revitalizing" 
interest in the sciences and mathematics. 



This is not the problem of one industry 
or one industrialist, Mr. Gordon stated, 
but of all industry in co-operation with 
government, educational institutions, the 
professions, labour and industry, "but 
particularly industry". 



International and Canadian Federations 

of Business and Professional Women 

For first time, Canadian elected President of International Federation 
Canadian body adopts resolutions concerning country's employed women 



A Canadian has been elected President 
for the next three years of the International 
Federation of Business and Professional 
Women, the first Canadian to fill the posi- 
tion. She is Margaret P. Hyndman, QC, 
of Toronto, who succeeds Dame Caroline 
Haslett of the United Kingdom. 

The Federation's seventh triennial confer- 
ence was held in Montreal last month, when 
the hostess was the Canadian Federation of 
Business and Professional Women. The 
Canadian group held its own 15th biennial 
convention in Montreal July 13 and 14, 
just after that of the international organi- 
zation, which was held from July 8 to 12. 

More than 450 delegates attended the 
two-day national convention, which passed 
several resolutions concerning employed 
women in Canada. 

International Federation Conference 

Representatives from 24 countries 
attended the international congress, which 
was presided over by the Federation's 
Deputy President, Mrs. Agda Rossel of 
Sweden* 

The Hon. George Marler, Minister of 
Transport, speaking on behalf of the Prime 
Minister, welcomed the delegates to Canada. 
Mrs. Hazel Laycock, of Winnipeg, President 
of the Canadian Federation, expressed the 
pleasure of the organization in entertaining 
the international body. 

Senator Muriel McQueen Fergusson of 
Canada was moderator of a panel titled 
"The Woman Executive". Participants were 
Elisabeth Feller of Zurich, President of an 
electrical appliances firm who is President 
of the Swiss Federation; Lisa Sergio of 



*Mrs. Rossel for a number of years has repre- 
sented her Government at meetings of various 
organs of the United Nations and was elected 
Chairman of the Tenth Session of the U.N. Com- 
mission on the Status of Women, held in Geneva 
in March. 



Woodstock, Vermont, editor, journalist and 
lecturer; Brita Elmen of Gothenburg, 
Sweden, President of the Swedish Federa- 
tion and a member of the Swedish parlia- 
ment; and Dr. Aileen Ross, professor of 
sociology at McGill University. 

In summing up the discussion, Senator 
Fergusson maintained that, while more 
women than in the past attain high execu- 
tive posts, there is still some reluctance to 
accept them. She reaffirmed what Miss 
Feller had stressed, that impartiality and 
diplomacy in a woman's approach to her 
work and to her associates are important 
factors in getting and keeping a top job. 
Miss Elmen emphasized the danger of 
losing human contact in this technological 
age and urged that women take care of 
human needs and human values. Dr. Ross 
spoke of the preconceived ideas of what 
women should like and the lateness with 
which they begin to think of public life 
as obstacles to their success. Miss Sergio 
directed attention to the countries of Asia 
and Africa where, she believes, in the rise 
from colonialism to freedom there is less 
discrimination against women. "Women of 
these countries" she said, "are looking to 
the West for examples of impartiality, skill 
and human awareness." 

Delegates and observers from the United 
States numbered more than 400; from 
Great Britain, 87. Some of the other 
countries represented were: Australia, 16; 
Belgium, 2; Denmark, 3; Finland, 1; 
France, 8; Germany, 6; Italy, 3; Mexico, 
2; the Netherlands, 2; New Zealand, 2; 
Norway, 7; South Africa, 6; Southern 
Rhodesia, 2; Sweden, 14; and Switzer- 
land, 8. 

Canadian Federation Conference 

Among the resolutions passed at the 
Canadian Federation's conference was one 
that requested the Government of Canada 
to invite the provincial governments to 



1000 



approve the signing and ratification of the 
United Nations Convention on the Political 
Rights of Women and also the ILO Con- 
vention on Equal Remuneration for Men 
and Women for Work of Equal Value. 
Another resolution urged early introduction 
of the promised legislation for equal pay 
for equal work by the federal Government 
and expressed the hope that the provinces 
which have not yet passed such legislation 
may do so in the near future. 

It was recommended that the federal 
equal pay law use the word "equivalent" 
meaning "work of equal value" rather than 
"identical" as has been used in some 
provincial legislation. 

The Federation also decided to make 
representation to the Prime Minister urging 
that the section of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act restricting the rights of 
married women to collect insurance (Section 
161) be rescinded. The Federation believes 
that "the same action could be taken to 
protect the Unemployment Insurance fund 
against unjust claims from married women 
that is taken in relation to other categories 
of claims". 

In view of the fact that women com- 
prise 50 per cent of the federal electorate, 
the meeting advocated the appointment of 
additional women from all provinces to fill 
existing vacancies in the Senate. 

Provision for greater participation of 
women in policy making bodies of the 
Government and the appointment of a 
woman to the existing vacancy on the Civil 
Service Commission were also advocated. 
The Convention decided also to bring to 
the attention of chartered banks the reason- 
ableness and desirability of appointing 
women to the directing boards. 



Advocating equal educational oppor- 
tunities for boys and girls, in the 
technical field in particular, Ruth 
Tomlinson, United Kingdom Business 
and Professional Women's Clubs Presi- 
dent, told the Canadian Federation of 
Business and Professional Women's 
convention at Montreal that hammers 
and mechanical toys should be as much 
a part of a girl's world as dolls and 
domesticity. 

Little girls like mechanical toys, 
Miss Tomlinson said and this, she 
believed, is a "healthy beginning" for 
girls who want to progress in technical 
education. 

Further breaking with tradition, she 
added, "if there is emphasis on domestic 
subjects for girls, domestic subjects 
should also be emphasized for boys." 



Still another resolution requested that an 
additional income tax exemption of $500 
be granted to retired persons aged 60 years 
and over. This action was recommended 
because large numbers of women are 
required by company rules to retire from 
work at that age. 

Mrs. Maude Baylay of Toronto was 
elected President of the Federation for the 
next biennial period. Senator Fergusson 
was re-elected a Vice-president. Newly- 
elected Vice-presidents were Isabel Menzies 
of Montreal, Una Maclean of Calgary and 
Mrs. Edith Waterman of North Battleford, 
Sask. Mrs. Florence Chinn of Brampton, 
Ont., was named Honorary Secretary- 
Treasurer. 



Seminar on Relations of the IFBPW with the United Nations 



The Charter of the United Nations 
provides for arrangements whereby its 
Economic and Social Council may consult 
with international non-governmental organ- 
izations whose interests lie within the 
competence of the Council. The IFBPW 
is one of the organizations which under 
this provision works in a consultative role 
with ECOSOC and its various commissions, 
especially the Commission on the Status of 
Women. The effectiveness of this relation- 
ship depends upon the participation of the 
members of the consultative organizations 
in preparatory surveys and studies and 
expressions of opinion, all of which form 
the basis of representation to the Council. 
Therefore, to help bring about better 
understanding oi this responsibility, the 



International Federation arranged a seminar 
immediately preceding the Congress. 

Miss Ruth Tomlinson, President of the 
Business and Professional Women's Clubs 
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, who 
for a number of years has represented the 
International organization at United Nations 
meetings, presided. The speakers were Mrs. 
Mary Tenison-Woods, Chief, U.N. Section, 
Status of Women, and Frieda S. Miller, 
former Director of the Women's Bureau of 
the U.S. Department of Labor, who had 
just completed an ILO mission to six 
countries of South-East Asia. 

In her comment on the work of the 
voluntary agencies in consultative relation- 
ship with ECOSOC, Mrs. Tenison-Woods 
said: "Non-governmental organizations have 
become an integral part of democratic 



1001 




— ABC Studios 

At the Conference last month of Business and Professional Women's Federations (left to right): Elsie Gregory 
MacGill, j consulting engineer; Marion V. Royce, Director, Women's Bureau, Department of Labour 
Canada; Margaret P. Hyndman, QC, first Canadian to be elected President of the International 
Federation; and Mrs Mary Tenison- Woods, Chief, Status of Women Section of the United Nations 



society and through their participation in 
the work of the United Nations they 
promote a useful interchange of ideas and 
contribute valuable information." 

At the Tenth Session of the Commission 
on the Status of Women, held in Geneva 
in March, more than 30 organizations sent 
accredited observers. With the permission 
of the chairman, these observers are entitled 
to speak on any item of the agenda. The 
consultative organizations may also submit 
written statements up to two thousand 
words and they have the privilege of con- 
sultation with the Secretariat. 

Mrs. Tenison-Woods sketched the work 
of the Commission on the Status of 
Women. Realizing the importance of 
women's full participation as citizens, the 
Commission from its inception has given 
high priority to the promotion of the 
political rights of women. At first the 
Commission called on all member states to 
grant suffrage to women. But in 1949, to 
ensure that this right should have the 
dignity of an international treaty, a Con- 
vention on the Political Rights of Women, 
drafted by the Commission, was opened for 
signature in the United Nations. Since 
that time, 40 governments have signed the 



Convention, and 23 have acceded to its 
terms. Whereas in 1946 in more than half 
the countries of the world women had no 
political rights, at the present time they are 
fully enfranchized in 60 countries. There 
remain 15 countries, however, where they 
still have no political rights and three coun- 
tries in which their rights are restricted. 
In one of the latter a special educational 
requirement for voting is applied to women, 
and in the two others women have munic- 
ipal political rights only. 

The Commission has also formulated a 
Convention dealing with the Nationality 
of Married Women which has been sub- 
mitted to the U.N. Assembly. The purpose 
of this Convention is to protect a woman 
from automatic loss of nationality on 
marriage with a man of another country. 

Since the education of women is basic to 
their advance in society, the Commission, 
working closely with UNESCO, has con- 
cerned itself with questions relating to the 
access of women to education, including 
vocational training and fundamental educa- 
tion for the illiterate. 

The Commission's interest in the economic 
opportunities of women is evidenced by 
continuing studies of such questions as voca- 



1002 



tional training, advancement in employment 
and jobs for older women. The non- 
governmental organizations contribute to 
these studies useful information, supple- 
mentary to governmental data, regarding 
the economic status of women in the 
countries of their affiliated members. The 
Commission has also vigorously supported 
the ILO Convention dealing with equal 
pay for equal work. 

In the fields of family law and the 
property rights of women, the Commission 
carries on continuing studies dealing with 
such matters as polygamy, the relationship 
of spouses, guardianship of children and the 
effect of marriage on the property rights 
of women. 

The Commission has contributed to the 
U.N. technical assistance program helping 
to promote and safeguard the social, 
economic and political welfare and partici- 
pation of women. 

Miss Frieda S. Miller described the posi- 
tion of women in the six countries she had 
recently visited on behalf of the ILO — 
India, Ceylon, Pakistan, Thailand, Japan 
and the Philippines. 

Agricultural problems loom high in all 
these countries. In most of them far more 
than half the people (85 per cent in India) 
earn their living from the land. In agri- 
culture, women's work place is respected 
more than any place else; but all their 
skills are low. Many do not even know 
how to sew. Productive employment for 
women is limited but their contribution is 
needed and there is urgency for imagina- 
tive and informal job training. The 



changing industrial scene has given them 
new types of work, mostly unskilled and 
heavy. They carry materials for road 
building, work in the jute mills or at the 
pit head of mines carrying coals to the 
railways. As families move from rural 
areas into the cities, married women who 
formerly shared the work in the fields with 
their husbands tend to find work where 
their husbands are employed. They do 
the auxiliary jobs and sometimes they, 
their husband and their children are 
employed as family groups. 

Women of the wealthier classes who have 
had the advantage of education play a large 
part in the life of most of these countries. 
Miss Miller found that "equal pay for equal 
work" had almost magic meaning for these 
women. It is taken to embrace not only 
the rate for the job but chances for the job 
and in it. The protest against all social and 
economic exclusion on the basis of sex has 
crystallized around the equal pay issue. 

Several other Canadian women's organi- 
zations, in addition to the CFBPW, are 
affiliated with international non-govern- 
mental organizations having consultative 
status with the United Nations. These 
include : Canadian Federation of University 
Women, affiliated with International Feder- 
ation of University Women; Catholic 
Women's League, with World Union of 
Catholic Women's Organizations ; Federated 
Women's Institutes of Canada, with 
Associated Countrywomen of the World; 
National Council of Women, with Interna- 
tional Council of Women; and YWCA of 
Canada, with World YWCA. 



International Association of Personnel 

in Employment Security Annual Convention 

Changing demand for labour, with increasing call for skilled workers 
and diminishing one for unskilled, chief discussion topic at group's 
43rd annual meeting in Toronto, first since 1948 in a Canadian city 



The changing demand for labour, with 
a great and increasing call for skilled 
workers and a diminishing one for the 
unskilled — a tendency expected to gain 
further impetus as automation spreads — 
was the leading topic of discussion at the 
43rd annual convention of the Interna- 
tional Association of Personnel in Employ- 
ment Security, held in Toronto from June 
26 to 29. 

The convention, the first that IAPES has 
held in a Canadian city since 1948, was 
attended by nearly 1,400 delegates from all 



parts of Canada and the United States, and 
from Alaska, Puerto Rico, Iran, Japan and 
Thailand. At the opening the colours of 
20 nations were presented, an indication of 
the scope of the Association's membership. 

The keynote address, given by William H. 
Braine, CBE, Labour Attache at the British 
Embassy in Washington, was on the subject 
of "Employment Security— A Challenge of 
our Times". 

John B. Griffin, Dallas, Texas, President 
of the Association, in his message to the 
convention, said he was convinced that the 
Association was "a sleeping giant". 



1003 



Minister of Northern Affairs 

The peculiar conditions regarding the 
employment of the native population of 
the extreme northern part of Canada were 
discussed by Hon. Jean Lesage, Minister 
of Northern Affairs. A territory compris- 
ing 305,000 square miles in this part of 
Canada was inhabited by 28,000 persons, 
half of whom were Eskimos, Indians or 
halfbreeds. The nomadic habits of these 
people, the Minister said, have been broken 
down by the activities of the white man, 
and they have been forced to look for 
employment on such projects as the DEW 
and the Mid-Canada radar lines. 

In order to fit these people for employ- 
ment it was necessary to improve their 
health and education and to overcome 
social handicaps which are the result of 
centuries of primitive living, Mr. Lesage 
said. 

C. A. L. Murchison 

Clifford A. L. Murchison, Commissioner 
of the Unemployment Insurance Commis- 
sion, spoke of the importance of encourag- 
ing children to stay at school until they 
at least graduate from high school. Many 
parents, he said, seem to think that their 
sons are wasting their time by staying in 
school when they could be earning money, 
even in unskilled jobs. 

"Here is a job for public employment 
services," Mr. Murchison said. "Our experi- 
ence shows that industry today requires of 
its plant workers a much higher standard 
of education and intelligence than was the 
case 30 years ago." 

He suggested that employment agencies 
should try to influence parents to keep 
their children at school through guidance 
counsellors and parent-teacher organizations. 

"Automation will increase our standards 
of living and our ability to compete in 
world markets. It will create more jobs 
and at the same time lighten the work 
loads of the North American people," Mr. 
Murchison said. "At the same time there 
will be a call for higher qualities of leader- 
ship and direction, and as industry expands 
and new techniques for production develop 
there will be a greater need than ever 
before for people who possess special 
skills." 

Other Speakers 

Merrill G. Murray, Executive-Secretary 
of the Federal Advisory Council, U.S. 
Bureau of Employment Security, told the 
convention that: "Dramatic new concepts 
in applying the findings of science to indus- 
trial processes are working, and are going 
to work, many changes in the composition 



of the labour force. Technological develop- 
ment has placed a premium on the skilled 
worker, and today we find a corresponding 
lessening demand for the unskilled." 

Robert J. Tallon, Commissioner of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission, said 
that there is an obvious need for better 
education and training. Surveys showed 
that most of the unemployment was among 
those with little education and with no 
particular trade. 

Judge W. J. Lindel, Winnipeg, Chairman, 
National Employment Committee, said that 
the National Employment Service is some- 
thing much vaster than a glorified labour 
exchange; that it was concerned not only 
with obtaining employment for the unem- 
ployed, but that it also applies itself to 
such questions as seasonal unemployment, 
employment for older workers, and geo- 
graphical pockets of unemployment. These 
problems, he said, will never be completely 
solved, and because of their complexity they 
call for joint effort by the agencies of 
government and by employer, labour and 
other national organizations. Public opinion 
also had a part to play. 

A. R. Mosher, Honorary President, Cana- 
dian Labour Congress, and member of the 
National Employment Service, said that 
employment is not a matter that can be 
left solely to government bodies. Since 
we all have a stake in employment condi- 
tions, every substantial group of Canadian 
citizens should be represented, directly or 
indirectly, on local employment committees. 

Robert C. Goodwin, Washington, Director 
of the U.S. Bureau of Employment 
Security, said that present world conditions 
of economic change and unstable peace 
called for a flexible system of employment 
security which could adapt itself to "chang- 
ing economic conditions, problems of 
employment and unemployment, and the 
needs of employers and job seekers". 

Roy L. Campbell, Montreal, member of 
Canada's National Employment Committee, 
said: "Unemployment hurts us all. It 
hurts us as Canadians because we have 
an interest in the country and it hurts us 
as taxpayers because when for any com- 
bination of a great variety of reasons 
unemployment increases we all pay the bill. 
Unemployment is simply money down the 
sink." 

Dana Porter, Provincial Treasurer of 
Ontario, said: "Canada still needs immi- 
grants. Although in the past 10 years over 
1,200,000 immigrants have come to Canada 
(52 per cent of these to Ontario), man- 
power shortage remains as one of our most 
pressing problems. We need and can 
absorb a great variety of skills." 



1004 



One result of automation, Sydney Selwyn, 
Trenton, N.J., suggested, would be that 
local employment offices in Canada and the 
United States would employ psychologists 
to interview applicants for work to find out 
whether they were suitable to operate 
automatic machines. He said that many 
people found the monotony of such work 
intolerably irksome. 

Employment agencies should not feel 
that the problem of automation rests on 
their shoulders, W. Morley Roberts of 
Moncton, N.B., Atlantic Regional Employ- 
ment Officer of the UIC, told the dele- 
gates. "It's the job of trade unions and 
industry to make sure displaced workers 
are trained to take over new jobs. All we 
need do is to point out to industry when 
there are groups of workers with certain 
skills who can, with a little more training, 
be ready to take over other functions," he 
maintained. 

Awards and Citations 

During the convention Roy L. Campbell, 
Montreal, received the I APES Citation of 
Merit for his services in connection with 
the rehabilitation and employment of the 
physically handicapped. Miss Mariclare 
Grenshaw. Gallatin, Tenn., received the 
Association's Award of Merit for her 
successful efforts in bringing new industries 
to her own and neighbouring communities; 
while second-place recognition was given 
posthumously to J. Rene Laframboise, 
Cornwall, Ont., for his services in manag- 
ing difficult manpower matters in connec- 
tion with the St. Lawrence Seaway (L.G., 
May, p. 493). 

Workshops 

Leo J. Curry, Ottawa, Executive Director 
of the UIC, introduced a series of 10 work- 
shops. Subjects studied included: problems 
of internal communications, fraud detection 
and prevention, placement of professional 
and managerial personnel, fact finding, 
prompt and proper payment of benefits, 
in-service training, special placement pro- 
grams, the average job seeker, and human 
skills. 

In the workshop discussion on "Current 
Trends in Special Placement Programs" it 
was stated that "it's a situation calling for 
an unremitting struggle to make industry 
see its folly in arbitrarily discarding a 
whole section of its working population 
because of prejudice". 

Election of Officers 

W. Garnett Johnson, Frankfort, Ky., was 
elected President in succession to John B. 
Griffin. Mr. Johnson is executive assistant 



to V. E. Barnes, Commissioner of the 
Kentucky Department of Economic 
Security. George B. Elleson, Bay City, 
Mich., was elected First Vice-president; 
Harry Van Brunt, Tallahassee, Fla., Second 
Vice-president; Miss Marian E. Perry, 
Albany, N.Y., Secretary; and Carl T. 
Anderson, Nashville, Tenn., Treasurer. 

Next year's meeting will be held at 
Miami Beach, Fla., and the 1958 conven- 
tion will take place in Philadelphia, Pa. 

Canadian Participation 

Besides those already mentioned, Cana- 
dians who took part in the program either 
as speakers, or in workshop or panel discus- 
sions, included the following officials of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission: Lt.- 
Col. J. G. Bisson, OBE, Ottawa, Chief 
Commissioner; Judge W. J. Lindal, Winni- 
peg, Chairman, National Employment 
Committee : A. R. Mosher, Ottawa, Member, 
National Employment Committee; Arthur 
Wood, Secretary, National Employment 
Committee; E. C. Desormeaux, Ottawa, 
Secretary of the Commission; Regional 
Superintendents Ralph P. Hartley, Moncton, 
Atlantic Region; William McKinstry, Van- 
couver, Pacific Region; Marcel Guay, 
Montreal, Quebec Region; B. G. Sullivan, 
Toronto, Ontario Region; and William 
Duncan, Winnipeg, Prairie Region; W. H. 
Barker, Montreal, Quebec Regional Unem- 
ployment Insurance Auditor; Edward Carr, 
Ottawa, Staff Training Officer. Head Office ; 
L. Winnifred Bradley, Toronto, Supervisor, 
Local Office Youth Centre; John D. Devlin, 
Toronto, Ontario Regional Supervisor of 
Staff Training; Joseph Dingle, St. Cath- 
arines, Inspector, Ontario Regional Enforce- 
ment Branch; J. Frank Dwyer, Toronto, 
Ontario Regional Employment Officer; 
Edward C. Fortier, Pembroke, Ont., Local 
Office Manager; Gaston Gagne, Rimouski. 
Que., Local Office Manager; G. A. L. 
Gibson, Toronto, Ontario Regional Super- 
visor, Special Services; Merle Johnson, 
Winnipeg, Computations Unit Head ; Horace 
Keetch, Vancouver, Local Office Manager; 
Eleanor S. Morley, Vancouver, Pacific 
Regional Co-ordinator of Women's Employ- 
ment; Gabriel J. Primeau, Montreal, 
Quebec Regional Adviser on Primary Indus- 
tries; Arthur Rackham, Toronto, Ontario 
Regional Unemployment Insurance Auditor ; 
Lucien St. Cyr, Montreal, Employment 
Branch Head, East Zone; Hugh Stephens, 
Winnipeg, Local Office Supervisor of Men's 
Employment; A. L. Tosland, Ottawa, 
Assistant to Director of Employment 
Service. 



1005 



20 th Annual Convention of the 
Newfoundland Federation of Labour 

Amends constitution as consequence of TLC-CCL merger, supports 
wage demands of provincial civil servants, rejects resolution calling 
for dissolution of Labour Relations Board. President Chafe re-elected 



Important constitutional changes con- 
nected with the merger of Canada's two 
major labour congresses were among the 
main subjects of debate at the 20th annual 
convention of Newfoundland Federation of 
Labour held July 14-21 in St. John's. 

Principal changes in the constitution 
were: only organizations which belong to 
the Canadian Labour Congress will be 
eligible for affiliation with the Federation; 
per capita taxes were increased; the admin- 
istrative framework of the organization 
was improved; and the executive was 
reconstructed to provide for geographical 
representation of vice-presidents and a new 
joint post of secretary-treasurer. 

During part of the discussion on the 
proposed new constitution, Frank Chafe, 
President of the Association, made the 
charge that in the past racketeers have 
managed to gain control of some provincial 
unions. "There have been cases in New- 
foundland," he said, "where union member- 
ship has been bled to death and sold down 
the river." 

The section of the new constitution 
which this statement referred to reads as 
follows: "The executive council shall have 
the power to conduct an investigation of 
any situation in which there is reason to 
believe that any affiliated organization may 
be dominated, controlled or substantially 
influenced in the conduct of its affairs by 
a corrupt influence or that its policies or 
activities are contrary to the principles of 
the Federation." 

Mr. Chafe explained later in an interview 
that his remarks were actuated by the wish 
to impress upon the delegates the necessity 
of providing such a measure for the protec- 
tion of the labour movement, though he 
said that the problem of racketeering in 
Newfoundland labour was not serious. 

The President urged the members to 
make their efforts to bring independent 
unions into the Federation "a full-time 
job". The Federation is anxious to bring 
all unions into its fold, he said. 



The financial report showed that the 
Federation represented 14,457 of the prov- 
ince's union members. 

Provincial Minister of Labour 

Younger members were urged by C. H. 
Ballam, Newfoundland Minister of Labour, 
himself one of the original members of the 
Federation, to take more interest in the 
union movement. "Trade union men today 
have problems just as great as their pre- 
decessors, although the problems may be 
different. Unions have a big job today and 
it will take big men to fill the shoes," he 
said. 

Mr. Ballam spoke of the important 
changes in labour legislation brought in six 
years ago, and went on to outline the 
purposes of the establishment of the labour 
legislation review committee, which had 
been set up to meet continual changes in 
the thinking and policies of labour and 
business. 

He referred to the brief which had been 
presented to this committee by the Federa- 
tion (L.G., April 1956, p. 380) and he told 
the delegates that he felt sure that the 
report of the committee would include 
many if not all of their recommendations, 
and that the report would be given most 
careful consideration by the Government. 

One of the most important segments of 
present labour legislation is that dealing 
with apprenticeship, the Minister said. He 
said that he was very proud of the new 
Workmen's Compensation Act, which will 
provide increased benefits for injured work- 
men and dependents. 

Henry Harm 

Henry Harm, Regional Director of 
Organization and Education for the Atlantic 
Region of the CLC, said that TLC-CCL 
merger had done away with direct affilia- 
tion with any particular political party but, 
he added, union members should still take 
an interest in politics, since this would 
strengthen their efforts for better condi- 
tions. 



1006 



"Every move made by government is 
affecting our everyday life, and organized 
labour should have something to say about 
what these moves will be," Mr. Harm said. 

He spoke of the general lack of knowl- 
edge of the labour movement among young 
people. "Our younger unionists know 
nothing about the difficult struggles and 
the tremendous obstacles which have been 
overcome by unions in days past, and 
therefore are not interested, and are not 
building the movement into what it should 
be," he said. 

Resolutions 

Heated discussion took place on a 
resolution that asked the Federation to 
support the provincial Government "in any 
measures it may find necessary" to provide 
an increase in the salaries of its civil 
servants. 

Cyril Strong of St. John's objected that 
this wording would put the Federation in 
the position of supporting any increase in 
taxation imposed by the Government to 
meet the demands of the civil servants. 
"We should reserve the right to criticize 
the form which this taxation might take," 
he asserted. 

Baxter Fudge of Corner Brook, on the 
other hand, maintained that if the conven- 
tion refused to accept increased taxation it 
would be approving of the rest of the 
province's being subsidized at the expense 
of the civil servants. J. J. Cochrane, dele- 
gate of the Newfoundland Government 
Employees Association from St. John's, said 
that NGEA members had not complained 
when increases obtained by other employees 
had led to increases in the cost of living, 
such as those caused by higher bread prices 
or higher costs of house painting. 

A motion to amend the resolution in 
such a way as to limit the Federation's 
support of tax increases to cover salary 
increases was finally adopted; with this 
amendment the resolution was carried 
unanimously. 

After considerable discussion a resolution 
recommending that the Government should 
abolish the 3-per-cent sales tax on food- 
stuffs was overwhelmingly rejected. Some 
of the delegates pointed out that the sales 
tax was used for social security benefits 
and that these would have to be reduced 
if the tax were abolished. 

Other resolutions passed included pro- 
posals to: — 

Establish a vacation with pay act to cover 
all employees. 

Establish a standing public relations 
committee within the framework of the 
Federation. 



Establish an equal pay for equal work 
act, thus eliminating "the exploitation of 
female labour". 

Appoint a special committee to discuss 
with the Newfoundland Teachers' Associa- 
tion and the Newfoundland Federation of 
Fishermen the desirability of closer rela- 
tionship with the Federation. 

Ask the Department of Education to set 
aside Labour Day as a school holiday. 

Extend daylight saving time into October. 

The convention approved a resolution 
asking the executive council to pass on to 
the CLC for presentation to the federal 
Government resolutions calling for an 
increase in the old age pension to $50 a 
month and for extension of the children's 
allowance to include children up to 18 years 
of age who are still attending school. 

A resolution calling for the dissolution of 
the Newfoundland Labour Relations Board 
led to a heated debate, during which Presi- 
dent W. Frank Chafe first vacated the 
chair to take part in the discussion on the 
resolution and later walked out of the 
meeting. 

Mr. Chafe, himself a member of the 
Labour Relations Board, accused the block 
of delegates supporting the resolution of 
intimidation. 

The resolution was presented by the 
Humber Trades and Labour Council; the 
resolutions committee moved its rejection. 

Speakers from the Humber Council all 
asserted that action taken last year by the 
Labour Relations Board against a local at 
Corner Brook was unfair, and added that 
in their opinion the Board had acted 
unfairly to organized labour in Newfound- 
land. 

President Chafe, in rebuttal, quoted 
statistics to show that out of 231 applica- 
tions for certification which the Board had 
dealt with since 1950, 175 have been 
granted. Forty-four applications were dis- 
missed, said Mr. Chafe, while seven others 
were withdrawn. 

This was evidence that proved that the 
statements made in the resolution were 
"without foundation in fact," the President 
said. "Drafted in ignorance, this resolu- 
tion is dangerous to the welfare of the 
Federation. It is an ignorant affront to 
the Federation nominees, to me as President 
of this Federation and to the Labour 
Relations Board as a whole." 

He called upon the membership to throw 
out the resolution and make a public state- 
ment re-affirming its faith in the Board and 
showing its "true feelings about the Board". 
He suggested that the resolution might 
well be construed as libelous. 

(Continued on page 1021) 



1007 



From the Labour Gazette, August 7906 

50 Years Ago This Month 

Scarcity of labour and shortage of housing being felt in many parts of 
Canada. Bricklayers and stonemasons sign agreement with Montreal 
Builders' Exchange setting up board of arbitration to settle disputes 



Under the stimulus of extensive railway 
construction, the rapid opening-up of new 
territory on the Prairies, heavy immigra- 
tion, and favourable crop prospects, busi- 
ness continued to boom during July 1906. 
A scarcity of labour was being felt in many 
industries and in various parts of the 
country, with unskilled labourers particu- 
larly in demand. 

Wages during the month were on the 
increase. In Ontario and Quebec farm 
labourers were getting as high as $2 a day 
or $35 a month, with board, for short 
engagements. In lumber camps in those 
two provinces wages were about $4 a month 
higher than the year before. Plumbers and 
steamfitters in Winnipeg had their wages 
raised from 35-50 cents to 40-52^ cents an 
hour for an eight-hour day. Brass moulders 
in Toronto were given an increase of 5 per 
cent for men who were getting $2.50 a day, 
and 10 per cent for those getting less than 
that rate. Those receiving more than $2.50 
got no increase. 

Toronto policemen received increases in 
salary which raised the pay of inspectors 
of divisions to $1,450 a year from $1,400, 
and that of 3rd class constables with one 
year's service from $638.75 to $700 a year. 

Wages of unskilled labour were higher 
than they had been for many years. 

In many places early closing arrange- 
ments went into effect in July. The 
Ottawa Municipal Council passed a by-law 
requiring all barber shops to remain closed 
on weekdays between the hours of 8 p.m. 
and 6 a.m., except on Saturday and the 
day before a holiday. This by-law was 
passed in response to a petition to the 
Council, which had been signed by at least 
three-quarters of the occupiers of barber 
shops. 

House rents were very high in many 
cities and towns throughout the country 
owing to the scarcity of workingmen's 
houses. The building of houses to satisfy 
the demand was affected by the high price 
of lumber. In British Columbia and the 
Prairies, the Shingle Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation increased the price of shingles 10 
cents a thousand during July. 



At the annual meeting of the Toronto 
Branch of the Canadian Manufacturers' 
Association the chairman said that the 
scarcity of moderately priced houses for 
workingmen was an urgent matter calling 
for action on the part of the Branch. He 
referred to an estimate that 18,000 persons 
in Toronto were actually suffering by 
reason of high rents, and said that a number 
of establishments were being left short- 
handed owing to the housing scarcity, and 
that new industries were being prevented 
from establishing themselves in Toronto by 
the same cause. 

He said that it was impossible to increase 
wages enough to compensate for the high 
rents, and declared that the only remedy 
was to build more houses. 

Early in July an agreement was entered 
into between the Brick and Stone Con- 
tractors Section of the Montreal Builders' 
Exchange and the Bricklayers' and Masons' 
International Union, Local No. 1, by which 
it was agreed that all disputes which could 
not be otherwise settled were to be sub- 
mitted to an arbitration board appointed 
jointly by the parties to the agreement. It 
was agreed that a strike or lockout could 
take place only if it had been ordered by 
the arbitration board. 

This agreement was similar to, but more 
elaborate than, the one entered into in 
the previous month between the Calgary 
Builders' Exchange and International Asso- 
ciation of Bricklayers and Stonemasons in 
that city. 

An article in the Labour Gazette of 
August 1906 states that in January 1905 
Rider Haggard had been appointed by the 
British Secretary of State for the Colonies 
as a commissioner to inspect and report 
upon the agricultural and industrial settle- 
ments established in the United States by 
the Salvation Army. 

Rider Haggard's report, which was issued 
in May 1905, described these settlements 
and recommended that steps be taken by 
the British Government to establish similar 
settlements in Canada. The Colonial 
Office thereupon appointed a departmental 
committee to consider the suggestion. The 
report of this committee in general rejected 
Rider Haggard's recommendations. 



1008 



International 
Labour Organization 



Two Recommendations Adopted 

by ILO'S 39 th Conference 

Vocational training in agriculture and welfare facilities for workers 
subjects of latest international instruments. Delegates also adopt 
resolutions on automation, reduction of hours of work, and equal pay 



Two Recommendations were adopted by 
the 39th session of the International Labour 
Conference at Geneva, Switzerland. They 
were: (1) a Recommendation to promote 
vocational training in agriculture and (2) a 
Recommendation concerning welfare facili- 
ties for workers (For complete texts of the 
Recommendations, see pages 1013 and 1018). 

The conference adopted the Recommenda- 
tion on vocational training in agriculture 
by a vote of 220 for, none against and two 
abstentions. The Recommendation lays 
down the principles and objectives of 
training; its scope as well as the methods 
that might be used, including pre-vocational 
training, agricultural instruction in schools, 
farm technical schools, short courses, train- 
ing on the farm, extension services and 
apprenticeship; training of teachers and 
rural leaders; and teaching aids and 
materials. 

The instrument outlines the role of farm 
and other interested organizations and 
national and international action that 
could or should be taken in this regard. 

It recommends that these provisions 
should be applied by ILO member coun- 
tries as rapidly as national conditions allow, 
and that measures taken to give effect to 
them be reported to the ILO as requested 
by the ILO Governing Body. 

The Recommendation on welfare facili- 
ties for workers was adopted by a vote of 
185 for, 36 against, and no abstentions. It 
provides guidance with regard to feeding 
and rest facilities in or near the under- 
taking, recreation facilities excluding holi- 
day facilities, and transportation facilities 
to and from work where ordinary public 
transport is inadequate or impracticable. 

The Recommendation provides that the 
specified facilities may be provided through 
laws and regulations, by a competent 
authority after consultation with employers' 
and workers' organizations, or through 
collective bargaining. 



The ILO Conference's 39th session 
accomplished, besides the two approved 
Recommendations, the following: — 

It took preliminary action with a view 
to final discussion next year of five other 
instruments : a Convention on forced labour, 
a Convention and a Recommendation on 
weekly rest in commerce and offices; and a 
Convention and a Recommendation on the 
protection and integration of indigenous 
peoples, including tribal and semi-tribal 
populations in independent countries — 

Adopted resolutions on automation, reduc- 
tion of hours of work, abolition of wage 
discrimination based on sex, and disarma- 
ment; 

Noted more than 50 new ratifications of 
ILO Conventions, including the ratification 
by the Soviet Union and Portugal of the 
forced labour convention; and the ratifica- 
tion by six more countries of the convention 
on equal pay for men and women workers 
for work of equal value; 

Examined a report on the manner in 
which member countries are applying ILO 
Conventions; 

Admitted three new members, Morocco, 
Tunisia and the Sudan, bringing ILO 
membership to 76 countries; 

Had an exchange of views on the ques- 
tion of the freedom of workers' and 
employers' organizations from government 
domination and control. 

The conference was addressed by 27 
Ministers of Labour and Social Affairs. 
Canada's Deputy Minister of Labour, 
Arthur H. Brown, opened the session in 
his capacity as Chairman of the ILO 
Governing Body. Iran's Labour Minister 
Mohsein Nasr was elected President of 
the Conference. 

Czechoslovak Government Delegate 
Evzen Erban, Indian Employer Delegate 
Xaval H. Tata and Swiss Worker Dele- 
gate Jean Mori were unanimously elected 
vice-presidents. 



1009 



Forced Labour 

The conference took preliminary action 
with a view to the adoption next year of 
a new Convention outlawing "forced or 
compulsory labour, concentration camps, or 
the deportation of national minorities" as 
a means of achieving certain specified 
objectives. 

These three methods would be banned 
(1) as a means of political coercion or 
education; (2) as a method of mobilizing 
labour for economic development; (3) as 
a means of labour discipline; (4) as a 
punishment for strikes; (5) as a means of 
"racial, social, national or religious discrim- 
ination"; and (6) as a consequence of 
methods of payment to the worker where 
the deferring of payment makes it impos- 
sible for the worker to quit his job, or 
where work is exacted from the worker in 
the form of debt bondage or peonage. 

By a unanimous vote of employer, worker 
and government delegates, the conference 
decided to place the question of forced 
labour on the agenda next year for final 
discussion. It also called for early revision 
of the 1930 Forced Labour Convention and 
in the meantime appealed to member states 
to ratify and implement it. 

Weekly Rest 

The conference voted by 219 to nil, 
with 4 abstentions, to place the question of 
weekly rest in commerce and offices on the 
agenda next year for final action. It 
recommended that the proposed ILO instru- 
ment on the subject should be a Conven- 
tion supplemented by a Recommendation. 

The Convention would contain the stipu- 
lation that weekly rest should be not less 
than 24 uninterrupted hours and wherever 
possible should be granted simultaneously 
to all workers in each establishment. It 
would contain other provisions, including 
one which would provide that there shall 
be no reduction in the workers' income as 
a result of application of measures for 
weekly rest. 

The Recommendation should provide, 
among other things, that the weekly rest 
should be so calculated as to include the 
period from midnight to midnight and that 
young workers below 18 years of age should 
be granted at least one and a half days' 
uninterrupted rest each week. 

Indigenous Peoples 

The conference also placed the item con- 
cerning the working and living conditions 
of indigenous peoples on the agenda next 
year for second and final discussion. 



It asked that this discussion be on the 
basis of a Convention backed by a Recom- 
mendation concerning "the protection and 
integration of indigenous and other tribal 
and semi-tribal populations in independent 
countries". 

Resolution on Automation 

The resolution on automation, adopted 
unanimously, emphasized the profound 
impact of automation on all aspects of 
social and labour policy and urged action 
to help countries to adjust themselves in 
an orderly manner to technological change. 

It said early and co-ordinated measures 
should be taken to "avoid or hold to a 
minimum the social dislocations and human 
costs which may be involved in techno- 
logical progress and to ensure greatest 
possible benefit to all sectors of the 
community". 

It invited ILO Director-General David 
A. Morse to study and analyse on a con- 
tinuing basis the social and labour implica- 
tions of automation to increase under- 
standing that technological advance which 
induces higher productivity "is an effective 
means of providing expanding national 
economies, rising employment, and higher 
standards of living for the peoples of the 
world". 

It noted that the impact of automation 
might differ considerably from one country, 
industry, occupation and undertaking to 
another and also between categories of 
workers. It urged particular attention to 
the problems of underdeveloped countries. 

Other Resolutions 

Reduction of Hours of Work 

Adopted by 116 votes to 42 with 8 
abstentions, the resolution on reduction of 
hours of work noted that "rapid develop- 
ment of technical and scientific progress 
and the rise in output open up new possi- 
bilities for the reduction of hours of work" 
and asked that the question be put on the 
agenda of an early session of the conference. 

"Wage Discrimination Based on Sex 

By 139 votes to 23, with 23 abstentions, 
the conference adopted a resolution noting 
that discrimination based on sex in ques- 
tions of remuneration still exists in a 
number of countries and urging countries 
that have not yet done so to ratify the 
ILO Convention on equal pay for men and 
women workers for work of equal value. 

It asked that the principle of equal pay 
be implemented by legislation, collective 
bargaining or a combination of both, or by 
other measures. It asked the ILO to make 



1010 



a comparative study of existing wage differ- 
entials between countries which have and 
have not accepted this principle. 

Disarmament 

The conference's fourth resolution dealt 
with disarmament. Adopted unanimously, 
it recalled previous UN and ILO resolu- 
tions on the question of regulation, limita- 
tion and reduction of armaments and 
reaffirmed the hope that the work of 
the Disarmament Commission would be 
brought to a speedy and fruitful conclusion. 

Unsuccessful Resolutions 

Three draft resolutions failed to get the 
approval of the conference. These called 
for a Governing Body committee to review 
ILO activities, revision of the ILO Con- 
stitution to make implementation of 
ratified ILO conventions obligatory in non- 
metropolitan territories, and ILO action to 
widen international exchange of experience 
on the work and rest of workers. 

Credentials 

The conference rejected objections to the 
credentials of the Chinese delegation, to 
the nomination of the employer representa- 
tives from Bulgaria, Byelorussia, Czecho- 
slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, the 
Ukraine and the USSR, as well as to the 
nomination of worker representatives from 
Chile, France, Italy, Libya, Peru, South 
Africa, Spain and Rumania. 

It turned down requests from Eastern 
European employer delegates to be allowed 
to sit on certain of the committees (to 
which they had not been nominated by 
the employers' group) as full members, but 
seated them instead as deputy members. 

ILO Director-General 

Automation would be the theme of his 
annual report next year, ILO Director- 
General David A. Morse said in his address 
to the conference. 

The Director-General was replying to the 
general debate which centred around his 
annual report for this year. About 140 
government, worker and employer dele- 
gates had spoken during the debate. 

Mr. Morse in reference to new techno- 
logical developments said: 

During the course of the debate many of 
you referred to new technological develop- 
ments — automation, electronics and the indus- 
trial use of atomic energy — and to what their 
consequences for society may be. Hopes for 
the future lie in these developments and also 
some fears. 

The discussion brought out that these new 
industrial processes are likely to be intro- 
duced at such a rapid pace that the time 



for adjustment may be short. Already the 
general shape of the problems to be faced 
has been defined. It is recognized that great 
resources of adaptability will be called upon 
by all parties in industry; and there is an 
awareness that forethought and planning by 
employers, workers and government working 
together will be required to ensure the will- 
ingness to adapt. 

The resolution on automation unanimously 
adopted by the conference gives the ILO a 
solid support on which to continue its work. 
We have, of course, been following these new 
technological developments for some years 
past so as to be prepared for our responsi- 
bilities. Now you have asked the^ ILO to 
give leadership in solving the social prob- 
lems of this second industrial revolution 
which is upon us. That leadership the ILO 
will give. Next year I proposed to make 
automation the theme of my report so as to 
enable the conference to give full considera- 
tion to all of its social consequences and 
implications. 

Mr. Morse urged that economic develop- 
ment in the world be accelerated in condi- 
tions of freedom. He pointed to the 
dangerous fascination of coercive methods, 
aggravated by the misery in various parts 
of the world. 

The challenge before the ILO was to 
show that social progress was possible and 
desirable in conditions of human dignity 
and freedom. He was confident that the 
ILO would emerge with renewed strength 
from the present controversy over the 
freedom of employer and worker delegates 
from government domination and control. 

He urged that all problems be dealt with 
under due process of the laws of the 
organization. 

"It is my conviction that for all the 
criticism, and indeed sometimes misrep- 
resentation, which has been flung at this 
organization from some quarters outside, 
the process of public discussion is funda- 
mentally a healthy one," he declared. The 
problem of workers' and employers' freedom, 
he said, would be considered by the 
Governing Body in November. 

Mr. Morse pointed out that "political 
democracy has again been tested success- 
fully" in some Asian countries, there had 
been "significant political upheavals" in 
parts of Latin America, "rapid progress 
towards nationhood" in a number of African 
territories, "some relief" in the tense situa- 
tion in the Middle East, while from the 
Soviet Union and other countries in 
Eastern Europe "have come rumbles of 
change". 

Discussion on Director-General's Report 

British Labour Minister 

The years ahead, with their problems of 
social change, of automation and the use 
of atomic power for peaceful purposes, are 



1011 



going to be challenging and perhaps deci- 
sive years for the International Labour 
Organization, United Kingdom Minister of 
Labour and National Service Ian Macleod 
said in an address to the conference. 

Such developments are only part of a 
continuing process of industrial change, but 
man's reactions to changes have been, in the 
ILO Director-General's words, the stubborn 
factor of virtually every age. We can be 
more fortunate than earlier generations if 
we can find the way to change what might 
be dramatic social upheavals into an orderly 
and peaceful advance to greater prosperity. 

Urging intelligent public interest in the 
effect of the new processes of automation, 
the British Minister added: 

The increasing use of machines to control 
machines is bound to bring many changes 
both in the organization of industrial produc- 
tion and in the nature of work of the indi- 
vidual in industry. It can and will help to 
maintain full employment, but that does not 
mean that everyone will be able to stay in 
their present jobs. 

The workers' fear that their particular 
skills and experience will no longer be 
needed if the automatic control of pro- 
cesses is extended "must be understood and 
overcome," Mr. Macleod said. "In the 
United Kingdom, we have understood this 
and we have been trying to put automa- 
tion in its right perspective." 

United States Government Delegate 

United States Government Delegate J. 
Ernest Wilkins pointed out that the ILO 
had now grown to 76 nations, "many of 
which did not exist a dozen years ago," 
but which had now taken up their respon- 
sibilities alongside the older nations to 
build a better world through international 
co-operation. 

"We who may have had a longer experi- 
ence of modern industrial life are happy 
to be able to help the new nations along," 
Mr. Wilkins declared. "The work that the 
ILO has done in the past year should give 
us renewed confidence that by working 
together our joint progress will continue." 

The ILO could take pride in its tech- 
nical assistance program, "which is paying 
off so handsomely in so many of the newly 
independent countries of the world". The 
long climb towards industrialization, he 
said, was being shortened and levelled out 
by this assistance. 

"I suggest that the time is now here 
when we would be well advised to con- 
centrate our energies even more heavily in 
technical assistance services," he declared. 

Mr. Wilkins, who is U.S. Assistant 
Secretary of Labour in charge of interna- 
tional labour affairs, called attention to 



the fact that "eight nations of the African 
continent now sit with us as full-fledged 
members, while several more are here to 
observe our deliberations and participate 
with their suggestions as to how our 
combined efforts can better be sharpened 
to their needs". 

He said that "because of the prominence 
of African nations and peoples in the new 
and greater ILO, my government is pre- 
pared to suggest that it is time to consider 
establishing a regional office of the ILO 
on that continent, to bring together and 
co-ordinate our many interests there." 

United States Worker Delegate 

United States Worker Delegate George 
P. Delaney dealt with the social impact 
of the "electronic revolution that is 
automation". 

The great question as to whether automa- 
tion will prove to be the pathway to plenty 
or to poverty has no pre-ordained or final 
answer. The choice is in the hands of the 
people and their governments, and of man- 
agement and labour — but the responsibility, 
weighs most heavily upon the trade union 
movement, whose members have the most at 
stake. 

Mr. Delaney asked the ILO to under- 
take a series of case studies of how labour, 
management and governments in various 
countries co-operated to ensure that intro- 
duction of automation in specific enter- 
prises could result in higher wages, more 
leisure and better working and living 
conditions while avoiding unemployment. 

As far as American labour was con- 
cerned, Mr. Delaney said, they were aware 
that change is the price of progress. "We 
have insisted and shall continue to insist 
that the burden of change should be equit- 
ably distributed and not imposed on the 
worker alone and that the workers should 
share fully in the gains derived from these 
innovations." 

Canadian Emloyer Delegate 

The conference heard Canadian Employer 
Delegate W. A. Campbell make three points 
on automation in the debate on the 
Director-General's report. 

Most employers feel that the increased 
mechanization now developing in some 
countries will not result in less labour 
being used but in additional employment 
opportunities, he said. It would possibly 
result in a different pattern of employ- 
ment, for example, in some areas more 
people might be required in service indus- 
tries than has heretofore been the case. 
"This will more than compensate," he said, 
"for any change in the level of employment 
in any manufacturing activity." 



1012 



New skills will be required by the work- 
ing people and more training plans are 
already under way in dealing with this, he 
reported. 

Mr. Campbell praised the training activi- 
ties of the ILO as an effective tool the 
benefits of which multiplied quickly because 
people trained by ILO experts trained 
others in turn. 

"Technical assistance seems to be one of 
the most pertinent weapons for direct action 
by the ILO," he said. 

United States Employer Delegate 

United States Employer Delegate Charles 
H. Smith, Jr., said four points stood out 
of Mr. Morse's report: there should be 
more freedom in the world not less; the 
ILO could not dictate solutions; the 
diminishing comprehension, even among 
skilled workers, of the total production 
process; and the need for education. 

Commenting on the Director-General's 
remarks on automation, Mr. Smith declared : 

"I am sure that automation would not 
be feared if people had the knowledge and 
understanding of the benefits that it will 
bring into their lives in the years ahead." 

The population of the United States was 
growing at the rate of about three million 
a j r ear, Mr. Smith continued. "Our 
economists figure that over the next 20 
years our country would not have a suffi- 
cient work force to maintain our tradi- 
tional rate of economic growth — about 3 
per cent annually — if it were not for the 
promise held by automation and the in- 
creased productivity of our people." 

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce and 
the National Association of Manufac- 
turers, which he represented, "have some 
serious questions about the ILO and its 
future course," he told the conference. 

The first was the status of the 
"communist" employers. "Once again our 
challenge to the credentials of these 
communist government agents has been 
denied but I can assure you that we 
will carry on the fight against them as 



long as we are members of this organiza- 
tion," he declared. 

"Second, we disagree on the Conven- 
tion process as a realistic approach to 
meeting world problems in the field of 
labour and management," He preferred 
Recommendations, which could be tailored 
to national needs. 

Canadian Participation 

Canadian government delegates to the 
session served on the selection committee, 
resolutions committee, committee on agri- 
culture, committee on welfare facilities, 
committee on forced labour, committee 
on weekly rest and the committee on 
indigenous populations. 

W. A. Campbell, Canadian Employer 
Delegate, was a member of the following 
committees: selection committee, resolu- 
tions committee, committee on agriculture, 
committee on welfare facilities, committee 
on forced labour and committee on weekly 
rest. 

Canadian Worker Delegate Claude Jodoin 
was a member of the selection committee 
and resolutions committee. Mr. Jodoin 
was also appointed an officer of the workers' 
group. 

Canadian Worker Adviser M. P. Fitz- 
patrick was a member of the committee 
on standing orders and the committee on 
weekly rest. 

Other Canadian Worker Advisers who 
served on committees were: Richard 
Courtney, committee on agriculture; A. H. 
Balch, committee on welfare facilities; 
H. A. L. Ladd, committee on forced 
labour; and Gerard Picard, committee on 
indigenous populations. 

C. R. McCord Re-appointed 

Charles R. McCord, Director of the 
Annuities Branch, Department of Labour, 
was re-appointed substitute member on the 
administrative board of the ILO Staff 
Pensions Fund and to the ILO Staff Pension 
Committee (United Nations Joint Staff 
Pension Fund). 



Text of Recommendation Concerning 

The General Conference of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization, 

Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its 
Thirty-ninth Session on June 6, 1956, and 

Having decided upon the adoption of 
certain proposals with regard to vocational 
training in agriculture, which is the fourth 
item on the agenda of the session, and 

Having determined that these proposals 
shall take the form of a Recommendation, 



Vocational Training in Agriculture 

adopts this 26th day of June of the year 
one thousand nine hundred and fifty-six the 
following Recommendation, which may be 
cited as the Vocational Training (Agricul- 
ture) Recommendation, 1956: 

Whereas the International Labour Confer- 
ence at its Third Session adopted the Voca- 
tional Education (Agriculture) Recommenda- 
tion, 1921, which provides that each Member 
should endeavour to develop vocational 
agricultural education and in particular to 
make such education available to agricultural 
wage earners on the same conditions as to 
other persons engaged in agriculture, 



1013 



Whereas the International Labour Confer- 
ence has examined in considerable detail the 
question of vocational training in general, 
and has in particular adopted the Vocational 
Training Recommendation, 1939, and the 
Vocational Training (Adults) Recommenda- 
tion, 1950, 

Whereas the Permanent Agricultural Com- 
mittee of the International Labour Organi- 
zation has studied the particular aspects of 
vocational training in agriculture and has 
made proposals concerning this subject, 

Whereas the Members should establish or 
expand adequate systems of vocational train- 
ing in agriculture, 

The Conference recommends that each 
Member should apply the following provi- 
sions as rapidly as national conditions allow 
and report to the International Labour Office 
as requested by the Governing Body con- 
cerning the measures taken to give effect 
thereto. 

I. Principles and Objectives of Training 

1. In each country the public authorities, 
other appropriate bodies, or a combination 
of both, should ensure that vocational train- 
ing in agriculture is provided and organized 
in an effective, rational, systematic and 
co-ordinated program. 

2. (1) The objectives of vocational train- 
ing in agriculture should be clearly formu- 
lated in each country, reference being made 
to such points as the need for — 

(a) imparting to farm men and women of 
different categories (unskilled, semi-skilled 
and skilled workers, managers, operators and 
farm housewives) the skills and knowledge 
necessary for the exercise of their profession, 
instilling in them a sense of the social 
importance of the work they are doing, and 
securing recognition by the public in general 
of the importance of agriculture as an occu- 
pation; 

(b) more effective use of land and other 
natural resources, labour and capital in 
agriculture; 

(c) conservation of soil and other natural 
resources essential to agriculture; 

(d) increase of efficiency, production and 
yields in agriculture and improvement of 
the quality and preparation of agricultural 
products and of their appropriate processing 
on the farm with a view to facilitating their 
marketing, and in particular raising the level 
of nutrition; 

(e) improvement of incomes, standards of 
living, employment opportunities, working 
conditions and prospects of advancement in 
argiculture as a contribution towards remedy- 
ing the lack of balance between agriculture 
and other occupations in these respects; 

(f) promotion of mechanization, where 
appropriate, and of safety in farm work, and 
the lightening of tasks in agriculture, especi- 
ally for women and children; 

(g) achieving a proper balance in employ- 
ment between agriculture and other branches 
of economic activity; 

(h) providing appropriate vocational guid- 
ance for rural youth; 

(i) encouraging, as appropriate, the entry 
of young persons into the various branches 
of agriculture in sufficient numbers; 

(j) overcoming of problems of seasonal 
unemployment and of under-employment in 
agriculture; 



(k) closing the gap between technical 
developments affecting agricultural produc- 
tion and their use in practice; and 

(1) improvement of rural life generally 
and the promotion of greater satisfaction in 
agricultural work. 

(2) To these ends training should cover 
instruction in adequate techniques and 
methods of work, the development of the 
capacity for judgment and, as may be appro- 
priate, instruction in the planning of farm 
operations and the principles and practice 
of farm management; the training should be 
related progressively to the capacity of the 
farm population to absorb instruction, as 
determined, among other factors, by the level 
of social and economic development, and 
should be so organized that in the end the 
rural population may, as far as possible, 
receive an education and training equivalent 
in quality if not in detailed content, to that 
received by the urban population. 

II. Scope of Training 

3. (1) The program of vocational training 
in agriculture should cover the whole agri- 
cultural population without distinction as to 
race, religion, nationality or sex, and what- 
ever the legal relation to the land, for 
example, prospective and actual farmers and 
farm workers, including seasonal workers, 
farm women and workers in occupations 
closely related to agriculture. 

(2) Where necessary, in the initial stages 
and in the underdeveloped countries, the 
program may be limited in scope to the 
persons who can be most effectively reached 
and instructed by the staff available, and to 
the areas and categories of persons where 
the need for, and effects of, instruction will 
be greatest. 

(3) In underdeveloped areas lacking train- 
ing facilities one of the first steps should be 
the creation of a body of trained teachers 
and instructors who have an understanding 
of and sympathy for agricultural life, and 
who, wherever possible, have themselves had 
personal experience of farm life and work. 

(4) Even where such trained teachers and 
instructors are not available all possible 
assistance should be given to the develop- 
ment of training facilities on farms or 
estates where the operator is adequately 
qualified to provide practical instruction. 

4. (1) In underdeveloped countries literacy 
programs should have a high priority. 
Vocational training should, in general, be 
preceded or accompanied by general educa- 
tion including the study of basic subjects, 
conforming to accepted standards in the 
country concerned. When vocational training 
is given within the school framework, it 
should not only be preceded but also be 
accompanied by general education. 

(2) Where possible, programs of voca- 
tional training in agriculture should include 
formal classroom instruction as well as 
related general subjects such as rural social 
studies. 

5. In determining the content of the 
training course, account should be taken in 
particular of — 

(a) the persons to be trained and the level 
of skill to be imparted; 

(b) the agrarian structure, the degree of 
development reached in agriculture, and the 
type of agricultural production; 



1014 



(c) trends in the rural employment market 
and the degree of, or need for, labour 
mobility; 

(d) the social life, customs, habits and 
outlook of the agricultural community; and 

(e) relevant aspects of national policy in 
broad outline. 

6. (1) Where possible and appropriate, 
the vocational training provided for the agri- 
cultural population should include training 
in supplementary skills relating in particular 
to the making and repair of agricultural 
tools, the maintenance and simple repair of 
agricultural machinery, the processing of 
agricultural products, and the construction 
and maintenance of farm buildings. 

(2) In areas of actual or potential under- 
employment consideration should be given, 
where possible and appropriate, to offering 
courses in rural and other crafts to persons 
of both sexes, in order to provide them with 
a means of supplementary or alternative 
employment. 

III. Methods of Training 
Pre-V ocational Training 

7. Appropriate measures should be taken 
for achieving an equal standard in the level 
of education in rural and urban areas and 
for a common basis in that education. 
Teaching methods and, where appropriate, 
curricula in rural primary schools should 
take account of the needs of rural areas 
and of the environment of rural children. 

8. In order to give a sound, broadly based 
general education, to impart an appreciation 
of nature and to develop manual facility and 
the powers of observation, formal classroom 
instruction given in a system of primary 
schooling should be supplemented, where 
possible, by practical courses in the use of 
school gardens and in home crafts as a part 
of school work. This practical instruction 
should not unduly affect the courses and 
programs of general education. 

9. In the rural communities in under- 
developed areas, systems of fundamental 
education should be used to impart, in a 
co-ordinated program, knowledge of improved 
techniques in agriculture and in such matters 
as rural industries, sanitation, health and 
dietary practices, child care, food preserva- 
tion, housing, village organization and 
communications. Special care should be 
taken to import suitable training to the 
weaker sections of the agricultural popula- 
tion in underdeveloped countries, who prac- 
tice primitive methods of agriculture and 
have a very low standard of life, particularly 
tribal people. 

Agricultural Instruction in Secondary Schools 

10. (1) Where appropriate, and where 
specifically vocational agricultural instruc- 
tion is not provided in secondary schools, 
the agricultural instruction given should be 
of a general nature. In rural areas, this 
instruction should be adapted to national 
and local conditions. Where no agricultural 
teaching is given, provision should be made 
for the gradual introduction of such in- 
struction in the curriculum of rural secondary 
schools. This instruction should not unduly 
affect the courses and programs of general 
education. 

(2) Where possible, this instruction should 
be supplemented by practical work on the 
school farm, on experimental farms or on 
other farms. Such work should be limited 
to teaching needs. 



Agricultural Technical Schools 

11. Provision should be made for agricul- 
tural technical schools giving training of 
adequate duration in farm skills, agricultural 
production and marketing, farm operations 
and management, and other appropriate 
subjects. 

12. At the higher stages of development 
of a vocational training program provision 
should be made for — 

(a) schools or special divisions of schools 
open to persons of either sex, giving train- 
ing in certain branches of agriculture; 

(b) schools or special divisions of schools 
open to persons of either six, giving train- 
ing to a special category or categories of 
farm workers or in special types of skills 
required in agriculture; 

(c) schools or special divisions of schools 
giving training in rural domestic economy. 

13. Where possible and appropriate, agri- 
cultural technical schools should have a farm 
attached for the purposes of relating teach- 
ing to agricultural work and of giving a 
necessary amount of practical training. 
Where this is not possible, or where it is 
desirable to supplement such training, 
arrangements should be made for the 
necessary practical training on appropriate 
farms or experimental stations, it being 
understood that such training should be 
limited to that necessary for the instruction 
of the students. 

14. In establishing agricultural technical 
schools, consideration should be given — 

(a) particularly in countries of large 
farms and small density of population, to 
the advantages which derive from the provi- 
sion of residential and semi-residential 
facilities; 

(b) in sufficiently literate communities, to 
the organization of correspondence courses 
and the use of the radio for remote farm 
workers, where possible in conjunction with 
attendance at supplementary courses at 
schools with residential facilities; 

(c) to the use of audio-visual aids. 

Courses of Shorter Duration 
15.(1) Short courses, seasonal and evening 
courses and mobile courses should be con- 
sidered as specially suitable — 

(a) for encouraging sons and daughters of 
small farmers and farm workers who are 
employed on farm holdings to improve their 
professional and general knowledge; 

(b) for instructing specialists or farmers 
and farm workers in improved or newly 
discovered techniques; 

(c) for instructing particular categories of 
workers in specialized skills and methods, 
such as the cultivation of a particular crop, 
the care and feeding of animals, the main- 
tenance and use of tools or machines, general 
maintenance work on the farm, and the 
fight against plant and animal diseases and 
pests. 

(2) Such courses should be timed in 
accordance with local needs and should not 
be a substitute for longer courses where 
these are possible and desirable. 

Training on the Farm 
16. (1) Where necessary and appropriate, 
the public authorities, other appropriate 
bodies, or a combination of both, should 
organize the placement of trainees on selected 
agricultural units, particularly in order to 



1015 



complete the training of prospective farm 
operators and especially in areas where the 
standard of farming practice is relatively 
high; such training should generally be 
preceded by an adequate general education 
and should be related to the unit of agri- 
cultural operations characteristic of an area, 
whether this be the village, the large estate 
or plantation, the co-operative farm or group 
settlement, or the small or medium-sized 
holding. 

(2) The unit on which training is given 
should be representative and selected with 
care, taking account, where appropriate, of 
the possibility of using an outside farm 
rather than the home farm. Training on 
the farm should, where possible, be supple- 
mented by formal classroom instruction. 

Extension Services 

17. (1) Extension services should be estab- 
lished and expanded to the extent made 
possible by the level of development of each 
country, in order to carry the results of 
scientific research to farmers in a practical 
way and to bring the farmer's technical 
problems to the attention of the services 
concerned for solution. 

(2) Farmers and farm organizations, in- 
cluding those of employers and workers, 
should be encouraged to develop extension 
programs of their own, and, in any case, 
should be associated with the development 
and utilization of official programs and 
similar educational activities. 

18. Considering that in underdeveloped 
countries simple and informal programs of 
vocational training capable of expansion, 
both geographically and in content, are 
appropriate, it should be recognized that 
extension services have a particularly 
important part to play in the development 
of these programs and in the implementation 
of agricultural development plans. 

19. The extension services should, as appro- 
priate, contribute along with other inter- 
ested agencies to the development of programs 
for youth, the organization of agricultural 
clubs for young persons and programs of 
home and community development. 

Apprenticeship 

20. (1) When agriculture is suitably organ- 
ized and agricultural practices warrant it, 
consideration should be given to the provi- 
sion of apprenticeship schemes. 

(2) These schemes should be developed 
with particular reference to the needs of 
special branches of agriculture, regions^ and 
categories of workers, and carried out either 
at residential institutions or on farms 
approved in respect of the qualifications and 
abilities of the instructor or farmer. 

(3) Arrangements concerning instruction 
in the branch of agriculture to which the 
apprentice aspires, the limitation of his 
tasks to those useful for his training, the 
provision of equipment and any obligation 
to attend training schools giving general 
and technical instruction, should be approved 
by the competent authority or authorities. 

(4) The measures referred to in the 
preceding subparagraphs should be taken by 
means of laws or regulations, decisions of 
public bodies entrusted with the control of 
apprenticeship, collective agreements, a 
combination of the above methods, or, failing 
these, by other appropriate methods. 



21. Representative organizations of em- 
ployers and workers, where they exist, 
should be closely associated, on a basis of 
complete equality, with the elaboration, 
application in practice and supervision of 
the apprenticeship scheme. 

22. (1) Apprenticeship should be open to 
suitably qualified candidates who have 
shown a clear desire to enter agriculture 
and who have or will have completed the 
period of obligatory schooling. 

(2) Admittance to apprenticeship and 
apprenticeship programs should be super- 
vised by whatever machinery, statutory or 
otherwise, in the field of labour, agricul- 
ture or education, is considered most 
appropriate in the light of conditions existing 
in each country. 

(3) In determining the number of trainees 
to be placed, consideration should be given 
to the number of experienced adult workers 
on the farm concerned in the interests both 
of the trainees and of the adult workers. 

(4) Upon satisfactory completion of his 
apprenticeship the trainee should be con- 
sidered as a skilled worker and should be 
so certified by the competent body. 

23. (1) The conditions of employment of 
apprentices, whether prescribed by contract 
between the parties, collective agreement, 
legislation or otherwise, should include a 
clear statement of the respective duties of 
farmer and apprentice, the duration of the 
apprenticeship, the level of knowledge and 
skill to be acquired to ensure a good standard 
of husbandry, and any obligation there may 
be to attend training schools giving general 
and technical instruction. The statement 
should also provide that the duties required 
of the apprentice should be confined to those 
necessary for his training and that any 
conflicts which develop should be submitted 
to the competent body for settlement. 

(2) Minimum rates of remuneration, in- 
crease of remuneration, hours of work, holi- 
days, food and accommodation, insurance, 
and sickness and accident benefit provisions 
for apprentices, should be determined by 
legislation, by regulations issued by the 
competent authority, by arbitral award or 
collective agreement, or by decision of special 
bodies entrusted with this task. 

(3) Representative organizations of em- 
ployers and workers, where they exist, 
should be associated on an equal footing 
with the elaboration, application and super- 
vision on the conditions of employment of 
apprentices. 

24. (1) At lower levels of apprentice 
training an evaluation of progress should be 
made, stating the work performed, the 
duration of the apprenticeship and the level 
of skill reached generally and in particular 
types of work; this evaluation should be 
supplemented, where appropriate, by practical 
tests. 

(2) At higher levels of apprentice training 
or where the program is more developed, the 
satisfactory completion of apprenticeship 
should be ascertained by the competent body. 
In this respect, consideration should be given 
to a combination of practical and formal 
tests relating to general agriculture and _ to 
the special branch of agriculture to which 
the apprentice aspires. 

Training for Teachers and Rural Leaders 

25. (1) Any program of training in agri- 
culture should include, as a high priority, 
training of teachers and officials of services 



1016 



relating to agriculture and subsidiary occu- 
pations; such teachers and officials should, 
where possible, have personal experience of 
farm life and work. 

(2) This process of training should be 
accelerated, where necessary, by such 
methods as — 

(a) the creation of training establishments 
of appropriate types; 

(b) the establishment of village develop- 
ment centres and of centres for demonstra- 
tion and training; 

(c) the provision of special short courses 
of training for graduates from higher agri- 
cultural institutions, such courses relating, 
where necessary, to problems of teaching and 
administration as well as to the technical 
content of their work, in order to prepare 
them better for giving vocational instruc- 
tion adapted to the needs of agriculture and 
taking account of modern techniques. 

26. In higher institutions agricultural 
teachers and instructors should — 

(a) preferably have received university 
instruction or its equivalent; 

(b) be enabled and encouraged to keep 
their knowledge up to date by such means 
as refresher courses and sabbatical leave. 

Teaching Aids and Materials 

27. The teaching aids and materials used in 
the vocational training program should be 
prepared on the basis of the findings of 
research institutions and of other scientific 
information, and provision should be made 
for the systematic and orderly flow of 
adequate factual material to teachers and 
students. 

28. (1) Since the teaching of agricultural 
subjects should be given with particular 
reference to regional and local conditions 
and problems, teaching aids and materials 
should be selected with regard to the 
economic structure of the areas where the 
trainee will work. 

(2) When teaching materials and equip- 
ment are brought from other countries and 
regions they should be adequately adapted 
to local needs. 

29. Especially in the early stages of train- 
ing, in cases where there exists a group of 
countries with common characteristics and 
problems, consideration should be given to 
developing standardized teaching materials 
for such countries by direct consultation 
among them. In any case, free exchange of 
teaching materials should be encouraged. 

30. Audio-visual aids, while they should 
not be a substitute for other teaching aids 
and methods, should, especially in communi- 
ties where illiteracy is high, be given a 
prominent place in training programs. The 
special advantages of the film-strip and slides 
should be borne in mind. 

IV. Farm and Other Interested 
Organizations 

31. Organizations of farmers, farm workers 
(including trade unions), farm women and 
farm youth, and other interested organiza- 
tions, such as co-operative societies, should 
play an important role in all phases of agri- 
cultural training. Every encouragement 
should be offered them to take an active 
interest in improving such training. 

V. National Action 

32. (1) Responsibility for the training 
programs should be entrusted to the authority 
or authorities capable of obtaining the best 



76839—6 



results and, in cases where the responsi- 
bility is entrusted to several authorities 
jointly, measures for ensuring co-ordination 
of the training programs should be taken. 
Local authorities should collaborate in the 
development of the training programs. Close 
collaboration should be maintained with 
organizations of employers and workers in 
agriculture and with other interested organ- 
izations, where such exist. 

(2) A degree of co-ordination of private 
and public courses should be encouraged so 
that — 

(a) a trainee makes orderly progress from 
one level to the other; 

(b) subject to preserving the appropriate 
degree of uniformity in the training pro- 
grams, provision is made for the needs of 
different regions or branches of the occu- 
pation; 

(c) agricultural research institutions, ex- 
tension services and all training institutions 
may work in close co-operation. 

33. (1) The competent bodies should pro- 
gressively elaborate general standards, vary- 
ing where necessary from one region to 
another, relating to such matters as: entry 
requirements for training for the different 
branches of agriculture; duration of training 
and length of courses; teaching material and 
textbooks; qualifications of teachers and their 
status as regards salary and working con- 
ditions; size of classes; curricula; examina- 
tion requirements; and conditions under 
which training may be considered completed. 
Appropriate measures should be taken to 
consult representative organizations of 
farmers and farm workers, and other in- 
terested organizations, where such exist, in 
the formulation of these standards. 

(2) At all stages private endeavour in 
initiating and administering training courses 
should be encouraged, and the application of 
the standards should be left to recognized 
training institutions supervised, as necessary 
and appropriate, by the appropriate bodies. 

34. While local financial contributions' to 
training programs are, in many places, called 
for, the public authorities, to the extent 
considered appropriate and necessary, should 
also assist public and private training pro- 
grams in such ways as: making available 
financial contributions; contributing land, 
buildings, transport, equipment and teaching 
material; contributing through scholarships 
or otherwise to the living expenses or wages 
of trainees during the course of training, 
and making entry into residential agricul- 
tural schools free of charge to appropriately 
qualified trainees, especially those who can- 
not afford to pay for the training. 

35. (1) The public authorities, other 
appropriate bodies, or a combination of both, 
should ensure that the vocational training 
programs are co-ordinated with other public 
activities relating to agriculture. In par- 
ticular they should ensure that the training 
programs are established in the light of the 
long-term employment and settlement oppor- 
tunities open to prospective agricultural 
workers, as determined, amongst other 
things, by the availability of land, agricul- 
tural credit and markets. 

(2) The public authorities, other appro- 
priate bodies, or a combination of both, 
should take all necessary practical measures 
to facilitate the placement of persons who 

1017 



have finished their training and to assist 
them in finding suitable farms or farm 
employment which corresponds to their train- 
ing and skill. 

36. The public authorities, other appro- 
priate bodies, or a combination of both, 
should develop methods of evaluating the 
effectiveness of training programs, for 
example in raising agricultrual living 
standards and levels of production, and in 
achieving the objectives specified in para- 
graph 2, and should take stock frequently 
of the progress achieved. 



VI. International Action 

37. (1) Where possible, especially among 
countries with similar agricultural condi- 
tions, international exchanges of farmers and 
farm workers, farm youth, agricultural 
teachers, research workers, experts and 
scientific agricultural literature should be 
encouraged. 

(2) Where appropriate, international 
centres for research, and extension and voca- 
tional training in agriculture should be 
promoted as well as international meetings 
for agricultural research workers, extension 
agents and teachers in agricultural schools. 



Text of Recommendation Concerning Welfare Facilities for Workers 



The General Conference of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization, 

Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its 
Thirty-ninth Session on June 6, 1956, and 

Having decided upon the adoption of 
certain proposals with regard to welfare 
facilities for workers, which is the fifth 
item on the agenda of the session, and 

Having determined that these proposals 
shall take the form of a Recommendation, 
adopts this 26th day of June of the year 
one thousand nine hundred and fifty-six the 
following Recommendation, which may be 
cited as the Welfare Facilities Recommenda- 
tion, 1956: 

Whereas it is desirable to define certain 
principles and establish certain standards 
concerning the following welfare facilities 
for workers: 

(a) feeding facilities in or near the under- 
taking; 

(b) rest facilities in or near the under- 
taking and recreation facilities excluding 
holiday facilities; and 

(c) transportation facilities to and from 
work where ordinary public transport is 
inadequate or impracticable, 

The Conference recommends that the 
following provisions should be applied as 
fully and as rapidly as national conditions 
allow, by voluntary, governmental or other 
appropriate action, and that each Member 
should report to the International Labour 
Office as requested by the Governing Body 
concerning the measures taken to give effect 
thereto. 

I. Scope 

1. This Recommendation applies to manual 
and non-manual workers employed in public 
or private undertakings, excluding workers 
in agriculture and sea transport. 

2. In any case in which it is doubtful 
whether an undertaking is one to which this 
Recommendation applies, the question should 
be settled either by the competent authority 
after consultation with the organizations of 
employers and workers concerned, or in 
accordance with the law or practice of the 
country. 

II. Methods of Implementation 

3. Having regard to the variety of welfare 
facilities and of national practices in making 
provision for them, the facilities specified in 
this Recommendation may be provided by 
means of public or voluntary action — 

(a) through laws and regulations, or 

(b) in any other manner approved by the 
competent authority after consultation with 
employers' and workers' organizations, or 



(c) by virtue of collective agreement or 
as otherwise agreed upon by the employers 
and workers concerned. 

III. Feeding Facilities 
A. Canteens 

4. Canteens providing appropriate meals 
should be set up and operated in or near 
undertakings where this is desirable, having 
regard to the number of workers employed 
by the undertaking, the demand for and 
prospective use of the facilities, the non- 
availability of other appropriate facilities 
for obtaining meals and any other relevant 
conditions and circumstances. 

5. If canteens are provided by virtue of 
national laws or regulations, the competent 
authority should be empowered to require 
the setting up and operation of canteens in 
or near undertakings where more than a 
specified minimum number of workers is 
employed or where this is desirable for any 
other reason determined by the competent 
authority. 

6. If canteens are the responsibility of 
works committees established by national 
laws or regulations, this responsibility should 
be exercised in undertakings where the setting 
up and operation of such canteens are 
desirable. 

7. If canteens are provided by virtue of 
collective agreement or in any other manner 
except as indicated in paragraphs 5 and 6, 
the arrangements so arrived at should apply 
to undertakings where this is desirable for 
any reason as determined by agreement 
between the employers and workers concerned. 

8. The competent authority or some other 
appropriate body should make suitable 
arrangements to give information, advice and 
guidance to individual undertakings with 
respect to technical questions involved in the 
setting up and operation of canteens. 

9. (1) Where adequate publications are 
not already in existence, the competent 
authority or some other appropriate body 
should prepare and publish detailed informa- 
tion, suggestions and guidance, adapted to 
the special conditions in the country con- 
cerned, on methods of setting up and oper- 
ating canteens. 

(2) Such information should include sug- 
gestions on — 

(a) location of the canteens in relation to 
the various buildings or departments of the 
undertakings concerned; 

(b) establishment of joint canteens for 
several undertakings in so far as is 
appropriate; 

(c) accommodation in canteens: standards 
of space, lighting, heating, temperature and 
ventilation; 



1018 



(d) layout of canteens: dining room or 
rooms, service area, kitchen, dishwashing 
area, storage, administration office, and 
lockers and washroom for canteen personnel; 

(e) equipment, furnishing and decoration 
of canteens: equipment for the preparation 
and cooking of food, refrigeration, storage 
and washing up; types of fuel for cooking; 
types of tables and chairs in the dining 
room or rooms; scheme of painting and 
decoration; 

(f) types of meals provided: standard 
menu, standard menu with options, a la 
carte; dietetic menus where medically pre- 
scribed; special menus for workers in 
unhealthy occupations; breakfast, midday 
meal or other meals for shift workers; 

(g) standards of nutrition: nutritional 
values of foodstuffs, planned menus and 
balanced diets; 

(h) types of service in the canteen: hatch 
or counter service, cafeteria, and table ser- 
vice; personnel needed for each type of 
service ; 

(i) standards of hygiene in the kitchen 
and dining rooms; 

(j) financial questions: initial capital out- 
lay for construction, equipment and furnish- 
ing, continuing overheads and maintenance 
expenses, food and personnel costs, accounts, 
pi ices charged for meals. 

B. Buffets and Trolleys 

10. (1) In undertakings where it is not 
practicable to set up canteens providing 
appropriate meals, and in other undertakings 
where such canteens already exist, buffets 
or trolleys should be provided, where neces- 
sary and practicable, for the sale to the 
workers of packed meals or snacks and tea, 
coffee, milk and other beverages. Trolleys 
should not, however, be introduced into work- 
places in which dangerous or harmful pro- 
cesses make it undesirable that workers 
should partake of food and drink there. 

(2) Some of these facilities should be 
made available not only during the midday 
or midshift interval but also during the 
recognized rest pauses and breaks. 

C. Messrooms and Other Suitable Rooms 

11. (1) In undertakings where it is not 
practicable to set up canteens providing 
appropriate meals, and, where necessary, in 
other undertakings where such canteens 
already exist, messroom facilities should be 
provided, where practicable and appropriate, 
for individual workers to prepare or heat 
and take meals provided by themselves. 

(2) The facilities so provided should in- 
clude at least — 

(a) a room in which provision suited to 
the climate is made for relieving discomfort 
from cold or heat; 

(b) adequate ventilation and lighting; 

(c) suitable tables and seating facilities 
in sufficient numbers; 

(d) appropriate appliances for heating 
food and beverages; 

(e) an adequate supply of wholesome 
drinking water. 

D. Mobile Canteens 

12. In undertakings in which workers are 
dispersed over wide work areas, it is desir- 
able, where practicable and necessary, and 
where other satisfactory facilities are not 
available, to provide mobile canteens for 
the sale of appropriate meals to the worker. 



E. Other Facilities 

13. Special consideration should be given 
to providing shift workers with facilities 
for obtaining adequate meals and beverages 
at appropriate times. 

14. In localities where there are insuffi- 
cient facilities for purchasing appropriate 
food, beverages and meals, measures should 
be taken to provide workers with such 
facilities. 

F. Use of Facilities 

15. The workers should in no case be 
compelled, except as required by national 
laws and regulations for reasons of health, 
to use any of the feeding facilities provided. 

IV. Rest Facilities 
A. Seats 

16. (1) In undertakings where any 
workers, especially women and young 
workers, have in the course of their work 
reasonable opportunities for sitting without 
detriment to their work, seats should be 
provided and maintained for their use. 

(2) Seats so provided should be in 
adequate numbers and reasonably near the 
work posts of the workers concerned. 

17. (1) In undertakings where a substan- 
tial proportion of any work can be properly 
done seated, seats should be provided and 
maintained for the workers concerned. 

(2) The seat should be of a design, con- 
struction and dimensions suitable for the 
worker and the work; a footrest should be 
provided where necessary. 

18. Regardless of whether seats for 
workers are provided and maintained by 
virtue of national laws or regulations, the 
competent authority in each country should 
authorize appropriate government officials to 
give information, advice and guidance with 
respect to the technical questions involved 
in the provision and maintenance of suitable 
seats for workers, particularly where seats 
are provided for workers engaged on opera- 
tions in which a substantial proportion of 
the work can be properly done seated. 

B. Rest Rooms 

19. (1) In an undertaking where alterna- 
tive facilities are not available for workers 
to take temporary rest during working hours, 
a rest room should be provided, where this 
is desirable, having regard to the nature of 
the work and any other relevant conditions 
and circumstances. In particular, rest rooms 
should be provided to meet the needs of 
women workers; of workers engaged on 
particularly arduous or special work requir- 
ing temporary rest during working hours; or 
of workers employed on broken shifts. 

(2) National laws or regulations should, 
where appropriate, empower the competent 
authority to require the provision of rest 
rooms in particular undertakings or classes 
of undertakings in which this is considered 
desirable by the competent authority owing 
to the conditions and circumstances of 
employment. 

20. The facilities so provided should in- 
clude at least — 

(a) a room in which provision suited to 
the climate is made for relieving discomfort 
from cold or heat; 

(b) adequate ventilation and lighting; 

(c) suitable seating facilities in sufficient 
numbers. 



76839— 6£